ABSTRACT: The involvement of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in the neurodegenerative disease, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD), has received wide consideration, however, outcomes from several researches have not shown consistency. In this study, we determined whether RF-EMF influenced AD pathology in vivo using Tg-5xFAD mice as a model of AD-like amyloid ? (A?) pathology. The transgenic (Tg)-5xFAD and wild type (WT) mice were chronically exposed to RF-EMF for 8 months (1950 MHz, SAR 5W/kg, 2 hrs/day, 5 days/week). Notably, chronic RFEMF exposure significantly reduced not only A? plaques, APP, and APP carboxyl-terminal fragments (CTFs) in whole brain including hippocampus and entorhinal cortex but also the ratio of A?42 and A?40 peptide in the hippocampus of Tg-5xFAD mice. We also found that parenchymal expression of ?-amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1(BACE1) and neuroinflammation were inhibited by RF-EMF exposure in Tg-5xFAD. In addition, RF-EMF was shown to rescue memory impairment in Tg-5xFAD. Moreover, gene profiling from microarray data using hippocampus of WT and Tg- 5xFAD following RF-EMF exposure revealed that 5 genes (Tshz2, Gm12695, St3gal1, Isx and Tll1), which are involved in A?, are significantly altered inTg-5xFAD mice, exhibiting different responses to RF-EMF in WT or Tg-5xFAD mice; RF-EMF exposure in WT mice showed similar patterns to control Tg-5xFAD mice, however, RF-EMF exposure in Tg- 5xFAD mice showed opposite expression patterns. These findings indicate that chronic RF-EMF exposure directly affects A? pathology in AD but not in normal brain. Therefore, RF-EMF has preventive effects against AD-like pathology in advanced AD mice with a high expression of A?, which suggests that RF-EMF can have a beneficial influence on AD.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease leading to progressive loss of memory and other cognitive functions. One of the well-known pathological markers of AD is the accumulation of amyloid-beta protein (A?), and its plaques, in the brain. Recent studies using Tg-5XFAD mice as a model of AD have reported that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from cellular phones reduced A? plaques in the brain and showed beneficial effects on AD. In this study, we examined whether exposure to 1950 MHz RF-EMF affects A? processing in neural cells. We exposed HT22 mouse hippocampal neuronal cells and SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells to RF-EMF (SAR 6 W/kg) for 2 h per day for 3 days, and analyzed the mRNA and protein expression of the key genes related to A? processing. When exposed to RF-EMF, mRNA levels of APP, BACE1, ADAM10 and PSEN1 were decreased in HT22, but the mRNA level of APP was not changed in SH-SY5Y cells. The protein expression of APP and BACE1, as well as the secreted A? peptide, was not significantly different between RF-EMF-exposed 7w-PSML, HT22 and SH-SY5Y cells and the unexposed controls. These observations suggest that RF-EMF exposure may not have a significant physiological effect on A? processing of neural cells in the short term. However, considering that we only exposed HT22 and SH-SY5Y cells to RF-EMF for 2 h per day for 3 days, we cannot exclude the possibility that 1950 MHz RF-EMF induces physiological change in A? processing with long-term and continuous exposure.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. In this study, to investigate the effect of microglial elimination on AD progression, we administered PLX3397, a selective colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor, to the mouse model of AD (5xFAD mice). Amyloid-beta (A?) deposition and amyloid precursor protein (APP), carboxyl-terminal fragment ?, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1, synaptophysin, and postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 levels were evaluated in the cortex and hippocampus. In addition, the receptor density changes in dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 were evaluated using positron emission tomography (PET). D2R, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and dopamine transporter (DAT) levels were analyzed in the brains of Tg (5xFAD) mice using immunohistochemistry. PLX3397 administration significantly decreased A? deposition following microglial depletion in the cortex and hippocampus of Tg mice. In the neuro-PET studies, the binding values for D2R in the Tg mice were lower than those in the wild type mice; however, after PLX3397 treatment, the binding dramatically increased. PLX3397 administration also reversed the changes in synaptophysin and PSD-95 expression in the brain. Furthermore, the D2R and TH expression in the brains of Tg mice was significantly lower than that in the wild type; however, after PLX3397 administration, the D2R and TH levels were significantly higher than those in untreated Tg mice. Thus, our findings show that administering PLX3397 to aged 5xFAD mice could prevent amyloid pathology, concomitant with the rescue of dopaminergic signaling, suggesting that targeting microglia may serve as a useful therapeutic option for neurodegenerative diseases, including AD.
Project description:High-fat diet (HFD) has been shown to accelerate Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, but the exact molecular and cellular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Moreover, it is unknown whether AD mice are more susceptible to HFD-induced metabolic dysfunctions. To address these questions, we used 5xFAD mice as an Alzheimer's disease model to study the physiological and molecular underpinning between HFD-induced metabolic defects and AD pathology. We systematically profiled the metabolic parameters, the gut microbiome composition, and hippocampal gene expression in 5xFAD and wild type (WT) mice fed normal chow diet and HFD. HFD feeding impaired energy metabolism in male 5xFAD mice, leading to increased locomotor activity, energy expenditure, and food intake. 5xFAD mice on HFD had elevated circulating lipids and worsened glucose intolerance. HFD caused profound changes in gut microbiome compositions, though no difference between genotype was detected. We measured hippocampal mRNAs related to AD neuropathology and neuroinflammation and showed that HFD elevated the expression of apoptotic, microglial, and amyloidogenic genes in 5xFAD mice. Pathway analysis revealed that differentially regulated genes were involved in insulin signaling, cytokine signaling, cellular stress, and neurotransmission. Collectively, our results showed that 5xFAD mice were more susceptible to HFD-induced metabolic dysregulation and suggest that targeting metabolic dysfunctions can ameliorate AD symptoms via effects on insulin signaling and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus.
Project description:Increasing evidence suggests a potential therapeutic benefit of vitamin D supplementation against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although studies have shown improvements in cognitive performance and decreases in markers of the pathology after chronic treatment, the mechanisms by which vitamin D acts on brain cells are multiple and remain to be thoroughly studied. We analyzed the molecular changes observed after 5 months of vitamin D3 supplementation in the brains of transgenic 5xFAD (Tg) mice, a recognized mouse model of AD, and their wild type (Wt) littermates. We first performed a kinematic behavioural examination at 4, 6 and 8 months of age (M4, M6 and M8) followed by a histologic assessment of AD markers. We then performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of mRNA regulation in the neocortex and hippocampus of 9 months old (M9) female mice.Transcriptomic analysis of the hippocampus and neocortex of both Wt and Tg mice at M9, following 5 months of vitamin D3 treatment, reveals a large panel of dysregulated pathways related to i) immune and inflammatory response, ii) neurotransmitter activity, iii) endothelial and vascular processes and iv) hormonal alterations. The differentially expressed genes are not all direct targets of the vitamin D-VDR pathway and it appears that vitamin D action engages in the crosstalk with estrogen and insulin signaling. The misexpression of the large number of genes observed in this study translates into improved learning and memory performance and a decrease in amyloid plaques and astrogliosis in Tg animals.This study underlies the multiplicity of action of this potent neurosteroid in an aging and AD-like brain. The classical and non-classical actions of vitamin D3 can act in an additive and possibly synergistic manner to induce neuroprotective activities in a context-specific way.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder associated with cognitive impairment and later dementia among the elderly. Mounting evidence shows that adverse maternal environments during the fetal development increase the risk of diseases later in life including neurological disorders, and suggests an early origin in the development of AD-related dementia (ADRD) in utero. In the present study, we investigated the impact of antenatal hypoxia and fetal stress on the initiation of AD-related pathology in offspring of 5xFAD mice. We showed that fetal hypoxia significantly reduced brain and body weight in the fetal and the early postnatal period, which recovered in young adult mice. Using spontaneous Y-maze, novel object recognition (NOR), and open field (OF) tasks, we found that antenatal hypoxia exacerbated cognitive decline in offspring of 5xFAD compared with normoxia control. Of interest, fetal hypoxia did not alter intraneuronal soluble amyloid-? (A?) oligomer accumulation in the cortex and hippocampus in 5xFAD mouse offspring, indicating that antenatal hypoxia increased the vulnerability of the brain to synaptotoxic A? in the disease onset later in life. Consistent with the early occurrence of cognitive decline, we found synapse loss but not neuronal death in the cerebral cortex in 5xFAD but not wild-type (WT) offspring exposed to antenatal hypoxia. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that antenatal hypoxia significantly increased microglial number and activation, and reactive astrogliosis in the cerebral cortex in WT offspring. Moreover, antenatal hypoxia resulted in an exacerbated increase of microgliosis and astrogliosis in the early stage of AD in 5xFAD offspring. Together, our study reveals a causative link between fetal stress and the accelerated onset of AD-related pathology, and provides mechanistic insights into the developmental origin of aging-related neurodegenerative disorders.
Project description:It is widely known that the degeneration of neural circuits is prominent in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The reciprocal connectivity of the medial septum (MS) and hippocampus, which constitutes the septo-hippocampo-septal (SHS) loop, is known to be associated with learning and memory. Despite the importance of the reciprocal projections between the MS and hippocampus in AD, the alteration of bidirectional connectivity between two structures has not yet been investigated at the mesoscale level. In this study, we adopted AD animal model, five familial AD mutations (5XFAD) mice, and anterograde and retrograde tracers, BDA and DiI, respectively, to visualize the pathology-related changes in topographical connectivity of the SHS loop in the 5XFAD brain. By comparing 4.5-month-old and 14-month-old 5XFAD mice, we successfully identified key circuit components of the SHS loop altered in 5XFAD brains. Remarkably, the SHS loop began to degenerate in 4.5-month-old 5XFAD mice before the onset of neuronal loss. The impairment of connectivity between the MS and hippocampus was accelerated in 14-month-old 5XFAD mice. These results demonstrate, for the first time, topographical evidence for the degradation of the interconnection between the MS and hippocampus at the mesoscale level in a mouse model of AD. Our results provide structural and functional insights into the interconnectivity of the MS and hippocampus, which will inform the use and development of various therapeutic approaches that target neural circuits for the treatment of AD.
Project description:Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an enzyme expressed mostly by neutrophils and is a primary mediator of neutrophils oxidative stress response. While a profound body of evidence associates neutrophil-derived MPO in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), this role has not been assessed in an animal model of AD. Here, we produced hematologic chimerism in the 5XFAD mouse model of AD, with MPO deficient mice, resulting in 5XFAD with hematologic MPO deficiency (5XFAD-MPO KO). Behavioral examinations of 5XFAD-MPO KO showed significant superior performance in spatial learning and memory, associative learning, and anxiety/risk assessment behavior, as compared to 5XFAD mice transplanted with WT cells (5XFAD-WT). Hippocampal immunohistochemical and mRNA expression analyses showed significantly reduced levels of inflammatory mediators in 5XFAD-MPO KO mice with no apparent differences in the numbers of amyloid-? plaques. In addition, immunoblotting and mRNA analyses showed significantly reduced levels of APOE in 5XFAD-MPO KO. Together, these results indicate a substantial involvement of neutrophil-derived MPO in the pathology of 5XFAD model of AD and suggest MPO as a potential therapeutic target in AD.
Project description:Induction of TLR2 activation depends on its association with the adapter protein MyD88. We have found that TLR2 and MyD88 levels are elevated in the hippocampus and cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in a 5XFAD mouse model of AD. Since there is no specific inhibitor of TLR2, to target induced TLR2 from a therapeutic angle, we engineered a peptide corresponding to the TLR2-interacting domain of MyD88 (TIDM) that binds to the BB loop of only TLR2, and not other TLRs. Interestingly, WT TIDM peptide inhibited microglial activation induced by fibrillar A?1-42 and lipoteichoic acid, but not 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, dsRNA, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, flagellin, or CpG DNA. After intranasal administration, WT TIDM peptide reached the hippocampus, reduced hippocampal glial activation, lowered A? burden, attenuated neuronal apoptosis, and improved memory and learning in 5XFAD mice. However, WT TIDM peptide was not effective in 5XFAD mice lacking TLR2. In addition to its effects in 5XFAD mice, WT TIDM peptide also suppressed the disease process in mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and collagen-induced arthritis. Therefore, selective targeting of the activated status of 1 component of the innate immune system by WT TIDM peptide may be beneficial in AD as well as other disorders in which TLR2/MyD88 signaling plays a role in disease pathogenesis.
Project description:Purpose.18F-FC119S is a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for imaging ?-amyloid (A?) plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 18F-FC119S in quantitating A? deposition in a mouse model of early amyloid deposition (5xFAD) by PET. Method. Dynamic 18F-FC119S PET images were obtained in 5xFAD (n = 5) and wild-type (WT) mice (n = 7). The brain PET images were spatially normalized to the M. Mirrione T2-weighted mouse brain MR template, and the volumes of interest were then automatically drawn on the cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and cerebellum. The specific binding of 18F-FC119S to A? was quantified as the distribution volume ratio using Logan graphical analysis with the cerebellum as a reference tissue. The A? levels in the brain were also confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Result. For the 5xFAD group, radioactivity levels in the cortex, the hippocampus, and the thalamus were higher than those for the WT group. In these regions, specific binding was approximately 1.2-fold higher in 5xFAD mice than in WT. Immunohistochemistry supported these findings; the 5xFAD showed severe A? deposition in the cortex and hippocampus in contrast to the WT group. Conclusion. These results demonstrated that 18F-FC119S PET can successfully distinguish A? depositions in 5xFAD mice from WT.
Project description:Oxidative stress, particularly of mitochondrial origin, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Controversies regarding the responses of tau phosphorylation state to various stimuli causing oxidative stress have been reported. Here we investigated the effect of 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP), a mitochondrial toxin which induces oxidative stress, on the tangle-pathology in our previously generated double mutant (E257T/P301S, DM) -Tau-tg mice and in WT-mice. We detected an increase in tangle pathology in the hippocampus and cortex of the DM-Tau-tg mice following exposure of the mice to the toxin, as well as generation of tangles in WT-mice. This increase was accompanied with alterations in the level of the glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?), the kinase which phosphorylates the tau protein, and in the phosphorylation state of this kinase. A response of microglial cells was noticed. These results point to the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of the tangle-pathology and may suggest that interfering with mitochondrial dysfunction may have an anti-tangle therapeutic potential.