Familial isolated pituitary adenomas: from genetics to therapy.
ABSTRACT: According to autopsy and radiological data, pituitary adenomas (PAs) develop in approximately 15% to 20% of the population. The great majority of PAs arise sporadically and affect adults. Rarely they are diagnosed in children and adolescents. Approximately 5% of cases are thought to be familial. Inherited conditions associated with pituitary tumors include multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) and type 4 (MEN-4), (CNC) Carney Complex, and familial isolated PA (FIPA) syndrome. FIPA is an autosomal dominant condition, defined by the presence of two or more patients affected by PAs in the same kindred, and no other associated condition. Germline mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene located on chromosome 11q13 have been reported in 15%-40% of FIPA cases. In the remaining cases, genetic defect are unidentified. This article focuses on FIPA clinical, pathological, genetic features, and therapeutic management.
Project description:The genetic landscape of pituitary adenomas (PAs) is diverse and many of the identified cases remain of unclear pathogenetic mechanism. Germline genetic defects account for a small percentage of all patients and may present in the context of relevant family history. Defects in AIP (mutated in Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma syndrome or FIPA), MEN1 (coding for menin, mutated in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 or MEN 1), PRKAR1A (mutated in Carney complex), GPR101 (involved in X-Linked Acrogigantism or X-LAG), and SDHx (mutated in the so called "3 P association" of PAs with pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas or 3PAs) account for the most common familial syndromes associated with PAs. Tumor genetic defects in USP8, GNAS, USP48 and BRAF are some of the commonly encountered tissue-specific changes and may explain a larger percentage of the developed tumors. Somatic (at the tumor level) genomic changes, copy number variations (CNVs), epigenetic modifications, and differential expression of miRNAs, add to the variable genetic background of PAs.
Project description:Pituitary adenomas are one of the most frequent intracranial tumors and occur with a prevalence of approximately 1:1000 in the developed world. Pituitary adenomas have a serious disease burden, and their management involves neurosurgery, biological therapies, and radiotherapy. Early diagnosis of pituitary tumors while they are smaller may help increase cure rates. Few genetic predictors of pituitary adenoma development exist. Recent years have seen two separate, complimentary advances in inherited pituitary tumor research. The clinical condition of familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) has been described, which encompasses the familial occurrence of isolated pituitary adenomas outside of the setting of syndromic conditions like multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Carney complex. FIPA families comprise approximately 2% of pituitary adenomas and represent a clinical entity with homogeneous or heterogeneous pituitary adenoma types occurring within the same kindred. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene has been identified as causing a pituitary adenoma predisposition of variable penetrance that accounts for 20% of FIPA families. Germline AIP mutations have been shown to associate with the occurrence of large pituitary adenomas that occur at a young age, predominantly in children/adolescents and young adults. AIP mutations are usually associated with somatotropinomas, but prolactinomas, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, Cushing disease, and other infrequent clinical adenoma types can also occur. Gigantism is a particular feature of AIP mutations and occurs in more than one third of affected somatotropinoma patients. Study of pituitary adenoma patients with AIP mutations has demonstrated that these cases raise clinical challenges to successful treatment. Extensive research on the biology of AIP and new advances in mouse Aip knockout models demonstrate multiple pathways by which AIP may contribute to tumorigenesis. This review assesses the current clinical and therapeutic characteristics of more than 200 FIPA families and addresses research findings among AIP mutation-bearing patients in different populations with pituitary adenomas.
Project description:The aim of this study was to examine mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene by sequence analysis of exons 1-6 using leukocyte genomic DNA obtained from a cohort of familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) and apparent sporadic functional pituitary adenoma Turkish patients.Fourteen FIPA and 90 sporadic pituitary adenoma (somatotrophinoma, prolactinoma, and corticotrophinoma) patients, 1 sporadic gigantism case, and 70 healthy controls were included in the study.We did not detect AIP mutations in patients with FIPAs or sporadic pituitary adenomas, including the gigantism case. Only two exonic homozygous missense single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs641081 [Q228K] and rs4930195 [Q307R]) were identified in the AIP locus. Minor allele frequencies of the Q307R and Q228K variants were significantly higher in FIPA patients compared to controls. In addition, the minor allele frequency of the Q228K variant was significantly increased in patients with sporadic somatotrophinomas compared to controls, whereas the minor allele frequency of the Q307R variant was significantly increased in corticotrophinoma patients compared to controls. Conversely, the minor allele frequencies of Q228R and Q307R variants were similar between patients with prolactinomas and controls. No AIP gene mutation or variant was observed in the sporadic gigantism patient. These results suggest that Q228K and Q307R variants in the AIP gene might be involved in the genetic susceptibility to familial and sporadic pituitary adenomas (somatotrophinoma and corticotrophinoma) in the Turkish population.
Project description:Familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) due to aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene mutations is an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete penetrance. Clinical screening of apparently unaffected AIP mutation (AIPmut) carriers could identify previously unrecognized disease.To determine the AIP mutational status of FIPA and young pituitary adenoma patients, analyzing their clinical characteristics, and to perform clinical screening of apparently unaffected AIPmut carrier family members.This was an observational, longitudinal study conducted over 7 years.International collaborative study conducted at referral centers for pituitary diseases.FIPA families (n 216) and sporadic young-onset (30 y) pituitary adenoma patients (n 404) participated in the study.We performed genetic screening of patients for AIPmuts, clinical assessment of their family members, and genetic screening for somatic GNAS1 mutations and the germline FGFR4 p.G388R variant.We assessed clinical disease in mutation carriers, comparison of characteristics of AIPmut positive and negative patients, results of GNAS1, and FGFR4 analysis.Thirty-seven FIPA families and 34 sporadic patients had AIPmuts. Patients with truncating AIPmuts had a younger age at disease onset and diagnosis, compared with patients with nontruncating AIPmuts. Somatic GNAS1 mutations were absent in tumors from AIPmut-positive patients, and the studied FGFR4 variant did not modify the disease behavior or penetrance in AIPmut-positive individuals. A total of 164 AIPmut-positive unaffected family members were identified; pituitary disease was detected in 18 of those who underwent clinical screening.A quarter of the AIPmut carriers screened were diagnosed with pituitary disease, justifying this screening and suggesting a variable clinical course for AIPmut-positive pituitary adenomas.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pituitary adenomas have a high disease burden due to tumor growth/invasion and disordered hormonal secretion. Germline mutations in genes such as MEN1 and AIP are associated with early onset of aggressive pituitary adenomas that can be resistant to medical therapy. AIMS:We performed a retrospective screening study using published risk criteria to assess the frequency of AIP and MEN1 mutations in pituitary adenoma patients in a tertiary-referral center. METHODS:Pituitary adenoma patients with pediatric/adolescent onset, macroadenomas occurring ≤30 years of age, familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) kindreds, and acromegaly or prolactinoma cases that were uncontrolled by medical therapy were studied genetically. We also assessed whether immunohistochemical staining for AIP (AIP-IHC) in somatotropinomas was associated with somatostatin analogs (SSA) response. RESULTS:Fifty-five patients met the study criteria and underwent genetic screening for AIP/MEN1 mutations. No mutations were identified and large deletions/duplications were ruled out using MLPA. In a cohort of sporadic somatotropinomas, low AIP-IHC tumors were significantly larger (p=0.002) and were more frequently sparsely-granulated (p=0.046) than high AIP-IHC tumors. No significant relationship between AIP-IHC and SSA responses was seen. CONCLUSIONS:Germline mutations in AIP/MEN1 in pituitary adenoma patients are rare and the use of published risk criteria did not identify cases in a large tertiary-referral setting. In acromegaly, low AIP-IHC was related to larger tumor size and more frequent sparsely-granulated subtype but no relationship with SSA-responsiveness was seen. The genetics of aggressive, treatment-resistant and familial pituitary adenomas remain largely unexplained and screening criteria could be significantly refined.
Project description:PURPOSE:Germline mutations in the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) have been identified often in the setting of familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA). To date there is no strong evidence linking germline AIP mutations to other neoplasms apart from the pituitary. Our primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of AIP gene mutations and mutations in genes that have been associated with neuroendocrine tumors in series of tumors from patients presenting with both pituitary adenomas and differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs). METHODS:Pathology samples were retrieved from all pituitary adenomas in patients with concomitant DTCs, including one with a known germline AIP variant. Subsequently, two additional patients with known germline AIP variants were included, of which one presented only with a follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). RESULTS:In total, 17 patients (14 DTCs and 15 pituitary adenomas) were investigated by targeted next generation sequencing (NGS). The pituitary tumor samples revealed no mutations, while among the thyroid tumor samples BRAF (6/14, 42.9%) was the most frequently mutated gene, followed by NRAS (3/11, 27.3%). In one AIP-mutated FIPA kindred, the AIP-variant c.853C>T; p.Q285* was confirmed in the FTC specimen, including evidence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the AIP locus in the tumor DNA. CONCLUSION:Although most observed variants in pituitary adenomas and DTCs were similar to those of sporadic DTCs, we confirmed in one AIP mutation-positive case the AIP-variant and LOH at this locus in an FTC specimen, which raises the potential role of the AIP mutation as a rare initiating event.
Project description:CONTEXT:Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene are responsible for a subset of familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) cases and sporadic pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs). OBJECTIVE:To compare prospectively diagnosed AIP mutation-positive (AIPmut) PitNET patients with clinically presenting patients and to compare the clinical characteristics of AIPmut and AIPneg PitNET patients. DESIGN:12-year prospective, observational study. PARTICIPANTS & SETTING:We studied probands and family members of FIPA kindreds and sporadic patients with disease onset ?18 years or macroadenomas with onset ?30 years (n = 1477). This was a collaborative study conducted at referral centers for pituitary diseases. INTERVENTIONS & OUTCOME:AIP testing and clinical screening for pituitary disease. Comparison of characteristics of prospectively diagnosed (n = 22) vs clinically presenting AIPmut PitNET patients (n = 145), and AIPmut (n = 167) vs AIPneg PitNET patients (n = 1310). RESULTS:Prospectively diagnosed AIPmut PitNET patients had smaller lesions with less suprasellar extension or cavernous sinus invasion and required fewer treatments with fewer operations and no radiotherapy compared with clinically presenting cases; there were fewer cases with active disease and hypopituitarism at last follow-up. When comparing AIPmut and AIPneg cases, AIPmut patients were more often males, younger, more often had GH excess, pituitary apoplexy, suprasellar extension, and more patients required multimodal therapy, including radiotherapy. AIPmut patients (n = 136) with GH excess were taller than AIPneg counterparts (n = 650). CONCLUSIONS:Prospectively diagnosed AIPmut patients show better outcomes than clinically presenting cases, demonstrating the benefits of genetic and clinical screening. AIP-related pituitary disease has a wide spectrum ranging from aggressively growing lesions to stable or indolent disease course.
Project description:Familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) is an autosomal dominant condition with variable genetic background and incomplete penetrance. Germline mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene have been reported in 15-40% of FIPA patients. Limited data are available on the functional consequences of the mutations or regarding the regulation of the AIP gene. We describe a large cohort of FIPA families and characterize missense and silent mutations using minigene constructs, luciferase and beta-galactosidase assays, as well as in silico predictions. Patients with AIP mutations had a lower mean age at diagnosis (23.6+/-11.2 years) than AIP mutation-negative patients (40.4+/-14.5 years). A promoter mutation showed reduced in vitro activity corresponding to lower mRNA expression in patient samples. Stimulation of the protein kinase A-pathway positively regulates the AIP promoter. Silent mutations led to abnormal splicing resulting in truncated protein or reduced AIP expression. A two-hybrid assay of protein-protein interaction of all missense variants showed variable disruption of AIP-phosphodiesterase-4A5 binding. In summary, exonic, promoter, splice-site, and large deletion mutations in AIP are implicated in 31% of families in our FIPA cohort. Functional characterization of AIP changes is important to identify the functional impact of gene sequence variants.
Project description:Pituitary adenomas (PA) and pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PHEO/PGL) are rare tumors. Although they may co-exist by coincidence, there is mounting evidence that genes predisposing in PHEO/PGL development, may play a role in pituitary tumorigenesis. In 2012, we described a GH-secreting PA caused by an SDHD mutation in a patient with familial PGLs and found loss of heterozygosity at the SDHD locus in the pituitary tumor, along with increased hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) levels. Additional patients with PAs and SDHx defects have since been reported. Overall, prevalence of SDHx mutations in PA is very rare (0.3-1.8% in unselected cases) but we and others have identified several cases of PAs with PHEOs/PGLs, like our original report, a condition which we termed the 3?P association (3PAs). Interestingly, when 3PAs is found in the sporadic setting, no SDHx defects were identified, whereas in familial PGLs, SDHx mutations were identified in 62.5-75% of the reported cases. Hence, pituitary surveillance is recommended among patients with SDHx defects. It is possible that the SDHx germline mutation-negative 3PAs cases may be due to another gene, epigenetic changes, mutations in modifier genes, mosaicism, somatic mutations, pituitary hyperplasia due to ectopic hypothalamic hormone secretion or a coincidence. PA in 3PAs are mainly macroadenomas, more aggressive, more resistant to somatostatin analogues, and often require surgery. Using the Sdhb +/- mouse model, we showed that hyperplasia may be the first abnormality in tumorigenesis as initial response to pseudohypoxia. We also propose surveillance and follow-up approach of patients presenting with this association.
Project description:Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene cause mostly somatotropinomas and/or prolactinomas in a subset of familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA). AIP has been shown to interact with phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and G proteins, suggesting a link to the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) pathway. Upregulation of PKA is seen in sporadic somatotropinomas that carry GNAS mutations, and those in Carney complex that are due to PRKAR1A mutations. To elucidate the mechanism of AIP-dependent pituitary tumorigenesis, we studied potential functional and physical interactions of AIP with PKA's main subunits PRKAR1A (R1?) and PRKACA (C?). We found that AIP physically interacts with both R1? and C?; this interaction is enhanced when all three components are present, but maintained during C?-R1? dissociation by PKA activation, indicating that AIP binds C?/R1? both in complex and separately. The interaction between AIP and R1?/C? is reduced when the frequent AIP pathogenic mutation p.R304* is present. AIP protein levels are regulated both by translation and the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and C? stabilizes both AIP and R1? protein levels. AIP reduction by siRNA leads to an increase of PKA activity, which is disproportionately enhanced during PDE4-inhibition. We show that AIP interacts with the PKA pathway on multiple levels, including a physical interaction with both the main regulatory (R1?) and catalytic (C?) PKA subunits and a functional interaction with PDE4-dependent PKA activation. These findings provide novel insights on the mechanisms of AIP-dependent pituitary tumorigenesis.