An inactivated hand-foot-and-mouth disease vaccine using the enterovirus 71 (C4a) strain isolated from a Korean patient induces a strong immunogenic response in mice.
ABSTRACT: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) frequently occurring in children. HFMD induced by EV71 can cause serious health problems and has been reported worldwide, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. In this study, we assessed the immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated HFMD vaccine using an EV71 strain (FI-EV71 C4a) isolated from a Korean patient. The vaccine candidate was evaluated in mice to determine the vaccination doses and vaccine schedules. BALB/c mice were intramuscularly administered 5, 10, or 20 ?g FI-EV71 vaccine, followed by a booster 2 weeks later. EV71-specific antibodies and neutralizing antibodies were induced and maintained until the end of the experimental period in all vaccinated groups. To determine the effectiveness of adjuvant for the EV71 vaccine, three adjuvants, i.e., aluminium hydroxide gel, monophosphoryl lipid A, and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, were administered separately with the FI-EV71 vaccine to mice via the intramuscular route. Mice administered the FI-EV71 vaccine formulated with all three adjuvants induced a significantly increased antibody response compared with that of the single adjuvant groups. The vaccinated group with triple adjuvants exhibited more rapid induction of EV71-specific and neutralizing antibodies than the other groups. These results suggested that the role of adjuvant in inactivated vaccine was important for eliciting effective immune responses against EV71. In conclusion, our results showed that FI-EV71 was a potential candidate vaccine for prevention of EV71 infection.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and with Coxsackie virus (CV) it is the other major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are urgently needed. From a scientific (the feasibility of bioprocess, immunological responses and potency in animal challenge model) and business development (cost of goods) points of view, we in this review address and discuss the pros and cons of different EV71 vaccine candidates that have been produced and evaluated in animal models. Epitope-based synthetic peptide vaccine candidates containing residues 211-225 of VP1 formulated with Freund's adjuvant (CFA/IFA) elicited low EV71 virus neutralizing antibody responses, but were protective in the suckling mouse challenge model. Among recombinant EV71 subunits (rVP1, rVP2 and rVP3) expressed in E. coli, purified and formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited mouse antibody responses with measurable EV71-specific virus neutralization titers. Immunization of mice with either a DNA plasmid containing VP1 gene or VP1 expressed in Salmonella typhimurium also generated neutralizing antibody responses and protected animals against a live EV71 challenge. Recombinant EV71 virus-like particles (rVLP) produced from baculovirus formulated either with CFA/IFA or alum elicited good virus neutralization titers in both mice and non-human primates, and were found to be protective in the suckling mouse EV71 challenge model. Synthetic peptides or recombinant EV71 subunit vaccines (rVP1 and rVLP) formulated in alum were found to be poorly immunogenic in rabbits. Only formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 virions formulated in alum elicited cross-neutralizing antibodies against different EV71 genotypes in mice, rabbits and non-human primates but induced weak neutralizing responses against CAV16. From a regulatory, economic and market acceptability standpoint, FI-EV71 virion vaccines are the most promising candidates and are currently being evaluated in human clinical trials. We further describe and analyze some new bioprocesses technologies that have great potential applications in EV71 vaccine development. This review also demonstrates the opportunities and challenges that the Asian vaccine industry faces today.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses (CV) are the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). There is not currently a vaccine available against HFMD, even though a newly developed formalin-inactivated EV71 (FI-EV71) vaccine has been tested in clinical trial and has shown efficacy against EV71. We have designed and genetically engineered a recombinant adenovirus Ad-EVVLP with the EV71 P1 and 3CD genes inserted into the E1/E3-deleted adenoviral genome. Ad-EVVLP were produced in HEK-293A cells. In addition to Ad-EVVLP particles, virus-like particles (VLPs) formed from the physical association of EV71 capsid proteins, VP0, VP1, and VP3 expressed from P1 gene products. They were digested by 3CD protease and confirmed to be produced by Ad-EVVLP-producing cells, as determined using transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. Mouse immunogenicity studies showed that Ad-EVVLP-immunized antisera neutralized the EV71 B4 and C2 genotypes. Activation of VLP-specific CD4+ and CD8+/IFN-? T cells associated with Th1/Th2-balanced IFN-?, IL-17, IL-4, and IL-13 was induced; in contrast, FI-EV71 induced only Th2-mediated neutralizing antibody against EV71 and low VLP-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. The antiviral immunity against EV71 was clearly demonstrated in mice vaccinated with Ad-EVVLP in a hSCARB2 transgenic (hSCARB2-Tg) mouse challenge model. Ad-EVVLP-vaccinated mice were 100% protected and demonstrated reduced viral load in both the CNS and muscle tissues. Ad-EVVLP successfully induced anti-CVA16 immunities. Although antisera had no neutralizing activity against CVA16, the 3C-specific CD4+ and CD8+/IFN-? T cells were identified, which could mediate protection against CVA16 challenge. FI-EV71 did not induce 3C-mediated immunity and had no efficacy against the CVA16 challenge. These results suggest that Ad-EVVLP can enhance neutralizing antibody and protective cellular immune responses to prevent EV71 infection and cellular immune responses against CV infection.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major etiological agent of various public health issues, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. EV71 causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and is associated with serious neurological disorders in young children. A formalin-inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine (KCDC-HFMDV1-EV71) based on the C4 subgenotype was previously developed and confirmed to be a potential candidate vaccine for prevention of EV71 infection in mice. In this study, an inactivated EV71 vaccine was used for analysis of long-term immunogenicity and efficacy in cynomolgus monkeys, a common nonhuman primate model. The vaccine was immunized three times at 0, 4, and 8 weeks with either 20-?g doses of EV71 candidate vaccine formulated with aluminum hydroxide gel adjuvant or phosphate-buffered saline as a control. The group immunized with the inactivated EV71 showed significantly increased EV71-specific antibody and serum neutralizing antibody titers at 3 weeks after vaccination and maintained these elevated titers until the end of the experiment (54 weeks after vaccination). The sera from vaccinated cynomolgus monkeys showed a crossreactive neutralizing antibody response to the heterologous subtype of EV71 (B1-4, C1, and C2). These findings suggest that the inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine may be a potential vaccine candidate and valuable tool for the control of HFMD.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) have caused severe epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia Pacific in recent years, particularly in infants and young children. This disease has become a serious public health problem, as no vaccines or antiviral drugs have been approved for EV71 and CA16 infections. In this study, we compared four monovalent vaccines, including formalin-inactivated EV71 virus (iEV71), EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs) (vEV71), formalin-inactivated CVA16 virus (iCVA16) and CVA16 VLPs (vCVA16), along with two bivalent vaccines, including equivalent doses of formalin-inactivated EV71+CVA16 virus (iEV71+iCVA16) and EV71+CVA16 VLPs (vEV71+vCVA16). The IgG titers and neutralization antibodies titers demonstrated that there are no immune interference exists between the two immunogens of EV71 and CVA16. IgG subclass isotyping revealed that IgG1 and IgG2b were induced primarily in all vaccine groups. Furthermore, cross-neutralization antibodies were elicited in mouse sera against other sub-genotypes of EV71 and CVA16. In vivo challenge experiments showed that the immune sera from vaccinated animals could confer passive protection to newborn mice against lethal challenge with 14 LD50 of EV71 and 50 LD50 of CVA16. Our results indicated that bivalent vaccination is promising for HFMD vaccine development. With the advantage of having a better safety profile than inactivated virus vaccines, VLPs should be used to combine both EV71 and CVA16 antigens as a candidate vaccine for prevention of HFMD virus transmission.
Project description:Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has recently emerged as a major public health concern across the Asian-Pacific region. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the primary causative agents of HFMD, but other members of the Enterovirus A species, including Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6), can cause disease. The lack of small animal models for these viruses have hampered the development of a licensed HFMD vaccine or antivirals. We have previously reported on the development of a mouse model for EV71 and demonstrated the protective efficacy of an inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate. Here, mouse-adapted strains of CVA16 and CVA6 were produced by sequential passage of the viruses through mice deficient in interferon (IFN) ?/? (A129) and ?/? and ? (AG129) receptors. Adapted viruses were capable of infecting 3 week-old A129 (CVA6) and 12 week-old AG129 (CVA16) mice. Accordingly, these models were used in active and passive immunization studies to test the efficacy of a trivalent vaccine candidate containing inactivated EV71, CVA16, and CVA6. Full protection from lethal challenge against EV71 and CVA16 was observed in trivalent vaccinated groups. In contrast, monovalent vaccinated groups with non-homologous challenges failed to cross protect. Protection from CVA6 challenge was accomplished through a passive transfer study involving serum raised against the trivalent vaccine. These animal models will be useful for future studies on HFMD related pathogenesis and the efficacy of vaccine candidates.
Project description:Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality from Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and neurological complications, particularly in young children in the Asia-Pacific region. There are no vaccines or antiviral therapies currently available for prevention or treatment of HFMD caused by EV71. Therefore, the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies against HFMD is of growing importance. We report the immunogenic and safety profile of inactivated, purified EV71 preparations formulated with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant in preclinical studies in mice and rabbits. In mice, the candidate vaccine formulations elicited high neutralizing antibody responses. A toxicology study of the vaccine formulations planned for human use performed in rabbits showed no vaccine-related pathological changes and all animals remained healthy. Based on these preclinical studies, Phase 1 clinical testing of the EV71 inactivated vaccine was initiated.
Project description:Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A 16 (CA16) are the major pathogens of human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). In our previous study, intramuscular immunization with the inactivated EV71 vaccine elicited effective immunity, while immunization with the inactivated CA16 vaccine did not. In this report, we focused on innate immune responses elicited by inactivated EV71 and CA16 antigens administered intradermally or intramuscularly. The distributions of the EV71 and CA16 antigens administered intradermally or intramuscularly were not obviously different, but the antigens were detected for a shorter period of time when administered intradermally. The expression levels of NF-κB pathway signaling molecules, which were identified as being capable of activating DCs, ILCs, and T cells, were higher in the intradermal group than in the intramuscular group. Antibodies for the EV71 and CA16 antigens colocalized with ILCs and DCs in skin and muscle tissues under fluorescence microscopy. Interestingly, ILC colocalization decreased over time, while DC colocalization increased over time. ELISpot analysis showed that coordination between DCs and ILCs contributed to successful adaptive immunity against vaccine antigens in the skin. EV71 and/or CA16 antigen immunization via the intradermal route was more capable of significantly increasing neutralizing antibody titers and activating specific T cell responses than immunization via the intramuscular route. Furthermore, neonatal mice born to mothers immunized with the EV71 and CA16 antigens were 100% protected against wild-type EV71 or CA16 viral challenge. Together, our results provide new insights into the development of vaccines for HFMD.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major causative agents for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Although there are three inactivated virus-based HFMD vaccines licensed in China, alternative approaches have been taken to produce an effective and safer vaccine that is easier to manufacture in large scale. Among these, a virus-like particles (VLPs) based EV71 vaccine is under active development. For this purpose, an efficient methodology for the production of EV71-VLPs by recombinant technology is needed. We here report the construction and expression of the P1 and 3C genes of EV71 in Pichia pastoris for producing VLP-based EV71 vaccine antigen with a high yield and simple manufacturing process. Based on codon-optimized P1 and 3C genes, EV71-VLPs were efficiently expressed in Pichia pastoris system, and the expression level reached 270 mg/L. Biochemical and biophysical analyses showed that the produced EV71-VLPs consisted of processed VP0, VP1, and VP3 present as ~35nm spherical particles. The immune response as a function of EV71-VLPs and adjuvant dose ratio was investigated for vaccine development. Immunization with EV71-VLPs of 1-5 µg/dose and adjuvant of 225 µg/dose induced robust neutralizing antibody responses in mice and provided effective protection against lethal challenge in both maternally transferred antibody and passive transfer protection mouse models. Therefore, the yeast produced EV71-VLPs antigen is a promising candidate for the development of a vaccine against HFMD.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus (CVA) are the most common causative factors for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and neurological disorders in children. Lack of a reliable animal model is an issue in investigating EV71-induced disease manifestation in humans, and the current clinical therapies are symptomatic. We generated a novel EV71-infectious model with hSCARB2-transgenic mice expressing the discovered receptor human SCARB2 (hSCARB2). The challenge of hSCARB2-transgenic mice with clinical isolates of EV71 and CVA16 resulted in HFMD-like and neurological syndromes caused by E59 (B4) and N2838 (B5) strains, and lethal paralysis caused by 5746 (C2), N3340 (C4), and CVA16. EV71 viral loads were evident in the tissues and CNS accompanied the upregulated pro-inflammatory mediators (CXCL10, CCL3, TNF-?, and IL-6), correlating to recruitment of the infiltrated T lymphocytes that result in severe diseases. Transgenic mice pre-immunized with live E59 or the FI-E59 vaccine was able to resist the subsequent lethal challenge with EV71. These results indicate that hSCARB2-transgenic mice are a useful model for assessing anti-EV71 medications and for studying the pathogenesis induced by EV71.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine, which was put into market in China in 2016, has been viewed as a promising prevention measure against severe and fatal hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). This study aimed to investigate the knowledge of HFMD and acceptability of EV71 vaccine among parents of under-five in Chongqing, China. METHODOLOGY /PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2017. A validated questionnaire consisting of three sections including demographic information, knowledge of HFMD, acceptability and reasons for declining vaccination was developed based on literature review. Factors associated with unwillingness to receive EV71 vaccine were explored using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 992 parents finished the questionnaire with a response rate of 91.9%. Awareness of HFMD and EV71 vaccine were reported by 823 (83.0%) parents and 386 (38.9%) parents respectively. Knowledge about HFMD was with a mean score of 5.0 (standard deviation = 3.5) out of a total score of 12. Only 369 (37.2%) participants were classified as with good knowledge level about HFMD. 279 (28.1%) participants had their children received EV71 vaccine and 271 (27.3%) expressed willingness to vaccinate their children after a short-time education about EV71 vaccine. Acceptability of EV71 vaccine increased along with parents' education level (p = 0.008) and HFMD knowledge level (p<0.001). Parents of scattered children had higher acceptability than those of preschool children (p = 0.002). 442 (44.6%) of participants were unwilling to have their children vaccinated with EV71 vaccine. The most common reasons for declining EV71 vaccine were doubts about its safety (56.6%) and efficacy (48.3%), and the necessity of vaccination (38.3%). Physicians and vaccination certificate were the parents' most trusted sources of vaccine information. CONCLUSIONS:Parents' knowledge about HFMD was not sufficient, and nearly half of the parents expressed unwillingness to vaccinate their children with EV71 vaccine. Our findings stress that more efforts by health authorities in Chongqing are needed to increase the acceptability of EV71 vaccine, especially among parents of preschool children with lower education level.