AkrinorTM, a Cafedrine/ Theodrenaline Mixture (20:1), Increases Force of Contraction of Human Atrial Myocardium But Does Not Constrict Internal Mammary Artery In Vitro.
ABSTRACT: Background: Intraoperative hypotension is a common problem and direct or indirect sympathomimetic drugs are frequently needed to stabilize blood pressure. AkrinorTM consists of the direct and the indirect sympathomimetic noradrenaline and norephedrine. Both substances are covalently bound to the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor theophylline, yielding theodrenaline and cafedrine, respectively. We investigated pharmacodynamic effects of AkrinorTM and its constituents on contractile force and tension in human atrial trabeculae and internal A. mammaria rings. Methods: Isometric contractions were measured in human atrial trabeculae at 1 Hz and 37°C. CGP 20712A and ICI 118,551 were used to elaborate ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes involved and phenoxybenzamine to estimate indirect sympathomimetic action. PDE-inhibition was measured as a potentiation of force increase upon direct activation of adenylyl cyclase by forskolin. Human A. mammaria preparations were used to estimate intrinsic vasoconstriction and impact on the noradrenaline-induced vasoconstriction. Results: Clinically relevant concentrations of AkrinorTM (4.2-420 mg/l) robustly increased force in human atrial trabeculae (EC50 41 ± 3 mg/l). This direct sympathomimetic action was mediated via ?1-AR and the effect size was as large as with high concentrations of calcium. Only the highest and clinically irrelevant concentration of AkrinorTM increased the potency of forskolin to a minor extent. Norephedrine has lost its indirect sympathomimetic effect when bound to theophylline. Increasing concentrations of AkrinorTM (4.2-168 mg/l) alone did not affect the tension of human A. mammaria interna rings, but shifted the noradrenaline curve rightward from -logEC50 6.18 ± 0.08 to 5.23 ± 0.05 M. Conclusion: AkrinorTM increased cardiac contractile force by direct sympathomimetic actions and PDE inhibition, did not constrict A. mammaria preparations, but shifted the concentration-response curve to the right, compatible with an ?-AR antagonistic effect or PDE inhibition. The pharmacodynamic profile and potency of AkrinorTM differs from noradrenaline and norephedrine in vitro. We anticipate metabolism of theodrenaline and cafedrine resulting in a different pharmacodynamic profile of AkrinorTMin vivo.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Resveratrol is a cardioprotective agent with known antiarrhythmic effects that has recently been shown to inhibit phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzyme activity. Thus, it is possible that resveratrol increases the inotropic effect of sympathomimetic agents, as PDE inhibitors do but, unlike other PDE inhibitors, its effect may not be accompanied by proarrhythmia due to its antiarrhythmic action. This work is aimed to test this hypothesis. METHODS:This is an "in vitro" concentration-response relationship study. The effects of noradrenaline, tyramine and isoproterenol, alone or in combination with either resveratrol or with the typical PDE inhibitor 3-isobutylmethylxantine (IBMX), were studied in electrically driven strips of right ventricle or in the spontaneously beating free wall of the right ventricle of rat heart in order to investigate inotropic or proarrhythmic effects respectively. Also, the effects of resveratrol or IBMX on the sinoatrial node rate were examined in the isolated right atria of rat heart. RESULTS:Resveratrol (10 µM and 100 µM) produces a leftward shift in the concentration-response curves for the contractile effects of noradrenaline, tyramine or isoproterenol and reduces the -log EC50 values of these three agents. IBMX produces similar effects. The spontaneous ventricular beating rate was increased by all three compounds, an effect that was further enhanced by the addition of IBMX. In contrast, resveratrol (100 µM) abolished the effects of these sympathomimetic agents on the ventricular rate. Resveratrol (1-100 µM) had no effect on the sinoatrial node rate, while IBMX produce a concentration dependent sinoatrial tachycardia. DISCUSSION:Taken together, the finding, indicate that resveratrol, like the PDE inhibitor IBMX enhances the contractile effects of sympathomimetic agents but, in contrast to IBMX, it does not enhance their proarrhythmic effect or produce sinoatrial tachycardia. This is most probably consequence of the antiarrhythmic effect of resveratrol which protect against the proarrhythmic effects resulting from PDE inhibition.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: PDE3 and/or PDE4 control ventricular effects of catecholamines in several species but their relative effects in failing human ventricle are unknown. We investigated whether the PDE3-selective inhibitor cilostamide (0.3-1 ?M) or PDE4 inhibitor rolipram (1-10 ?M) modified the positive inotropic and lusitropic effects of catecholamines in human failing myocardium. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Right and left ventricular trabeculae from freshly explanted hearts of 5 non-?-blocker-treated and 15 metoprolol-treated patients with terminal heart failure were paced to contract at 1 Hz. The effects of (-)-noradrenaline, mediated through ?? adrenoceptors (?? adrenoceptors blocked with ICI118551), and (-)-adrenaline, mediated through ?? adrenoceptors (?? adrenoceptors blocked with CGP20712A), were assessed in the absence and presence of PDE inhibitors. Catecholamine potencies were estimated from -logEC??s. KEY RESULTS: Cilostamide did not significantly potentiate the inotropic effects of the catecholamines in non-?-blocker-treated patients. Cilostamide caused greater potentiation (P = 0.037) of the positive inotropic effects of (-)-adrenaline (0.78 ± 0.12 log units) than (-)-noradrenaline (0.47 ± 0.12 log units) in metoprolol-treated patients. Lusitropic effects of the catecholamines were also potentiated by cilostamide. Rolipram did not affect the inotropic and lusitropic potencies of (-)-noradrenaline or (-)-adrenaline on right and left ventricular trabeculae from metoprolol-treated patients. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Metoprolol induces a control by PDE3 of ventricular effects mediated through both ?? and ?? adrenoceptors, thereby further reducing sympathetic cardiostimulation in patients with terminal heart failure. Concurrent therapy with a PDE3 blocker and metoprolol could conceivably facilitate cardiostimulation evoked by adrenaline through ?? adrenoceptors. PDE4 does not appear to reduce inotropic and lusitropic effects of catecholamines in failing human ventricle.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ephedrine and amphetamine can cause substantial increases in systemic arterial pressure. However, the role of endogenous noradrenaline release in mediating the pressor response to ephedrine is controversial. Studies using pharmacologic agents to decrease the synthesis, storage, and release of catecholamines have supported both a direct and an indirect mechanism of action for ephedrine. The purpose of the present study was to determine if endogenous noradrenaline release is required for cardiovascular responses to ephedrine and amphetamine using a genetic mouse model. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Increases in systemic arterial pressure and heart rate in response to ephedrine and amphetamine were investigated and compared in dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice that cannot synthesize noradrenaline. Dbh +/- littermates have normal noradrenaline and adrenaline tissue levels, and served as controls in all experiments. KEY RESULTS: In Dbh -/- mice the increases in systemic arterial pressure and heart rate in response to i.v. injections of ephedrine were not impaired whereas responses to amphetamine were markedly reduced, when compared with responses in Dbh +/- mice. The pressor response to tyramine was abolished whereas pressor responses to noradrenaline, phenylephrine, dopamine, and angiotensin II were similar in Dbh -/- and Dbh +/- mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The present results in Dbh -/- mice provide support for the hypothesis that pressor responses to ephedrine are directly mediated whereas responses to amphetamine are dependent on the release of noradrenaline and suggest that Dbh +/- and Dbh -/- mice are useful for the study of direct and indirect mechanisms.
Project description:This review examines the pharmacology of stimulants prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Stimulants that increase alertness/reduce fatigue or activate the cardiovascular system can include drugs like ephedrine available in many over-the-counter medicines. Others such as amphetamines, cocaine and hallucinogenic drugs, available on prescription or illegally, can modify mood. A total of 62 stimulants (61 chemical entities) are listed in the WADA List, prohibited in competition. Athletes may have stimulants in their body for one of three main reasons: inadvertent consumption in a propriety medicine; deliberate consumption for misuse as a recreational drug and deliberate consumption to enhance performance. The majority of stimulants on the list act on the monoaminergic systems: adrenergic (sympathetic, transmitter noradrenaline), dopaminergic (transmitter dopamine) and serotonergic (transmitter serotonin, 5-HT). Sympathomimetic describes agents, which mimic sympathetic responses, and dopaminomimetic and serotoninomimetic can be used to describe actions on the dopamine and serotonin systems. However, many agents act to mimic more than one of these monoamines, so that a collective term of monoaminomimetic may be useful. Monoaminomimietic actions of stimulants can include blockade of re-uptake of neurotransmitter, indirect release of neurotransmitter, direct activation of monoaminergic receptors. Many of the stimulants are amphetamines or amphetamine derivatives, including agents with abuse potential as recreational drugs. A number of agents are metabolized to amphetamine or metamphetamine. In addition to the monoaminomimetic agents, a small number of agents with different modes of action are on the list. A number of commonly used stimulants are not considered as Prohibited Substances.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:In response to noradrenaline, healthy perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) exerts an anticontractile effect on adjacent small arterial tissue. Organ bath solution transfer experiments have demonstrated the release of PVAT-derived relaxing factors that mediate this function. The present studies were designed to investigate the mechanism responsible for the noradrenaline-induced PVAT anticontractile effect. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:In vitro rat small arterial contractile function was assessed using wire myography in the presence and absence of PVAT and the effects of sympathomimetic stimulation on the PVAT environment explored using Western blotting and assays of organ bath buffer. KEY RESULTS:PVAT elicited an anticontractile effect in response to noradrenaline but not phenylephrine stimulation. In arteries surrounded by intact PVAT, the ?3 -adrenoceptor agonist, CL-316243, reduced the vasoconstrictor effect of phenylephrine but not noradrenaline. Kv 7 channel inhibition using XE 991 reversed the noradrenaline-induced anticontractile effect in exogenously applied PVAT studies. Adrenergic stimulation of PVAT with noradrenaline and CL-316243, but not phenylephrine, was associated with increased adipocyte-derived NO production, and the contractile response to noradrenaline was augmented following incubation of exogenous PVAT with L-NMMA. PVAT from eNOS-/- mice had no anticontractile effect. Assays of adipocyte cAMP demonstrated an increase with noradrenaline stimulation implicating G?s signalling in this process. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:We have shown that adipocyte-located ?3 -adrenoceptor stimulation leads to activation of G?s signalling pathways with increased cAMP and the release of adipocyte-derived NO. This process is dependent upon Kv 7 channel function. We conclude that adipocyte-derived NO plays a central role in anticontractile activity when rodent PVAT is stimulated by noradrenaline.
Project description:The effect of CGP-12177, originally developed as a radioligand with antagonist properties for binding studies of beta-adrenergic receptors, was investigated in brown adipose tissue. Contrary to expectations, CGP-12177 showed clear agonist properties in experiments with hamster brown-fat cells, with a maximal effect in stimulating oxygen consumption similar to that of the physiological stimulator noradrenaline, and also with a potency similar to that of noradrenaline [EC50 (50% effective concn.) approx. 70 nM]. This value could be contrasted with the very high affinity of CGP-12177 (KD about 1 nM) for ligand-binding sites on the cells. It is therefore suggested that the high-affinity binding site may not be the one that mediates the CGP-12177-stimulated thermogenesis in isolated cells. Also, when injected into cold-adapted rats, CGP-12177 stimulated non-shivering thermogenesis similarly to noradrenaline. This observation, in conjunction with the reported low general sympathomimetic effect of CGP-12177, may indicate that CGP-12177 could be of interest for the development of anti-obesity drugs.
Project description:The effects of acetylcholine on glucose and lactate balance and on perfusion flow were studied in isolated rat livers perfused simultaneously via the hepatic artery (100 mmHg, 25-35% of flow) and the portal vein (10 mmHg, 75-65% of flow) with a Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer containing 5 mM-glucose, 2 mM-lactate and 0.2 mM-pyruvate. Arterial acetylcholine (10 microM sinusoidal concentration) caused an increase in glucose and lactate output and a slight decrease in arterial and portal flow. These effects were accompanied by an output of noradrenaline and adrenaline into the hepatic vein. Portal acetylcholine elicited only minor increases in glucose and lactate output, a slight decrease in portal flow and a small increase in arterial flow, and no noradrenaline and adrenaline release. The metabolic and haemodynamic effects of arterial acetylcholine and the output of noradrenaline and adrenaline were strongly inhibited by the muscarinic antagonist atropine (10 microM). The acetylcholine-dependent alterations of metabolism and the output of noradrenaline were not influenced by the alpha 1-blocker prazosin (5 microM), whereas the output of adrenaline was increased. The acetylcholine-dependent metabolic alterations were not inhibited by the beta 2-antagonist butoxamine (10 microM), although the overflow of noradrenaline was nearly completely blocked and the output of adrenaline was slightly decreased. These results allow the conclusion that arterial, but not portal, acetylcholine caused sympathomimetic metabolic effects, without noradrenaline or adrenaline being involved in signal transduction.
Project description:Fibroblasts express androgen receptor (AR) in the normal prostate and during prostate cancer development. We have reported that loss of AR expression in prostate cancer-associated fibroblasts is a poor prognostic indicator. Here we report outcomes of direct and indirect co-cultures of immortalised AR-positive (PShTert-AR) or AR-negative (PShTert) myofibroblasts with prostate cancer cells. In the initial co-cultures the AR-negative PC3 cell line was used so AR expression and signalling were restricted to the myofibroblasts. In both direct and indirect co-culture with PShTert-AR myofibroblasts, paracrine signalling to the PC3 cells slowed proliferation and induced apoptosis. In contrast, PC3 cells proliferated with PShTert myofibroblasts irrespective of the co-culture method. In direct co-culture PC3 cells induced apoptosis in and destroyed PShTerts by direct signalling. Similar results were seen in direct co-cultures with AR-negative DU145 and AR-positive LNCaP and C4-2B prostate cancer cell lines. The AR ligand 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) inhibited the proliferation of the PShTert-AR myofibroblasts, thereby reducing the extent of their inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth. These results suggest loss of stromal AR would favour prostate cancer cell growth in vivo, providing an explanation for the clinical observation that reduced stromal AR is associated with a poorer outcome.
Project description:In cardiac myocytes activation of an exchange factor activated by cAMP (Epac) leads to activation of phospholipase C? (PLC?)-dependent hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) in the Golgi apparatus a process critical for development of cardiac hypertrophy. Here we show that ?-adrenergic receptor (?AR) stimulation does not stimulate this pathway in the presence of the broad spectrum phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor IBMX, but selective PDE3 inhibition revealed ?AR-dependent PI4P depletion. On the other hand, selective inhibition of PDE2 or PDE9A blocked endothelin-1 (ET-1) and cAMP-dependent PI4P hydrolysis by PLC?. Direct activation of protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase G (PKG), or the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) receptor abolished PI4P hydrolysis in response to multiple upstream stimuli. These results reveal distinct pools of cyclic nucleotides that either inhibit PLC? at the Golgi through PKA/PKG, or activate PLC? at the Golgi through Epac. These data together reveal a new mechanism by which ANF and selective PDE inhibitors can protect against cardiac hypertrophy.
Project description:Removal of the androgen receptor (AR) from bone-forming cells has been shown to reduce trabecular bone volume in male mice. In female mice, the role of AR in the regulation of bone homeostasis has been poorly understood. We generated a mouse strain in which the AR is completely inactivated only in mineralizing osteoblasts and osteocytes by breeding mice carrying osteocalcin promoter-regulated Cre-recombinase with mice possessing loxP recombination sites flanking exon 2 of the AR gene (AR(ΔOB/ΔOB) mice). In female AR(ΔOB/ΔOB) mice, the trabecular bone volume was reduced owing to a smaller number of trabeculae at 6 months of age compared with the control AR(fl/fl) animals. In male AR(ΔOB/ΔOB) mice, an increase in trabecular bone separation could already be detected at 3.5 months of age, and at 6 months, the trabecular bone volume was significantly reduced compared with that of male AR(fl/fl) mice. No AR-dependent changes were observed in the cortical bone of either sex. On the basis of micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry, we conclude that in male mice, the AR is involved in the regulation of osteoclast number by osteoblasts, whereas in female mice, the lack of the AR in the bone-forming cells leads to a decreased number of trabeculae upon aging.