Amplifying recombination genome-wide and reshaping crossover landscapes in Brassicas.
ABSTRACT: Meiotic recombination by crossovers (COs) is tightly regulated, limiting its key role in producing genetic diversity. However, while COs are usually restricted in number and not homogenously distributed along chromosomes, we show here how to disrupt these rules in Brassica species by using allotriploid hybrids (AAC, 2n = 3x = 29), resulting from the cross between the allotetraploid rapeseed (B. napus, AACC, 2n = 4x = 38) and one of its diploid progenitors (B. rapa, AA, 2n = 2x = 20). We produced mapping populations from different genotypes of both diploid AA and triploid AAC hybrids, used as female and/or as male. Each population revealed nearly 3,000 COs that we studied with SNP markers well distributed along the A genome (on average 1 SNP per 1.25 Mbp). Compared to the case of diploids, allotriploid hybrids showed 1.7 to 3.4 times more overall COs depending on the sex of meiosis and the genetic background. Most surprisingly, we found that such a rise was always associated with (i) dramatic changes in the shape of recombination landscapes and (ii) a strong decrease of CO interference. Hybrids carrying an additional C genome exhibited COs all along the A chromosomes, even in the vicinity of centromeres that are deprived of COs in diploids as well as in most studied species. Moreover, in male allotriploid hybrids we found that Class I COs are mostly responsible for the changes of CO rates, landscapes and interference. These results offer the opportunity for geneticists and plant breeders to dramatically enhance the generation of diversity in Brassica species by disrupting the linkage drag coming from limits on number and distribution of COs.
Project description:Humulus lupulus (2n = 2x = 20) as a source of hop resins, essential oils and polyphenols has value in brewing, pharmacy and cosmetology. Conventional crossing between tetraploids of 'Sybilla' and diploid males were performed to obtain F1 hybrids. Cytological studies revealed that 83.8% of the hybrids were triploids (2n = 3x = 30), 15.2% were aneuploids in which the chromosome number ranged from 28-32. Tetraploids (2n = 4x = 40) and diploids were also observed, which indicates numerous disturbances of gametogenesis of the parental forms. STS markers specific for male plants showed that females outnumbered male individuals among the F1 hybrids, which is in accordance with the distribution of sex ratio characteristic for diploid hybrids of H. lupulus. Female triploids were compared to the control 'Sybilla' with regard to their functional characteristics and alpha acids content in cones. A two year-long experiment showed that most of the triploids had a significantly higher position of fructiferous branches and shoot twist index compared to diploids of 'Sybilla'. There was also a significantly extended time for them to reach technological maturity of cones. Triploids were distinguished by a significantly lower seed content compared to 'Sybilla', therefore the raw material obtained from them is more suitable for the production of hop pellets and extracts.
Project description:The evolutionary causes and consequences of allopolyploidization, an exceptional pathway to instant hybrid speciation, are poorly investigated in animals. In particular, when and why hybrid polyploids versus diploids are produced, and constraints on sources of paternal and maternal ancestors, remain underexplored. Using the Palearctic green toad radiation (including bisexually reproducing species of three ploidy levels) as model, we generate a range-wide multi-locus phylogeny of 15 taxa and present four new insights: (i) at least five (up to seven) distinct allotriploid and allotetraploid taxa have evolved in the Pleistocene; (ii) all maternal and paternal ancestors of hybrid polyploids stem from two deeply diverged nuclear clades (6 Mya, 3.1-9.6 Mya), with distinctly greater divergence than the parental species of diploid hybrids found at secondary contact zones; (iii) allotriploid taxa possess two conspecific genomes and a deeply diverged allospecific one, suggesting that genomic imbalance and divergence are causal for their partly clonal reproductive mode; (iv) maternal versus paternal genome contributions exhibit asymmetry, with the maternal nuclear (and mitochondrial) genome of polyploids always coming from the same clade, and the paternal genome from the other. We compare our findings with similar patterns in diploid/polyploid vertebrates, and suggest deep ancestral divergence as a precondition for successful allopolyploidization.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Polyploid breeding is a powerful approach for Populus genetic improve-ment because polyploid trees have valuable characteristics, including better timber quality and a higher degree of stress resistance compared with their full-sib diploids. However, the genetic mech-anism underlying this phenomenon remains unknown.<h4>Objective</h4>To better understand the proteomic changes between Populus allotriploids and diploids, we examined the proteomic profiles of allotriploid and diploid Populus by iTRAQ labeling coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry (MS).<h4>Method</h4>iTRAQ labeling coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry (MS).<h4>Results</h4>Between the Populus allotriploid and the full-sib diploid, 932 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified. These DEPs were primarily involved in stress, defense, transportation, transcriptional and/or translational modification, and energy production. The pathway analysis indi-cated that most of the DEPs were implicated in carbohydrate transport and metabolism, nitrogen me-tabolism and glycolysis, and the ribosome assembly pathway. These data suggest high protein di-vergence between Populus allotriploids and diploids, and rapid changes during hybridization.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The results provide new data for further understanding of the mechanisms of polyploid trees that generally display increased height growth compared with their full-sib diploids.
Project description:Hybridization and polyploidization are major driving forces in plant evolution. Allopolyploids can be occasionally formed from a cross between distantly related species but often suffer from chromosome instability and infertility. xBrassicoraphanus is an intergeneric allotetraploid (AARR; 2n = 38) derived from a cross between Brassica rapa (AA; 2n = 20) and Raphanus sativus (RR; 2n = 18). xBrassicoraphanus is fertile and genetically stable, while retaining complete sets of both B. rapa and R. sativus chromosomes. Precise control of meiotic recombination is essential for the production of balanced gametes, and crossovers (COs) must occur exclusively between homologous chromosomes. Many interspecific hybrids have problems with meiotic division at early generations, in which interactions between non-homologous chromosomes often bring about aneuploidy and unbalanced gamete formation. We analyzed meiotic chromosome behaviors in pollen mother cells (PMCs) of allotetraploid and allodiploid F1 individuals of newly synthesized xBrassicoraphanus. Allotetraploid xBrassicoraphanus PMCs showed a normal diploid-like meiotic behavior. By contrast, allodiploid xBrassicoraphanus PMCs displayed abnormal segregation of chromosomes mainly due to the absence of homologous pairs. Notably, during early stages of meiosis I many of allodiploid xBrassicoraphanus chromosomes behave independently with few interactions between B. rapa and R. sativus chromosomes, forming many univalent chromosomes before segregation. Chromosomes were randomly assorted at later stages of meiosis, and tetrads with unequal numbers of chromosomes were formed at completion of meiosis. Immunolocalization of HEI10 protein mediating meiotic recombination revealed that COs were more frequent in synthetic allotetraploid xBrassicoraphanus than in allodiploid, but less than in the stabilized line. These findings suggest that structural dissimilarity between B. rapa and R. sativus chromosomes prevents non-homologous interactions between the parental chromosomes in allotetraploid xBrassicoraphanus, allowing normal diploid-like meiosis when homologous pairing partners are present. This study also suggests that CO suppression between non-homologous chromosomes is required for correct meiotic progression in newly synthesized allopolyploids, which is important for the formation of viable gametes and reproductive success in the hybrid progeny.
Project description:Interspecific hybridization and allopolyploidization contribute to the origin of many important crops. Synthetic Brassica is a widely used model for the study of genetic recombination and "fixed heterosis" in allopolyploids. To investigate the effects of the cytoplasm and genome combinations on meiotic recombination, we produced digenomic diploid and triploid hybrids and trigenomic triploid hybrids from the reciprocal crosses of three Brassica diploids (B. rapa, AA; B. nigra, BB; B. oleracea, CC). The chromosomes in the resultant hybrids were doubled to obtain three allotetraploids (B. juncea, AA.BB; B. napus, AA.CC; B. carinata, BB.CC). Intra- and intergenomic chromosome pairings in these hybrids were quantified using genomic in situ hybridization and BAC-FISH. The level of intra- and intergenomic pairings varied significantly, depending on the genome combinations and the cytoplasmic background and/or their interaction. The extent of intragenomic pairing was less than that of intergenomic pairing within each genome. The extent of pairing variations within the B genome was less than that within the A and C genomes, each of which had a similar extent of pairing. Synthetic allotetraploids exhibited nondiploidized meiotic behavior, and their chromosomal instabilities were correlated with the relationship of the genomes and cytoplasmic background. Our results highlight the specific roles of the cytoplasm and genome to the chromosomal behaviors of hybrids and allopolyploids.
Project description:The young allotetraploid Brassica napus (2n = 38, AACC) is one of models to study genomic responses to allopolyploidization. The extraction of AA component from natural B. napus and then restitution of progenitor B. rapa should provide a unique opportunity to reveal the genome interplay for gene expressions during the evolution. Herein, B. napus hybrids (2n = 19, AC) between the extracted and extant B. rapa (2n = 20, AA) and the same B. oleracea genotype (2n = 18, CC) were studied by RNA-seq and compared with natural B. napus donor, to reveal the gene expression changes from hybridization and domestication and the effects of A genome with different origins. Upon the initial merger of two diploid genomes, additive gene expression was prevalent in these two hybrids, for non-additively expressed genes only represented a small portion of total expressed genes. A high proportion of genes exhibited expression level dominance, with no preference to either of the parental genomes. Comparison of homoeolog expressions also showed no bias toward any genomes and the parental expression patterns were often maintained in the hybrids and natural allotetraploids. Although, the overall patterns of gene expression were highly conserved between two hybrids, the extracted B. rapa responded less and appeared more compatible for hybridization than the extant B. rapa. Our results suggested that expression level dominance and homoeolog expressions bias were balanced at the initial stage of genome merger, and such balance were largely maintained during the domestication of B. napus, despite the increased extent over time.
Project description:Pummelos and hybrids, such as grapefruits, have high furanocoumarin and low flavonoid contents. Furanocoumarins interact negatively with certain drugs, while flavonoids are antioxidant compounds with health benefits. To obtain new grapefruit-like varieties with low furanocoumarin and high flavonoid contents, diploid and triploid hybrid populations from crosses between diploid and tetraploid "Clemenules" clementine and diploid "Pink" pummelo were recovered and analyzed. With regard to furanocoumarins, triploids produce less bergapten, bergamottin and 6,7-DHB than diploids. Regarding flavonoids, triploids yielded more eriocitrin, narirutin, hesperidin and neohesperidin than diploids, whereas no differences were observed in neoeriocitrin and naringin. These results indicate that, the strategy to recover triploid hybrids by 4x × 2x crosses is more appropriate than the recovery of diploid hybrids by 2x × 2x crosses for obtaining grapefruit-like varieties of citrus with lower furanocoumarin and higher flavonoid contents.
Project description:The genus Avena (oats) contains diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid species that evolved through hybridization and polyploidization. Four genome types (named A through D) are generally recognized. We used GBS markers to construct linkage maps of A genome diploid (Avena strigosa x A. wiestii, 2n?=?14), and AB genome tetraploid (A. barbata 2n?=?28) oats. These maps greatly improve coverage from older marker systems. Seven linkage groups in the tetraploid showed much stronger homology and synteny with the A genome diploids than did the other seven, implying an allopolyploid hybrid origin of A. barbata from distinct A and B genome diploid ancestors. Inferred homeologies within A. barbata revealed that the A and B genomes are differentiated by several translocations between chromosomes within each subgenome. However, no translocation exchanges were observed between A and B genomes. Comparison to a consensus map of ACD hexaploid A. sativa (2n?=?42) revealed that the A and D genomes of A. sativa show parallel rearrangements when compared to the A genomes of the diploids and tetraploids. While intergenomic translocations are well known in polyploid Avena, our results are most parsimoniously explained if translocations also occurred in the A, B and D genome diploid ancestors of polyploid Avena.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tragopogon mirus and T. miscellus are allotetraploids (2n = 24) that formed repeatedly during the past 80 years in eastern Washington and adjacent Idaho (USA) following the introduction of the diploids T. dubius, T. porrifolius, and T. pratensis (2n = 12) from Europe. In most natural populations of T. mirus and T. miscellus, there are far fewer 35S rRNA genes (rDNA) of T. dubius than there are of the other diploid parent (T. porrifolius or T. pratensis). We studied the inheritance of parental rDNA loci in allotetraploids resynthesized from diploid accessions. We investigate the dynamics and directionality of these rDNA losses, as well as the contribution of gene copy number variation in the parental diploids to rDNA variation in the derived tetraploids. RESULTS: Using Southern blot hybridization and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), we analyzed copy numbers and distribution of these highly reiterated genes in seven lines of synthetic T. mirus (110 individuals) and four lines of synthetic T. miscellus (71 individuals). Variation among diploid parents accounted for most of the observed gene imbalances detected in F1 hybrids but cannot explain frequent deviations from repeat additivity seen in the allotetraploid lines. Polyploid lineages involving the same diploid parents differed in rDNA genotype, indicating that conditions immediately following genome doubling are crucial for rDNA changes. About 19% of the resynthesized allotetraploid individuals had equal rDNA contributions from the diploid parents, 74% were skewed towards either T. porrifolius or T. pratensis-type units, and only 7% had more rDNA copies of T. dubius-origin compared to the other two parents. Similar genotype frequencies were observed among natural populations. Despite directional reduction of units, the additivity of 35S rDNA locus number is maintained in 82% of the synthetic lines and in all natural allotetraploids. CONCLUSIONS: Uniparental reductions of homeologous rRNA gene copies occurred in both synthetic and natural populations of Tragopogon allopolyploids. The extent of these rDNA changes was generally higher in natural populations than in the synthetic lines. We hypothesize that locus-specific and chromosomal changes in early generations of allopolyploids may influence patterns of rDNA evolution in later generations.
Project description:Although polyploidy is considered a ubiquitous process in plants, the establishment of new polyploid species may be hindered by ecological competition with parental diploid taxa. In such cases, the adaptive processes that result in the ecological divergence of diploids and polyploids can lead to their co-existence. In contrast, non-adaptive processes can lead to the co-existence of diploids and polyploids or to differentiated distributions, particularly when the minority cytotype disadvantage effect comes into play. Although large-scale studies of cytotype distributions have been widely conducted, the segregation of sympatric cytotypes on fine scales has been poorly studied. We analysed the spatial distribution and ecological requirements of the tetraploid Centaurea seridis and the diploid Centaurea aspera in east Spain on a large scale, and also microspatially in contact zones where both species hybridise and give rise to sterile triploid hybrids. On the fine scale, the position of each Centaurea individual was recorded along with soil parameters, accompanying species cover and plant richness. On the east Spanish coast, a slight latitudinal gradient was found. Tetraploid C. seridis individuals were located northerly and diploid C. aspera individuals southerly. Tetraploids were found only in the habitats with strong anthropogenic disturbance. In disturbed locations with well-developed semi-fixed or fixed dunes, diploids and tetraploids could co-exist and hybridise. However, on a fine scale, although taxa were spatially segregated in contact zones, they were not ecologically differentiated. This finding suggests the existence of non-adaptive processes that have led to their co-existence. Triploid hybrids were closer to diploid allogamous mothers (C. aspera) than to tetraploid autogamous fathers (C. seridis). This may result in a better ability to compete for space in the tetraploid minor cytotype, which might facilitate its long-term persistence.