Identification and expression of MMSA-8, and its clinical significance in multiple myeloma.
ABSTRACT: In our previous studies, we identified 12 multiple myeloma (MM)-associated antigens by serological analysis of tumor-associated antigens with a recombinant cDNA expression library (SEREX) on MM. MM-associated antigen-8 (MMSA-8) was one of the new antigens identified. We determined the 3'- and 5'-ends of MMSA-8 using SMART-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and then cloned its full-length cDNA in the U266 cell line. The full cDNA sequence revealed that MMSA-8 is RPS27A-related transcript variant 1 that is specifically associated with MM. We examined its prognostic significance for the first time, by investigating the correlations between MMSA-8 expression and definite clinicopathological features. We quantitatively assessed MMSA-8 expression using qRT-PCR and western blot analysis in healthy donors and MM patients. The expression levels of MMSA-8 were upregulated with statistical significance in MM patients in contrast to those in healthy donors. The expression of MMSA-8 was also upregulated in relapsed patients compared with that in the complete remission (CR) group. Contrasting MMSA-8 expression levels in different patients with definite clinicopathological features suggested an association between MMSA-8 with unfavorable clinicopathological characteristics, such as international staging system (ISS) stage III, higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The expression of MMSA-8 was also increased in patients with unfavorable cytogenetic and genetic abnormalities, including the presence of t(11;14), t(4;14), t(14;16), del(17p), del(13q) and p53 deletion, which was statistically significant. The expression of MMSA-8 exhibited significant variance in the treatment responses of the CR, PR, progression and relapse groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that high MMSA-8 values were associated with poorer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in MM patients independently. In conclusion, our data indicated that MMSA-8 is an independent and unfavorable prognostic risk factor in MM; MMSA-8 is also a promising diagnostic and therapeutic target in MM patients, but further validation is needed.
Project description:MmsR (33.3 kDa) is a putative LysR-type transcriptional activator of Pseudomonas denitrificans. With the help of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP), an important platform chemical, MmsR positively regulates the expression of mmsA, which encodes methylmalonylsemialdehyde dehydrogenase, the enzyme involved in valine degradation. In the present study, the cellular function of MmsR and its binding to the regulatory DNA sequence of mmsA expression were investigated both in vivo and in vitro. Transcription of the mmsA was enhanced >140-fold in the presence of 3-HP. In the MmsR-responsive promoter region, two operators showing dyad symmetry, designated O1 and O2 and centered at the -79 and -28 positions, respectively, were present upstream of the mmsA transcription start site. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay indicated that MmsR binds to both operator sites for transcription activation, probably in cooperative manner. When either O1 or O2 or both regions were mutated, the inducibility by the MmsR-3-HP complex was significantly reduced or completely removed, indicating that both sites are required for transcription activation. A 3-HP sensor was developed by connecting the activation of MmsR to a green fluorescent readout. A more than 50-fold induction by 25 mM 3-HP was observed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adenocarcinoma (ADC) of the lung exhibits different clinicopathological characteristics in men and women. Recent studies have suggested that these differences originate from the expression of female sex hormone receptors in tumor cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of female sex hormone receptors in lung ADC and determine the expression patterns in patients with different clinicopathological characteristics. METHODS:A total of 84 patients with lung ADC who underwent surgical resection and/or core biopsy were recruited for the present study. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for estrogen receptor ? (ER?), estrogen receptor ? (ER?), progesterone receptor (PR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), EGFR E746- A750 del, and EGFR L858R using tissue microarray. RESULTS:A total of 39 (46.4%) ER?-positive, 71 (84.5%) ER?-positive, and 46 (54.8%) PR-positive lung ADCs were identified. In addition, there were 81 (96.4%) EGFR-positive, 14 (16.7%) EGFR E746-A750 del-positive, and 34 (40.5%) EGFR L858R-positive cases. The expression of female sex hormone receptors was not significantly different in clinicopathologically different subsets of lung ADC. CONCLUSIONS:Expression of female sex hormone receptors is not associated with the prognosis and clinicopathological characteristics of patients with lung ADC.
Project description:Several studies have evaluated the association between EGLN2 4-bp insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism (rs10680577) and many cancers. However, up to date, no study has inspected the impact of rs10680577 polymorphism on prostate cancer (PCa) risk. This case-control study was achieved on 170 pathologically confirmed PCa patients and 196 cancer free men to inspect whether rs10680577 variant is related to the risk and clinicopathological features of patients with PCa. Genotyping was performed by mismatched polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The findings did not support an association between the variant with the risk and clinicopathological characteristics of PCa patients. When we pooled our results with six preceding studies, the findings suggested that rs10680577 variant significantly augmented the risk of overall cancer in heterozygous (OR=1.38, 95 % CI=1.26-1.52, p<0.00001, ins/del vs ins/ins), homozygous (OR=1.66, 95 % CI=1.05-2.61, p=0.029, del/del vs ins/ins), codominant (OR=1.44, 95%CI=1.32-1.58, p<0.00001, ins/del+del/del vs ins/ins), and allele (OR=1.32, 95%CI=1.18-1.49, p<0.00001, del vs ins) genetic models. Additional well designed studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to confirm our findings.
Project description:The pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) remains unclear and the NLRP3 inflammasome has been more and more recognized in the progression of many diseases. To investigate the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in MM, we determined the genetic polymorphisms and expression of NLRP3 inflammasome-related genes (IL-1β, IL-18, CARD8, and NF-κB) in MM patients, and explored their clinical relevance. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship of the NLRP3 inflammasome with Th cells in MM. Our study showed that the CARD8-C10X (rs2043211) AT genotype contributed to the susceptibility of MM. CARD8-C10X TT patients had earlier clinical stage. The WBC count in the three CARD8 genotypes showed an increasing trend (AA<AT<TT). Compared with patients with NF-κB-94 ins/del ATTG ins/ins and ins/del, patients with del/del had the highest myeloma cell ratio. Patients with IL-18 (rs16944) TT had the highest hemoglobin concentration (GG<GT<TT). Furthermore, we found that the genotype of CARD8-C10X (rs2043211) or NF-κB-94 ins/del ATTG was closely related to the frequency of Th1. Therefore, the genetic polymorphisms of the NLRP3 inflammasome associated with Th cells might be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma.
Project description:Melanoma-associated antigens (MAGE)-A9 has been reported to play important roles in the development of human cancers. However, the association between MAGE-A9 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not well understood. The study was to detect the expression of MAGE-A9 in human HCC and investigate the association between its expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of HCC. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), one-step quantitative -PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses were performed to characterize the expression of MAGE-A9 in HCC cell lines and tissues. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were employed to evaluate the prognosis of 100 HCC patients. The results showed that the expression of MAGE-A9 in HCC was significantly higher than that in non-cancerous cells and tissues. Moreover, the expression level of the MAGE-A9 protein in HCC was related to the pathological grade (p = 0.003), portal vein invasion (p = 0.001), distant metastasis (p = 0.022) and TNM stage (p = 0.005). Cox regression analysis further revealed that MAGE-A9 expression is an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (p = 0.006) and overall survival (p = 0.022). These data are the first to indicate that MAGE-A9 expression is a valuable prognostic biomarker for HCC and that high MAGE-A9 expression suggests unfavorable survival outcomes in HCC patients.
Project description:Loss of the chromosomal region 8p21 negatively effects survival in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) that undergo autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). In this study, we aimed to identify the immunological and molecular consequences of del(8)(p21) with regards to treatment response and bortezomib resistance. In patients receiving bortezomib as a single first line agent without any high-dose therapy, we have observed that patients with del(8)(p21) responded poorly to bortezomib with 50% showing no response while patients without the deletion had a response rate of 90%. In vitro analysis revealed a higher resistance to bortezomib possibly due to an altered gene expression profile caused by del(8)(p21) including genes such as TRAIL-R4, CCDC25, RHOBTB2, PTK2B, SCARA3, MYC, BCL2 and TP53. Furthermore, while bortezomib sensitized MM cells without del(8)(p21) to TRAIL/APO2L mediated apoptosis, in cells with del(8)(p21) bortezomib failed to upregulate the pro-apoptotic death receptors TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 which are located on the 8p21 region. Also expressing higher levels of the decoy death receptor TRAIL-R4, these cells were largely resistant to TRAIL/APO2L mediated apoptosis. Corroborating the clinical outcome of the patients, our data provides a potential explanation regarding the poor response of MM patients with del(8)(p21) to bortezomib treatment. Furthermore, our clinical analysis suggests that including immunomodulatory agents such as Lenalidomide in the treatment regimen may help to overcome this negative effect, providing an alternative consideration in treatment planning of MM patients with del(8)(p21).
Project description:The expression of classical human leukocyte antigen class I antigens (HLA-I) on the surfaces of cancer cells allows cytotoxic T cells to recognize and eliminate these cells. Reduction or loss of HLA-I is a mechanism of escape from antitumor immunity. The present study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological impacts of HLA-I and non-classical HLA-I antigens expressed on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. We performed immunohistochemistry to detect expression of HLA-I antigens in PDAC using 243 PDAC cases and examined their clinicopathological influences. We also investigated the expression of immune-related genes to characterize PDAC tumor microenvironments. Lower expression of HLA-I, found in 33% of PDAC cases, was significantly associated with longer overall survival. Higher expression of both HLA-E and HLA-G was significantly associated with shorter survival. Multivariate analyses revealed that higher expression of these three HLA-I antigens was significantly correlated with shorter survival. Higher HLA-I expression on PDAC cells was significantly correlated with higher expression of IFNG, which also correlated with PD1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression. In vitro assay revealed that interferon gamma (IFN?) stimulation increased surface expression of HLA-I in three PDAC cell lines. It also upregulated surface expression of HLA-E, HLA-G and immune checkpoint molecules, including PD-L1 and PD-L2. These results suggest that the higher expression of HLA-I, HLA-E and HLA-G on PDAC cells is an unfavorable prognosticator. It is possible that IFN? promotes a tolerant microenvironment by inducing immune checkpoint molecules in PDAC tissues with higher HLA-I expression on PDAC cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Some researchers reported that pleiotrophin (PTN) is associated with the development and metastasis of various tumors and it is a poor prognostic factor for the tumor patients. However, the results of other researches are inconsistent with them. It is obliged to do a meta-analysis to reach a definite conclusion. METHODS:The published studies relevant to PTN were searched in the databases including PubMed, Embase and Web of Science until March 20, 2018. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the role of PTN in clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival (OS) of cancer patients. RESULTS:Our meta-analysis indicated that the high expression of PTN was remarkably associated with advanced TNM stage (OR = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.92-4.06, P<0.00001) and poor OS (HR = 1.77, 95%CI: 1.41-2.22, P<0.00001) in tumor patients. The expression of PTN was not associated with tumor size (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.55-2.26, P = 0.76), lymph node metastasis (LNM) (OR = 1.95, 95%CI: 0.62-6.12, P = 0.25), distant metastasis (DM) (OR = 2.78, 95%CI: 0.72-10.74, P = 0.14) and histological grade (OR = 1.95, 95%CI: 0.98-3.87, P = 0.06). CONCLUSION:The high expression of PTN is significantly relevant to the advanced TNM stage and poor OS in tumor patients. PTN can serve as a promising biomarker to predict unfavorable survival outcomes, and it may be a potential target for tumor treatment.
Project description:The high-risk abnormality del(17p) can be detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization on malignant plasma cells (PCs) and has an adverse prognostic impact in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Patients with del(17p) have reduced overall survival (OS). Patients who acquire del(17p) later during the disease course are not well described. The disease characteristics at diagnosis predicting for acquired del(17p) and its overall impact on patient survival is not known. We compared 76 patients with MM who were negative for del(17p) at diagnosis and acquired it later with 152 control MM patients who did not acquire del(17p) at a comparable time point. Patients acquired del(17p) at a median of 35.6 months (range, 4.6-116.1 months) from diagnosis of MM after a median of 2 lines of therapy (range, 1-10 lines of therapy). When compared with controls, patients with acquired del(17p) had shorter median progression-free survival (PFS) (30.1 vs 23.0 months; P = .032) and OS (106.1 vs 68.2 months; P < .001) from diagnosis. After the detection of del(17p), the median PFS was 5.4 months and the median OS was 18.1 months. High lactate dehydrogenase level (odds ratio [OR], 3.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-12.24) and presence of t(4;14) (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.09-6.48) or any high-risk translocation (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.00-4.95) at diagnosis predicted acquisition of del(17p). High PC proliferative rate predicted shorter OS from detection of del(17p) (hazard ratio, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.31-3.96; P = .004). Our study shows that acquisition of del(17p) is an important molecular event associated with reduction in OS in MM. Certain baseline factors may predict acquisition of del(17p). This needs validation in prospective data sets.
Project description:MiRNA-15a/16-1 cluster located at chromosome 13q14 has been confirmed to regulate critical genes associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis and drug resistance in multiple myeloma (MM). However, little is known about their expression pattern and prognostic value in MM patients. In this study, we have analyzed the expression levels of miR-15a/16-1 in 117 MM patients (90 newly diagnosed, 11 relapsed and 16 remission patients) and 19 health donors (HDs) by quantitative real-time PCR. Our results indicated that the expression levels of miR-15a and 16-1 were down-regulated in newly diagnosed MM patients as compared to HDs (P = 0.025; P < 0.001) and independent of del(13q14). Downregulation of miR-15a was significantly associated with disease progression and poor prognosis while miR-16-1 seemed to be a good diagnostic marker to distinguish MM from HDs with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.864, sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 73%. Furthermore, patients with miR-15a < 2.35 (low expression group) had significantly shorter PFS (P < 0.001) and OS (P < 0.001). After adjustment of the established prognostic variables including del(13q), del(17p), amp(1q21) and high risk genetic abnormality, low miR-15a expression (<2.35) was still a powerful independent predictor for PFS (P = 0.008) and OS (P = 0.038). In addition, miR-15a combined with high ?2-MG and high risk genetic abnormality can further identify the high-risk subpopulations. Therefore, our data suggest that the expression patterns of miR-15a/16-1 are different in MM patients, and miR-15a seems to be linked with disease progression and prognosis while miR-16-1 acts as a valuable diagnostic marker.