Endoscopic Adhesiolysis of Flexor Hallucis Longus Muscle.
ABSTRACT: Adhesion of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) muscle to the distal tibia can occur after distal tibial fracture, distal fibular fracture, low tibial osteotomy, soft-tissue injury at the posterior ankle, subclinical compartment syndrome of the distal deep posterior compartment of the leg, or Volkmann contracture after deep posterior compartment syndrome of the leg. The purpose of this Technical Note is to report the endoscopic approach of FHL muscle adhesiolysis. It is indicated in patients with symptomatic adhesion of the FHL muscle and contraindicated if there is entrapment of the FHL muscle or tendon in the fracture callus or if there is extensive fibrosis and contracture of the FHL muscle as a result of Volkmann contracture after deep posterior compartment syndrome of the leg.
Project description:In the treatment of Gustilo Type 3B open tibial fractures, it is important to perform soft tissue reconstruction and bone reconstruction simultaneously. Gastrocnemius muscle and soleus muscle flaps are generally used as rotational flaps for the tibia. The distal third of the tibia can often not be covered with the gastrocnemius muscle and soleus muscle flaps. Treatment distal to the distal third of the tibia is difficult because fewer flap options are available. In the present report, we describe our experience with a Gustilo Type 3B open tibial fracture treated by gastrocnemius muscle and soleus muscle flaps, along with an additional proximally based flexor hallucis longus flap, which is a rare procedure.The participant was a 17-year-old male who injured his left tibia in a motorcycle traffic accident. Physical examination revealed a wound of 13 cm × 7 cm extending from the medial lower leg to the posterior aspect, with extensive skin loss. There was no nerve or vascular injury. The tibia was exposed, with detachment of the periosteum. The radiograph revealed a tibial shaft fracture. The AO/OTA classification was 42-A3.3, and it was classified as a Gustilo-Anderson Type 3B fracture. Gastrocnemius muscle and soleus muscle flaps were lifted in the area of the soft-tissue defect and then, placed over the tibia. Despite this, the distal portion of the tibia remained uncovered. Therefore, a flexor hallucis longus flap was lifted and placed over the distal portion of the tibia. On day 7 after the injury, the external fixation device was removed and the tibial shaft was fixated with two Ender nails (4.5 mm in diameter). The clinical course was satisfactory, and the skin graft and flap were successful. Bone union was achieved without infection, and the resulting range of motion was normal.For the treatment of Gustilo-Anderson Type 3B open tibial fractures, early treatment of the soft-tissue defect is vital. We surgically treated a Gustilo-Anderson Type 3B open tibial fracture with gastrocnemius muscle and soleus muscle flaps, along with an additional proximally based flexor hallucis longus flap, which is a rare procedure. In the event of a soft-tissue defect in the distal third of the tibia, the use of a proximally based flexor hallucis longus flap is an effective surgical approach.
Project description:Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is a rare cause of lower leg pain incurred during sports activities and typically affects young athletes who need to return to their activity level as quickly as possible. Nonoperative treatments are often unsuccessful and fasciotomy of the involved compartment is the treatment of choice. Endoscopically assisted release of the anterior and deep compartments is proven to be safe and effective. Endoscopically assisted deep posterior compartment release via an incision 1 to 3 cm behind the medial tibial border has high risk of injury to the great saphenous and perforating veins and the saphenous nerve. The purpose of this Technical Note is to describe the details of endoscopic fasciotomy of the superficial and deep posterior compartments of the leg. The operative field of this approach is away from the saphenous vein and nerve. Moreover, the tibial insertion of the soleus muscle does not need to be released to gain access to the proximal part of the deep posterior compartment.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Morphological characterization of leg arteries is of significant importance to detect vascular remodeling triggered by atherosclerotic changes. We determined reference values of vessel diameters and assessed prevalence of stenosis and arterial variations of the lower limb arteries in a healthy male population sample.<h4>Methods</h4>Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography at 1.5 Tesla was performed in 756 male participants (median age = 52 years, range = 21-82 years) of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania. Vessel diameters were measured in 9 predefined segments of the pelvic and leg arteries and 95th percentiles were used for upper reference values of means of left and right side arteries.<h4>Results</h4>Reference values of vascular diameters decreased from proximal to distal arteries: common iliac = 1.18cm; internal iliac = 0.75cm; external iliac = 1.03cm; proximal femoral = 1.02cm; distal femoral = 0.77cm; popliteal = 0.69cm; anterior tibial = 0.42cm; posterior tibial = 0.38cm; fibular = 0.40cm. Body-surface area indexed reference values increased with age in all segments. A number of 53 subjects (7.0%) had at least one stenosis, mainly in the lower leg arteries anterior tibial (n = 28, 3.7%), posterior tibial (n = 18, 2.4%) and fibular (n = 20, 2.6%). The risk of stenosis increased considerably with age (odds ratio = 1.08; p<0.001). The most common arterial variant was type I-A in both legs (n = 620, 82%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>We present reference values for different pelvic and leg artery segment diameters in men that decrease from proximal to distal and increase with age. Stenoses were most prevalent in lower leg arteries and type I-A was the most common variant in the lower leg.
Project description:Background/objective:Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is a low-invasive knee surgery that enables early recovery. Stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau (MTP) is a complication of UKA that prolongs treatment once it has occurred. We investigated factors affecting its occurrence. Methods:The study subjects were 167 patients who underwent fixed-bearing UKA between 2009 and 2016 (45 men and 122 women of mean age 77 years, including 134 with osteoarthritis of the knee and 33 with spontaneous osteonecrosis). We measured bone mineral density, installation angle of the tibial component, and leg alignment in those patients who developed stress fracture within 3 months after UKA. Results:Stress fracture did not occur in 155 patients (N group, 45 men and 110 women) and did occur in 12 (SF group, 12 women). The bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur was significantly lower in the SF group, indicating that bone fragility may have contributed to stress fractures at this site. There was no significant difference in the preoperative tibio-femoral angle (TFA), however, postoperative TFA was larger and the magnitude of the change in the valgus direction (?TFA) was smaller in the SF group. Discussion:In usual UKA for medial compartment, the leg is more extroverted postoperatively than preoperatively, and leaving the knee in the genu varus position, which places a greater load on the tibial component, may raise the risk of stress fracture. Although there was no difference between the two groups in the varus angle of the tibial component, in a scatter plot of postoperative TFA and the installation angle of the tibial component members of the SF group were concentrated in the region of high TFA and low varus angle. Varus of the leg and a low varus angle of the tibial component may thus be factors in the occurrence of stress fracture. Conclusion:Our results suggested that low BMD in the affected femur, large postoperative TFA, and a combination of large postoperative TFA and small varus angle of the tibial component may contribute to stress fracture of the MTP following UKA.
Project description:Background Neonatal Volkmann ischemic contracture in newborns is a devastating condition with lifelong consequences. Case Report We report a neonate born with necrotic skin lesions and bullae on right dorsal thenar aspect of hand, who subsequently developed compartment syndrome requiring fasciotomy. Review and Conclusion Necrotic skin lesions with/without swelling, bullae are invariably present at birth in these patients and should be recognized as a sentinel finding of underlying tissue ischemia/compartment syndrome. Early recognition and prompt surgical intervention can be limb saving. A range of radiologic abnormalities and contractures were noted in upto 84% of such patients followed long term. Hence, we recommend close follow-up until occurrence of epiphyseal fusion in these patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (hyperKPP) is a muscle sodium-ion channelopathy characterized by recurrent paralytic attacks. A proportion of affected individuals develop fixed or chronic progressive weakness that results in significant disability. However, little is known about the pathology of hyperKPP-induced fixed weakness, including the pattern of muscle involvement. The aim of this study was to characterize the patterns of muscle involvement in hyperKPP by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: We performed whole-body muscle MRI in seven hyperKPP patients carrying the T704M mutation in the SCN4A skeletal sodium-channel gene. Muscle fat infiltration, suggestive of chronic progressive myopathy, was analyzed qualitatively using a grading system and was quantified by the two-point Dixon technique. RESULTS: Whole-body muscle MRI analysis revealed muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration in hyperKPP patients, especially in older individuals. Muscle involvement followed a selective pattern, primarily affecting the posterior compartment of the lower leg and anterior thigh muscles. The muscle fat fraction increased with patient age in the anterior thigh (r=0.669, p=0.009), in the deep posterior compartment of the lower leg (r=0.617, p=0.019), and in the superficial posterior compartment of the lower leg (r=0.777, p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our whole-body muscle MRI findings provide evidence for chronic progressive myopathy in hyperKPP patients. The reported data suggest that a selective pattern of muscle involvement-affecting the posterior compartment of the lower leg and the anterior thigh-is characteristic of chronic progressive myopathy in hyperKPP.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acroscyphodysplasia has been described as a phenotypic variant of acrodysostosis type 2 and pseudohypoparathyroidism. In acrodysostosis, skeletal features can include brachydactyly, facial hypoplasia, cone-shaped epiphyses, short stature, and advanced bone age. To date, reports on this disorder have focused on phenotypic findings, endocrine changes, and genetic variation. We present a 14-year overview of a patient, from birth to skeletal maturity, with acroscyphodysplasia, noting the significant orthopaedic challenges and the need for a multidisciplinary team, including specialists in genetics, orthopaedics, endocrinology, and otolaryngology, to optimize long-term outcomes. CASE PRESENTATION:The patient presented as a newborn with dysmorphic facial features, including severe midface hypoplasia, malar flattening, nasal stenosis, and feeding difficulties. Radiologic findings were initially subtle, and a skeletal survey performed at age 7?months was initially considered normal. Genetic evaluation revealed a variant in PDE4D and subsequent pseudohypoparathyroidism. The patient presented to the department of orthopaedics, at age 2?years 9?months with a leg length discrepancy, right knee contracture, and severely crouched gait. Radiographs demonstrated cone-shaped epiphyses of the right distal femur and proximal tibia, but no evidence of growth plate changes in the left leg. The child developed early posterior epiphyseal arrest on the right side and required multiple surgical interventions to achieve neutral extension. Her left distal femur developed late posterior physeal arrest and secondary contracture without evidence of schypho deformity, which improved with anterior screw epiphysiodesis. The child required numerous orthopaedic surgical interventions to achieve full knee extension bilaterally. At age 13?years 11?months, she was an independent ambulator with erect posture. The child underwent numerous otolaryngology procedures and will require significant ongoing care. She has moderate intellectual disability. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:Key challenges in the management of this case included the subtle changes on initial skeletal survey and the marked asymmetry of her deformity. While cone-shaped epiphyses are a hallmark of acrodysostosis, posterior tethering/growth arrest of the posterior distal femur has not been previously reported. Correction of the secondary knee contracture was essential to improve ambulation. Children with acroscyphodysplasia require a multidisciplinary approach, including radiology, genetics, orthopaedics, otolaryngology, and endocrinology specialties.
Project description:Objective:Sagittal alignment of the tibia following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can affect various factors, such as durability, range of motion, stability, and even kinematics. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether taking plain preoperative lateral leg X-ray images to plan the posterior tibial slope can give an insert placement with more accurate sagittal alignment. Methods:A total of 100 patients who underwent total TKA with posterior-stabilized prostheses. were divided into a group of 50 cases in which the posterior tibial slope was determined intra-operatively with only the fibular axis as the landmark, and a group of 50 cases in which determination of the posterior tibial slope was planned preoperatively with reference to preoperative lateral leg images. For the posterior slope, tibial cutting was performed with the posterior slope built into the bone cutting guide of the insert as the target. The angle of the fibular axis and the posterior slope of the tibial insert were measured on the postoperative lateral leg X-ray image, and the difference from the target angle was examined in the two groups. Results:In the group in which only the fibular axis was used for reference, the mean deviation from the target was 3.96°, while in the group in which planning was carried out preoperatively using lateral leg X-ray images, the mean deviation was 1.59° (P?<?0.05). Conclusion:Drawing up a preoperative plan using lateral leg X-ray images gives a useful landmark at low cost for accurate determination of TKA posterior tibial slope.
Project description:UNLABELLED: Associations between fracture patterns are important and can ensure proper diagnosis and guide treatment. Occult posterior malleolus fractures associated with distal spiral tibia fractures often are underrecognized and the morbidity of a missed posterior malleolus injury can be substantial. We determined the association between the two injuries and evaluated the ability of a new protocol to improve management of these associated fractures. Of 62 consecutive patients with fractures of the distal third of the tibia, we retrospectively evaluated the first 39 patients and prospectively used a diagnostic protocol including computed tomography of the ankle in the subsequent 23 patients. The minimum followup was 3 months (mean, 25 months; range, 3-68 months). Twenty-four patients (39%) had fractures of the posterior malleolus. Before initiation of the protocol, intraarticular fractures were recognized in 33% (with one delayed diagnosis and one missed diagnosis), and after institution of the protocol, the detection rate was 48% with no known missed injuries and complete followup; however, with the limited power the detection rates were similar without and with the protocol. A spiral distal tibial shaft fracture with a proximal fibula fracture should alert the surgeon to investigate an occult ankle injury, particularly of the posterior malleolus. A protocol including computed tomography of the ankle may detect more injuries in a larger study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, prognostic study.
Project description:A 72-year-old male patient underwent mobile-bearing posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. He experienced a nontraumatic polyethylene tibial insert cone fracture 27 months after surgery. Scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surface of the tibial insert cone suggested progress of ductile breaking from the posterior toward the anterior of the cone due to repeated longitudinal bending stress, leading to fatigue breaking at the anterior side of the cone, followed by the tibial insert cone fracture at the anterior side of the cone, resulting in fracture at the base of the cone. This analysis shows the risk of tibial insert cone fracture due to longitudinal stress in mobile-bearing posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty in which an insert is designed to highly conform to the femoral component.