Development of a Diverse Learning Experience for Diverse Psychiatry Resident Needs: A Four-Year Biological Psychiatry Curriculum Incorporating Principles of Neurobiology, Psychopharmacology, and Evidence-Based Practice.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:A clinically relevant approach to patient care grounded in neurobiological constructs and evidence based practice which emphasizes a relevant psychopharmacology is needed to optimally train psychiatry residents. METHODS:We implemented a biological psychiatry course that now incorporates neurobiology, psychopharmacology, and evidence-based practice in conjunction with a Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) perspective. A survey launched prior to course implementation and following each class session, served as the outcome metric of residents' attitudes toward the new curriculum and followed a baseline attitudinal survey designed to evaluate the program. RESULTS:Greater than 90% of the psychiatry residents at Duke University who took the attitudinal survey agreed or strongly agreed with needing a course that helped them develop an understanding of neurobiology, psychopharmacology, and evidence-based practice concepts. Most residents also indicated a less than adequate understanding of the neurobiology and psychopharmacology of psychiatric disorders prior to sessions. CONCLUSION:Our biological psychiatry curriculum was associated with enthusiasm among residents regarding the incorporation of neurobiology, psychopharmacology, and evidence-based practice into course topics and discussions. A biological psychiatry curriculum with integrated neurobiology and psychopharmacology built on an evidence base approach is possible, well-received, and needed in training of future psychiatrists.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Quality improvement (QI) is an increasingly important aspect of health care and residency education. There is relatively little research describing QI curricula for residents in psychiatry. Although QI curricula have been published in <i>MedEdPORTAL</i>, the current resource represents the first such curriculum specific to psychiatry residents. This resource aims to present a QI curriculum for psychiatry residents.<h4>Methods</h4>The University of Wisconsin psychiatry residency program implemented a QI curriculum for our PGY 3 psychiatry residents in 2010. The initial version of the curriculum has undergone marked changes over the ensuing years, reflecting feedback received from learners and faculty instructors, as well as ongoing review of the literature, to ascertain best practices in this area of medical education. Steps taken have included faculty training, development of evaluation forms, and implementation of elements to increase accountability for successful, sustainable project development.<h4>Results</h4>During the 8 completed years of this curriculum, 77 PGY 3 psychiatry residents have completed it. The Quality Improvement Knowledge Application Tool adapted for psychiatry was completed by PGY 3 residents in advance of and upon completion of the curriculum for the first 2 years of the curriculum; results demonstrated a significant improvement in scores as a measurement of QI knowledge and skills. Thirty-one of 32 resident teams (97%) have implemented a QI project.<h4>Discussion</h4>Our QI curriculum for PGY 3 psychiatry residents has been successful in equipping residents with QI knowledge and having them implement QI projects.
Project description:Psychiatry as a medical discipline is becoming increasingly important due to the high and increasing worldwide burden associated with mental disorders. Surprisingly, however, there is a lack of young academics choosing psychiatry as a career. Previous evidence on medical students' perspectives is abundant but has methodological shortcomings. Therefore, by attempting to avoid previous shortcomings, we aimed to contribute to a better understanding of the predictors of the following three outcome variables: current medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry, interest in psychiatry, and estimated likelihood of working in psychiatry. The sample consisted of N?=?1,356 medical students at 45 medical schools in Germany and Austria as well as regions of Switzerland and Hungary with a German language curriculum. We used snowball sampling via Facebook with a link to an online questionnaire as recruitment procedure. Snowball sampling is based on referrals made among people. This questionnaire included a German version of the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry Scale (ATP-30-G) and further variables related to outcomes and potential predictors in terms of sociodemography (e.g., gender) or medical training (e.g., curriculum-related experience with psychiatry). Data were analyzed by linear mixed models and further regression models. On average, students had a positive attitude to and high general interest in, but low professional preference for, psychiatry. A neutral attitude to psychiatry was partly related to the discipline itself, psychiatrists, or psychiatric patients. Female gender and previous experience with psychiatry, particularly curriculum-related and personal experience, were important predictors of all outcomes. Students in the first years of medical training were more interested in pursuing psychiatry as a career. Furthermore, the country of the medical school was related to the outcomes. However, statistical models explained only a small proportion of variance. The findings indicate that particularly curriculum-related experience is important for determining attitudes toward psychiatry, interest in the subject and self-predicted professional career choice. We therefore encourage the provision of opportunities for clinical experience by psychiatrists. However, further predictor variables need to be considered in future studies.
Project description:Introduction:Ethics is an integral component of child and adolescent psychiatry. While ethics can seem abstract or philosophical, its tenets are fundamental to the practice of medicine. Understanding relevant ethical principles shapes how practitioners make decisions in all activities, including clinical, administrative, research, and scholarly. Methods:Using the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) Code of Ethics as the framework, these vignettes serve as stimulus material to help teach the ethical principles relevant to child and adolescent psychiatry practice. Each vignette briefly describes a clinical situation in practice, followed by questions and possible appropriate responses. The teacher's guide includes a discussion of the relevant ethical principles and perspectives on how to think about the issues involved. A supplementary overview of ethical issues in child and adolescent psychiatry and a list of resources are also provided. Results:We and other child and adolescent psychiatrists have used this curriculum at professional organizational meetings, in residency programs, and in teaching medical students with positive learner responses. Discussion:This curriculum was developed by members of the AACAP Ethics Committee with input from the entire committee in an effort to produce material that was easy to use and provided valuable content about an essential aspect of practice that is relevant to all practitioners at all levels. While designed for child and adolescent psychiatrists, the content is relevant to all physicians working with children, adolescents, and families.
Project description:Mental health disparities based on minority racial status are well characterized, including inequities in access, symptom severity, diagnosis, and treatment. For African Americans, racism may affect mental health through factors such as poverty and segregation, which have operated since slavery. While the need to address racism in medical training has been recognized, there are few examples of formal didactic curricula in the psychiatric literature. Antiracism didactics during psychiatry residency provide a unique opportunity to equip physicians to address bias and racism in mental health care.With advocacy by residents in the Massachusetts General Hospital/McLean Psychiatry residency program, the Division of Public and Community Psychiatry developed a curriculum addressing racial inequities in mental health, particularly those experienced by African Americans. Four 50-minute interactive didactic lectures were integrated into the required didactic curriculum (one lecture per postgraduate training class) during the 2015-2016 academic year.Of residents who attended lectures and provided anonymous feedback, 97% agreed that discussing racism in formal didactics was at least "somewhat" positive, and 92% agreed that it should "probably" or "definitely" remain in the curriculum. Qualitative feedback centered on a need for more time to discuss racism as well as a desire to learn more about minority mental health advocacy in general.Teaching about racism as part of required training conveys the explicit message that this is core curricular material and critical knowledge for all physicians. These lectures can serve as a springboard for dissemination and provide scaffolding for similar curriculum development in medical residency programs.
Project description:Patients with psychiatric disorders have higher rates of chronic medical conditions and decreased life expectancy. Integrating medical and psychiatric care is likely to improve health outcomes for these patients.This study examined what proportion of psychiatry residents viewed psychiatry as a primary care specialty, how important they felt it was to provide primary care to patients, and how this perception altered self-reported comfort and practice patterns in providing screening and treatment for select general medical conditions.An online survey was sent to current psychiatry residents of US residency programs.A total of 268 residents from 40 programs completed the survey (25% response rate), with 55% (147 of 265) of respondents considering psychiatry to be a primary care specialty. Residents who held this opinion gave higher ratings for the importance of providing preventive counseling and reported counseling a higher percentage of patients on a variety of topics. They also reported screening more patients for several medical conditions. Residents who considered psychiatry to be primary care did not report greater comfort with treating these conditions, with the exception of dyslipidemia. The most commonly cited barrier to integrating primary care services was lack of time.Residents' perceptions of psychiatry as a primary care field appears to be associated with a higher reported likelihood of counseling about, and screening for, medical conditions in their patients.
Project description:Background: The field of child and adolescent psychiatry lags behind adult psychiatry significantly. In recent years, it has witnessed a significant increase in the publication of journals and articles. This study provides a detailed bibliometric analysis of articles published from 1980 to 2016, in the top seven journals of child and adolescent psychiatry. Methods: Using the Web of Science core collection, we selected 9,719 research papers published in seven psychiatric journals from 1980 to 2016. We utilized the Web of Science Analytics tool and Network Analysis Interface for Literature Studies (NAILS) Project scripts to delineate the general trends of publication in these journals. Then, co-citation analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using CiteSpace to map important papers, landmark theories and foci of research in child and adolescent psychiatry. Results: The field of child and adolescent psychiatry has experienced an increasing trend in research, which was reflected in the results of this study. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that the research foci in psychiatry were primarily studies related to the design of psychometric instruments, checklists, taxonomy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, PTSD, social phobia, and psychopharmacology. Moreover, several landmark studies, including the validation of a child behavior checklist, Ainsworth's empirical evidence of Bowlby's attachment theory, and adult outcomes of childhood dysregulation were published. This study also reports rapid expansion and innovation in research areas in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry from 1980-2016. Conclusions: Rapid expansion and innovation in research areas in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry has been observed, from 1980 to 2016.
Project description:Introduction:Despite the national focus on trainee burnout, effective wellness programs that can easily be incorporated into training curriculums are lacking. Strategies such as mindfulness and positive psychology, linked with deep breathing, have been shown to increase resiliency. We hypothesized that education about the neuroscience literature, coupled with teaching about well-being using short, easy-to-practice evidence-based exercises, would increase acceptance of this curriculum among residents and that providing protected time to practice these exercises would help trainees incorporate them into their daily lives. Methods:Residents were asked to attend a 60-minute didactic featuring both the concepts and science behind well-being. Residents then attended 15-minute booster sessions during protected didactic time each week for a 12-week curriculum. The booster sessions were peer-led by wellness champions. Additionally, there were monthly competitions using free phone apps to promote physical fitness through steps and flights challenges. Results:The 12-week curriculum was offered to 272 residents across five subspecialties of internal medicine, general surgery, anesthesiology, psychiatry, and physical medicine and rehabilitation. A total of 188 residents (69%) participated in the initial didactic component. The curriculum was positively received, with four of the five residency programs participating in weekly sessions. Residents in four participating departments then chose to continue the weekly sessions on a voluntary basis after the initial 12-week curriculum. Discussion:It is feasible to implement a low-cost, peer-led wellness curriculum to educate residents and foster an environment during residency training where mindfulness, optimism, gratitude, and social connectedness are the norm.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Although psychoactive substance use disorders (PSUDs) are a domain of mental health, addiction psychiatry is only formally recognized as a subspecialty in a few European countries, and there is no standardized training curriculum. <b>Methods:</b> A 76-item questionnaire was developed and disseminated through an online anonymous data-collecting system and hand-to-hand amongst psychiatric trainees from the 47 European countries of the Council of Europe plus Israel and Belarus. <b>Results:</b> 1,049/1,118 psychiatric trainees from 30 European countries completed the questionnaire. Fifty-nine-point nine percent of trainees stated to have training in addictions. Amongst the trainees who described having training in addictions, 43% documented a not well-structured training and 37% an unsatisfactory training, mainly due to poor acquired knowledge. Overall, 97% of trainees stated that addiction represents a core curriculum for their training. Overall, general adult psychiatric trainees reported a better knowledge in addictions, compared to trainees in child and adolescent psychiatry. <b>Conclusion:</b> Despite a growing spread of PSUDs in European countries, addiction psychiatry is a relatively poorly trained field within psychiatry training programs. Further research should investigate reasons for poor training and timings of the educational activities to optimize experiential education training in addiction psychiatry.
Project description:Pharmacogenetic/pharmacogenomic (PGx) approaches to psychopharmacology aim to identify clinically meaningful predictors of drug efficacy and/or side-effect burden. To date, however, PGx studies in psychiatry have not yielded compelling results, and clinical utilization of PGx testing in psychiatry is extremely limited. In this review, the authors provide a brief overview on the status of PGx studies in psychiatry, review the commercialization process for PGx tests and then discuss methodological considerations that may enhance the potential for clinically applicable PGx tests in psychiatry. The authors focus on design considerations that include increased ascertainment of subjects in the earliest phases of illness, discuss the advantages of drug-induced adverse events as phenotypes for examination and emphasize the importance of maximizing adherence to treatment in pharmacogenetic studies. Finally, the authors discuss unique aspects of pharmacogenetic studies that may distinguish them from studies of other complex traits. Taken together, these data provide insights into the design and methodological considerations that may enhance the potential for clinical utility of PGx studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that medical students wish to focus their learning in psychiatry on general skills that are applicable to all doctors. This study seeks to establish what aspects of psychiatry students perceive to be relevant to their future careers and what psychiatric knowledge and skills they consider to be important. It is relevant to consider whether these expectations about learning needs vary prior to and post-placement in psychiatry. To what extent these opinions should influence curriculum development needs to be assessed. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to medical students before they commenced their psychiatry placement and after they had completed it. The questionnaire considered the relevance of psychiatry to their future careers, the relevance of particular knowledge and skills, the utility of knowledge of psychiatric specialties and the utility of different settings for learning psychiatry. RESULTS: The students felt skills relevant to all doctors, such as assessment of suicide risk, were more important than more specialist psychiatric skills, such as the management of schizophrenia. They felt that knowledge of how psychiatric illnesses present in general practice was important and it was a useful setting in which to learn psychiatry. They thought that conditions that are commonly seen in the general hospital are important and that liaison psychiatry was useful. CONCLUSION: Two ways that medical students believe their teaching can be made more relevant to their future careers are highlighted in this study. Firstly, there is a need to focus on scenarios which students will commonly encounter in their initial years of employment. Secondly, psychiatry should be better integrated into the overall curriculum, with the opportunity for teaching in different settings. However, when developing curricula the need to listen to what students believe they should learn needs to be balanced against the necessity of teaching the fundamentals and principles of a speciality.