The pancreas responds to remote damage and systemic stress by secretion of the pancreatic secretory proteins PSP/regI and PAP/regIII.
ABSTRACT: In patients with infection and sepsis serum levels of Pancreatic Stone protein/regenerating protein I (PSP) are highly elevated. The origin of PSP during these conditions is presumably the pancreas, however, an intestinal origin cannot be excluded. Similarly, pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) was identified in the pancreas. These proteins were also localized in intestinal organs. Here we aim to elucidate the bio-distribution of PSP and PAP in animal models of sepsis and in healthy humans.PSP and PAP responded to remote lesions in rats although the pancreatic response was much more pronounced than the intestinal. Tissue distribution of PSP demonstrated a 100-fold higher content in the pancreas compared to any other organ while PAP was most abundant in the small intestine. Both proteins responded to CLP or sham operation in the pancreas. PSP also increased in the intestine during CLP. The distribution of PSP and PAP in human tissue mirrored the distribution in the murine models.Distribution of PSP and PAP was visualized by immunohistochemistry. Rats and mice underwent midline laparotomies followed by mobilization of tissue and incision of the pancreatic duct or duodenum. Standard cecum-ligation-puncture (CLP) procedures or sham laparotomies were performed. Human tissue extracts were analyzed for PSP and PAP.The pancreas reacts to remote lesions and septic insults in mice and rats with increased PSP synthesis, while PAP is selectively responsive to septic events. Furthermore, our results suggest that serum PSP in septic patients is predominantly derived through an acute phase response of the pancreas.
Project description:Major abdominal surgery leads to a postoperative systemic inflammatory response, making it difficult to discriminate patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome from those with a beginning postoperative infectious complication. At present, physicians have to rely on their clinical experience to differentiate between the two. Pancreatic stone protein (PSP) and pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP), both secretory proteins produced by the pancreas, are dramatically increased during pancreatic disease and have been shown to act as acute-phase proteins. Increased levels of PSP have been detected in polytrauma patients developing sepsis and PSP has shown a high diagnostic accuracy in discriminating the severity of peritonitis and in predicting death in intensive care unit patients. However, the prognostic value of PSP/PAP for infectious complications among patients undergoing major abdominal surgery is unknown.160 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery will be recruited preoperatively. On the day before surgery, baseline blood values are attained. Following surgery, daily blood samples for measuring regular inflammatory markers (c-reactive protein, procalcitonin, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-? and leucocyte counts) and PSP/PAP will be acquired. PSP/PAP will be measured using a validated ELISA developed in our research laboratory. Patient's discharge marks the end of his/her trial participation. Complication grade including mortality and occurrence of infectious postoperative complications according to validated diagnostic criteria will be correlated with PSP/PAP values. Total intensive care unit days and total length of stay will be recorded as further outcome parameters.The PSP trial is a prospective monocentric cohort study evaluating the prognostic value of PSP and PAP for postoperative infectious complications. In addition, a comparison with established inflammatory markers in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery will be performed to help evaluate the role of these proteins in predicting and diagnosing infectious and other postoperative complications.KEKZH-Nr. STV 11-2009.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01258179.
Project description:Background:Acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36), Quchi (LI11), and Tianshu (ST25) is commonly used in septic patients by traditional Chinese physicians. The protective effect of acupuncture at ST36 on the intestinal barrier is associated with Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway (CAIP). However, its detailed mechanism and whether acupuncture at LI11 and ST25 have similar effects to ST36 remain unclear. Aim:To explore the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at ST36, LI11, and ST25 on septic rats and investigate the role of the spleen in the treatment of EA at ST36. Methods:A septic rat model caused by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and a postsplenectomy (SPX) CLP rat model were established. Rats were divided into nine groups depending on different treatments. Serum levels of TNF-?, IL-10, D-lactic acidosis (D-LA), double amine oxidase (DAO), and T-lymphocyte subgroup level in intestinal lymph nodes were compared. Results:EA could not improve the 2-day survival of CLP rats. For CLP rats, EA at ST36 and LI11 significantly decreased the levels of TNF-?, IL-10, DAO, and D-LA in serum and normalized intestinal T-cell immunity. For SPX CLP rats, EA at ST36 failed to reduce serum concentrations of TNF-?, IL-10, and D-LA but increased the values of CD3+CD4+/CD3+CD8+ cells and Treg/Th17 cells. Conclusions:EA at ST36 and LI11, respectively, could alleviate inflammation reaction, protect the intestinal barrier, and maintain intestinal T-cell function in septic rats. Spleen participated in the protective effect of EA at ST36 in sepsis.
Project description:Sepsis causes multiple-organ dysfunction including pancreatic injury, thus resulting in high mortality. Innate immune molecule surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays a critical role in host defense and regulating inflammation of infectious diseases. In this study we investigated SP-D functions in the acute pancreatic injury (API) with C57BL/6 Wild-type (WT) and SP-D knockout (KO) mice in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. Our results confirm SP-D expression in pancreatic islets and intercalated ducts and are the first to explore the role of pancreatic SP-D in sepsis. CLP decreased pancreatic SP-D levels and caused severe pancreatic injury with higher serum amylase 24 h after CLP. Apoptosis and neutrophil infiltration were increased in the pancreas of septic KO mice (p < 0.05, vs septic WT mice), with lower Bcl-2 and higher caspase-3 levels in septic KO mice (p < 0.05). Molecular analysis revealed increased NF-κB-p65 and phosphorylated IκB-α levels along with higher serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in septic KO mice compared to septic WT mice (p < 0.01). Furthermore, in vitro islet cultures stimulated with LPS produced higher TNF-α and IL-6 (p < 0.05) from KO mice compared to WT mice. Collectively, these results demonstrate SP-D plays protective roles by inhibiting apoptosis and modulating NF-κB-mediated inflammation in CLP-induced API.
Project description:Patients with cancer who develop sepsis have a markedly higher mortality than patients who were healthy prior to the onset of sepsis. Potential mechanisms underlying this difference have previously been examined in two preclinical models of cancer followed by sepsis. Both pancreatic cancer/pneumonia and lung cancer/cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) increase murine mortality, associated with alterations in lymphocyte apoptosis and intestinal integrity. However, pancreatic cancer/pneumonia decreases lymphocyte apoptosis and increases gut apoptosis while lung cancer/CLP increases lymphocyte apoptosis and decreases intestinal proliferation. These results cannot distinguish the individual roles of cancer versus sepsis since different models of each were used. We therefore created a new cancer/sepsis model to standardize each variable. Mice were injected with a pancreatic cancer cell line and 3 weeks later cancer mice and healthy mice were subjected to CLP. Cancer septic mice had a significantly higher 10-day mortality than previously healthy septic mice. Cancer septic mice had increased CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells, associated with decreased CD4 T cell apoptosis 24?h after CLP. Further, splenic CD8+ T cell activation was decreased in cancer septic mice. In contrast, no differences were noted in intestinal apoptosis, proliferation, or permeability, nor were changes noted in local bacterial burden, renal, liver, or pulmonary injury. Cancer septic mice thus have consistently reduced survival compared with previously healthy septic mice, independent of the cancer or sepsis model utilized. Changes in lymphocyte apoptosis are common to cancer model and independent of sepsis model, whereas gut apoptosis is common to sepsis model and independent of cancer model. The host response to the combination of cancer and sepsis is dependent, at least in part, on both chronic comorbidity and acute illness.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) is a secretory protein not normally expressed in healthy pancreas but highly induced during acute pancreatitis. While PAP has been shown to be anti-bacterial and anti-apoptotic in vitro, its definitive biological function in vivo is not clear. METHODS:To elucidate the function of PAP, antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides (AS-PAP) targeting all three isoforms of PAP were administered via intrapancreatic injections (5 mg kg day, 2 days) to rats prior to induction of pancreatitis. RESULTS:Severity of pancreatitis and cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were evaluated. Administration of AS-PAP, but not the scrambled oligodeoxyribonucleotide (SC-PAP) control, reduced pancreatitis-induced PAP expression by 55.2 +/- 6.4%, 44.0 +/- 8.9%, and 38.9 +/- 10.7% for PAP isoforms I, II, and III, respectively, compared to saline-treated controls (P < 0.05 for all). Inhibition of PAP expression significantly worsened pancreatitis: serum amylase activity, pancreas wet weight (reflecting edema), and serum C-reactive protein levels all increased in AS-PAP-treated animals compared to SC-PAP-treated controls (by 3.5-, 1.7-, and 1.7-fold, respectively; P < 0.05 for all). Histopathologic evaluation of pancreas revealed worsened edema, elevated leukocyte infiltration, and fat necrosis after AS-PAP treatment. Gene expressions of IL-1 microm and IL-4 were significantly higher in PBMC isolated from AS-PAP-treated rats compared to SC-PAP controls. CONCLUSION:This is the first in vivo evidence indicating that PAP mediates significant protection against pancreatic injury. Our data suggest that PAP may exert its protective function by suppressing local pancreatic as well as systemic inflammation during acute pancreatitis.
Project description:The present study investigated the protective effects of emodin on intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ) barrier integrity in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced septic rats and its possible mechanisms of action. Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=20 per group): Sham group, CLP group and CLP + emodin group. Animals were sacrificed at 12 and 24 h after the model was established. Abdominal aortic blood and specimens of the ileum were harvested for analysis. The histopathological changes in intestinal mucosa and the ultrastructures of intestinal epithelial cells were investigated using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The integrity of the intestinal barrier was assessed by examining plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) levels and the ratio of urine lactulose to mannitol (L/M). The levels of the intestinal TJ proteins claudin-3, zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and occludin were detected using immunohistochemistry, western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The results showed that the pathological damage to intestinal mucosa and the intestinal tissue injury score in the CLP + emodin group were significantly reduced compared to those of the CLP group, and the differences were more obvious at 24 h compared with 12 h. DAO activity and the L/M ratio in the emodin pre-treatment group decreased significantly at 24 h compared with the CLP groups. The protein and mRNA levels of the TJ proteins claudin-3, ZO-1 and occludin in the emodin pre-treatment groups at 12 and 24 h were increased, while occludin mRNA level was found to be decreased compared with the CLP groups. The present study suggested that emodin may significantly reduce the damage to the intestinal epithelial barrier in sepsis, inhibit intestinal barrier permeability and protect intestinal barrier integrity. Emodin may protect intestinal barrier integrity by elevating expression levels of the TJ proteins claudin-3, ZO-1 and occludin in CLP rats.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Immunonutrition in sepsis, including n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or L-arginine supplementation, is a controversial issue that has yielded a great number of studies for the last thirty-five years, and the conclusions regarding the quantity and quality of this support in patients are deceiving. The aim of the present experimental study is to investigate the effects of a pretreatment with enteral nutrition enriched with n-3 PUFAs or L-arginine on vascular dysfunctions, inflammation and oxidative stress during septic shock in rats. DESIGN:Rats were fed with enteral Peptamen® HN (HN group), Peptamen® AF containing n-3 PUFAs (AF group) or Peptamen® AF enriched with L-arginine (AFA group). On day 4, peritonitis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was performed. Rats were resuscitated (H18) once septic shock was established. After a 4-hour resuscitation, vessels and organs were harvested to assess inflammation, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and prostacyclin levels. Ex-vivo vascular reactivity was also performed. RESULTS:Compared to CLP-AF or CLP-HN groups, 47.6% of CLP-AFA rats died before the beginning of hemodynamic measurements (vs. 8.0% and 20.0% respectively, p<0.05). AF and AFA rats required significantly increased norepinephrine infusion rates to reach the mean arterial pressure objective, compared to CLP-HN rats. Both CLP-AF and CLP-AFA reduced mesenteric resistance arterial contractility, decreased vascular oxidative stress, but increased NF-κB (0.40±0.15 in CLP-AF and 0.69±0.06 in CLP-AFA vs. 0.09±0.03 in SHAM rats and 0.30±0.06 in CLP-HN, ß-actin ratio, p<0.05) and pIκB expression (0.60±0.03 in CLP-AF and 0.94±0.15 in CLP-AFA vs. 0.04±0.01 in SHAM rats and 0.56±0.07 in CLP-HN, ß-actin ratio, p<0.05), nitric oxide and prostacyclin production in septic rats. CONCLUSIONS:Although n-3 PUFAs or L-arginine supplementation exhibited an antioxidant effect, it worsened the septic shock-induced vascular dysfunction. Furthermore, mortality was higher after L-arginine supplementation.
Project description:AIM:To examine the influence of dexamethasone on pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) gene expression using both in vitro and in vivo models of acute pancreatitis and to study how PAP gene expression correlates with severity of pancreatitis. METHODS:In vitro, IL-6 stimulated pancreas acinar AR42J cells were cultured with increasing concentrations of dexamethasone and assayed for PAP expression (RT-PCR). In vivo, pancreatitis was induced in rats by retrograde injection of 40 g/L taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. Animals were pretreated with dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) daily or saline for 4 d. Pancreata and serum were harvested after 24 h and gene expression levels of PAP I, II and III were measured by RT-PCR. Severity of pancreatitis was based on serum amylase, pancreatic wet weight, and histopathological score. RESULTS:In vitro, dexamethasone and IL-6 induced a marked transcription of PAP I, II and III genes in AR42J cells at 24 h (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). In vivo, pancreas mRNA levels of PAP I, II or III increased by 2.6-fold, 1.9-fold, and 1.3-fold respectively after dexamethasone treatment, compared with saline treated animals. Serum amylase levels and edema were significantly lower in the dexamethasone group compared with the saline group. Histopathologic evaluation revealed less inflammation and necrosis in pancreata obtained from dexamethasone treated animals (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION:Dexamethasone significantly decreases the severity of pancreatitis. The protective mechanism of dexamethasone may be via upregulating PAP gene expression during injury.
Project description:The cystic fibrosis (CF) mouse pancreas has constitutively elevated expression of the Reg/PAP cell stress genes (60-fold greater Reg3alpha, and 10-fold greater PAP/Reg3beta and Reg3gamma). These genes are suggested to be involved in protection or recovery from pancreatic injury.To test this idea the supramaximal caerulein model was used to induce acute pancreatitis in wild type and CF mice. Serum amylase, pancreatic water content (as a measure of edema), pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity, and Reg/PAP expression were quantified.In both wild type and CF mice caerulein induced similar elevations in serum amylase (maximal at 12 h), pancreatic edema (maximal at 7 h), and pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity (MPO, a marker of neutrophil infiltration; maximal at 7 h). By immunohistochemistry, Reg3alpha was strongly expressed in the untreated CF pancreas but not in wild type. During pancreatitis, Reg3alpha was intensely expressed in foci of inflamed tissue in both wild type and CF.These data demonstrate that the severity of caerulein-induced pancreatitis is not ameliorated in the CF mouse even though the Reg/PAP stress genes are already highly upregulated. While Reg/PAP may be protective they may also have a negative effect during pancreatitis due to their anti-apoptotic activity, which has been shown to increase the severity of pancreatitis.
Project description:Esculentoside A (EsA), a saponin isolated from Phytolacca esculenta, can attenuate acute liver and lung injury. However, whether EsA has a protective effect against sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) has not been reported. In this study, EsA (2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg) was given to rats with sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). We found that EsA improved the survival of septic rats in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, EsA lowered the kidney tubular damage score and decreased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Moreover, EsA inhibited excessive generation of pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 in the serum and downregulated cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the renal tissues of septic rats. EsA also suppressed the production of malonaldehyde and the activity of myeloperoxidase in the septic kidney and enhanced the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of a high dose of EsA were comparable to those of dexamethasone. Mechanically, EsA inhibited CLP-induced increases in high-mobility group box 1, Toll-like receptor-4, and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 and nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor kappa B p65 in renal tissues. In vitro, lipopolysaccharide-induced alteration of AKI-related factors in HK-2 cells, which had been evaluated in vivo, was inhibited after EsA administration. Taken together, our study suggests that EsA effectively protects rats against septic AKI caused by CLP.