The Hybrid Strategy of Thermoactinospora rubra YIM 77501T for Utilizing Cellulose as a Carbon Source at Different Temperatures.
ABSTRACT: Thermoactinospora rubra YIM 77501T is an aerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming and cellulose degrading thermophilic actinomycete isolated from a sandy soil sample of a volcano. Its growth temperature range is 28-60°C. The genomic sequence of this strain revealed that there are 27 cellulase genes belonging to six glycoside hydrolase families. To understand the strategy that this strain uses to utilize carbon sources such as cellulose at different temperatures, comparative transcriptomics analysis of T. rubra YIM 77501T was performed by growing it with cellulose (CMC) and without cellulose (replaced with glucose) at 30, 40, and 50°C, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses showed four cellulase genes (TrBG2, TrBG3, TrBG4, and ThrCel6B) were up-regulated at 30, 40, and 50°C. The rate of gene expression of TrBG2, TrBG3, TrBG4, and ThrCel6B were 50°C > 30°C > 40°C. One cellulase gene (TrBG1) and two cellulase genes (TrBG5 and ThrCel6A) were up-regulated only at 30 and 50°C, respectively. These up-regulated cellulase genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzymatic properties of up-regulated cellulases showed a variety of responses to temperature. Special up-regulated cellulases TrBG1 and ThrCel6A displayed temperature acclimation for each growth condition. These expression patterns revealed that a hybrid strategy was used by T. rubra to utilize carbon sources at different temperatures. This study provides genomic, transcriptomics, and experimental data useful for understanding how microorganisms respond to environmental changes and their application in enhancing cellulose hydrolysis for animal feed and bioenergy production.
Project description:The bioconversion of lignocellulose in various industrial processes, such as biofuel production, requires the degradation of cellulose. Actinomadura amylolytica YIM 77502T is an aerobic, Gram-positive actinomycete that can efficiently degrade crystalline cellulose by extracellular cellulases. Genomic analysis of A. amylolytica identified 9 cellulase and 11 ?-glucosidase genes that could potentially encode proteins that digest cellulose. Extracellular proteome characterization of A. amylolytica cell-free culture supernatant by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed that 4 of these cellulases and 2 of these ?-glucosidases functioned during cellulose hydrolysis. Thin-layer chromatography analysis revealed extracellular ?-glucosidases play a major role in carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) degradation of products in culture supernatants. In this study, 2 of the identified secreted ?-glucosidases, AaBGL1 and AaBGL2, were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and found to have ?-glucosidase activity with wide substrate specificities, including for p-nitrophenyl ?-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG), p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-cellobioside (pNPC), and cellobiose. Moreover, AaBGL1 and AaBGL2 had high tolerances for glucose. After adding these ?-glucosidases to commercial cellulases, the degradation rates of CMC, Avicel, birch sawdust, and corncob powder increased by 37, 42, 33, and 9%, respectively. Overall, this work identifies an alternative potential source of ?-glucosidases with potential applications in commercial cellulose utilization and the bioenergy industry.
Project description:The intestinal flagellates of termites produce cellulases that contribute to cellulose digestion of their host termites. However, 75% of all termite species do not harbour the cellulolytic flagellates; the endogenous cellulase secreted from the midgut tissue has been considered a sole source of cellulases in these termites. Using the xylophagous flagellate-free termites Nasutitermes takasagoensis and Nasutitermes walkeri, we successfully solubilized cellulases present in the hindgut pellets. Zymograms showed that the hindguts of these termites possessed several cellulases and contained up to 59% cellulase activity against crystalline cellulose when compared with the midgut. Antibiotic treatment administered to N. takasagoensis significantly reduced cellulase activity in the hindgut, suggesting that these cellulases were produced by symbiotic bacteria.
Project description:The substrate specificities of three cellulases and a beta-glucosidase purified from Thermoascus aurantiacus were examined. All three cellulases partially degraded native cellulose. Cellulase I, but not cellulase II and cellulase III, readily hydrolyzed the mixed beta-1,3; beta-1,6-polysaccharides such as carboxymethyl-pachyman, yeast glucan and laminarin. Both cellulase I and the beta-glucosidase degraded xylan, and it is proposed that the xylanase activity is an inherent feature of these two enzymes. Lichenin (beta-1,4; beta-1,3) was degraded by all three cellulases. Cellulase II cannot degrade carboxymethyl-cellulose, and with filter paper as substrate the end product was cellobiose, which indicates that cellulase II is an exo-beta-1,4-glucan cellobiosylhydrolase. Degradation of cellulose (filter paper) can be catalysed independently by each of the three cellulases; there was no synergistic effect between any of the cellulases, and cellobiose was the principal product of degradation. The mode of action of one cellulase (cellulase III) was examined by using reduced cellulodextrins. The central linkages of the cellulodextrins were the preferred points of cleavage, which, with the rapid decrease in viscosity of carboxymethyl-cellulose, confirmed that cellulase III was an endocellulase. The rate of hydrolysis increased with chain length of the reduced cellulodextrins, and these kinetic data indicated that the specificity region of cellulase III was five or six glucose units in length.
Project description:Three cellulases and a beta-glucosidase were purified from the culture filtrate of the thermophilic fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus. The isolated enzymes were all homogeneous on polyacrylamide-disc-gel electrophoresis. Data from chromatography on Bio-Gel P-60 and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis indicated mol.wts. of 87000 (beta-glucosidase), 78000 (cellulase I), 49000 (cellulase II) and 34000 (cellulase III); the carbohydrate contents of the enzymes were 33.0, 5.5, 2.6 and 1.8% (w/w) respectively. Although the three purified cellulases were active towards filter paper, only cellulases I and III were active towards CM(carboxymethyl)-cellulose. Cellulase I was also active towards yeast glucan. The Km and catalytic-centre-activity values for the enzymes were as follows; 0.52 mumol/ml and 6.5 X 10(4) for beta-glucosidase on p-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucoside, 3.9 mg/ml and 6.3 for cellulase I on CM-cellulose, 1.2 mg/ml and 1.1 for cellulase I on yeast glucan, 35.5 mg/ml and 0.34 for cellulase II on filter paper, and 1.9 mg/ml and 33 for cellulase III on CM-cellulose.
Project description:Background:Surfactants have attracted increasing interest for their capability to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Compared to chemical surfactants, biosurfactants have a broader prospect for industrial applications because they are more environmentally friendly and more effective in some researches. Commercial cellulase preparations are mainly composed of endoglucanases (EGs) and cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) that possess carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). However, the effects of lipopeptide-type biosurfactants on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose and adsorption behaviors of cellulases with CBMs remain unclear. Results:In this study, we found that Bacillus sp. W112 could produce a lipopeptide-type biosurfactant from untreated biomass, such as wheat bran and Jerusalem artichoke tuber. The lipopeptide could enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated Giant Juncao grass (DA-GJG) by fungal and bacterial enzymes. The enhancement increased over a range of temperatures from 30 to 50 °C. Lipopeptide was shown to be more effective in promoting DA-GJG saccharification than chemical surfactants at low dosages, with a best stimulatory degree of 20.8% at 2% loading of the substrates (w/w). Lipopeptide increased the thermostability of EG and CBH in commercial cellulase cocktails. Moreover, the dual effects of lipopeptide on the adsorption behaviors of cellulases were found. It specifically lowered the non-productive binding of cellulases to lignin and increased the binding of cellulases to cellulose. In addition, we investigated the influence of lipopeptide on the adsorption behaviors of CBHs with CBMs for the first time. Our results showed that lipopeptide reduced the adsorption of CBM-deleted CBH to DA-GJG to a greater extent than that of intact CBH while the non-productive binding of intact CBH to lignin was reduced more, indicating that lipopeptide decreased the binding of CBMs onto lignin but not their combination with cellulose. Conclusions:In this study, we found that lipopeptide from Bacillus sp. W112 promoted the enzymatic hydrolysis of DA-GJG at relative low loadings. The stimulatory effect could be attributed to increasing the cellulase thermostability, reducing non-productive adsorption of cellulases with CBMs caused by lignin and enhancing the binding of cellulases to cellulose.
Project description:Cellulose degrading enzymes have important functions in the biotechnology industry, including the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Anaerobes including Clostridium species organize cellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases into large complexes known as cellulosomes. In contrast, aerobic actinobacteria utilize systems comprised of independently acting enzymes, often with carbohydrate binding domains. Numerous actinobacterial genomes have become available through the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project. We identified putative cellulose-degrading enzymes belonging to families GH5, GH6, GH8, GH9, GH12, GH48, and GH51 in the genomes of eleven members of the actinobacteria. The eleven organisms were tested in several assays for cellulose degradation, and eight of the organisms showed evidence of cellulase activity. The three with the highest cellulase activity were Actinosynnema mirum, Cellulomonas flavigena, and Xylanimonas cellulosilytica. Cellobiose is known to induce cellulolytic enzymes in the model organism Thermobifida fusca, but only Nocardiopsis dassonvillei showed higher cellulolytic activity in the presence of cellobiose. In T. fusca, cellulases and a putative cellobiose ABC transporter are regulated by the transcriptional regulator CelR. Nine organisms appear to use the CelR site or a closely related binding site to regulate an ABC transporter. In some, CelR also regulates cellulases, while cellulases are controlled by different regulatory sites in three organisms. Mining of genome data for cellulose degradative enzymes followed by experimental verification successfully identified several actinobacteria species which were not previously known to degrade cellulose as cellulolytic organisms.
Project description:Members of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor have the ability to deconstruct and grow on lignocellulosic biomass without conventional pretreatment. A genetically tractable species, Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, was recently engineered to produce ethanol directly from switchgrass. C. bescii contains more than 50 glycosyl hydrolases and a suite of extracellular enzymes for biomass deconstruction, most prominently CelA, a multidomain cellulase that uses a novel mechanism to deconstruct plant biomass. Accumulation of cellobiose, a product of CelA during growth on biomass, inhibits cellulase activity. Here, we show that heterologous expression of a cellobiose phosphorylase from Thermotoga maritima improves the phosphorolytic pathway in C. bescii and results in synergistic activity with endogenous enzymes, including CelA, to increase cellulolytic activity and growth on crystalline cellulose.IMPORTANCE CelA is the only known cellulase to function well on highly crystalline cellulose and it uses a mechanism distinct from those of other cellulases, including fungal cellulases. Also unlike fungal cellulases, it functions at high temperature and, in fact, outperforms commercial cellulase cocktails. Factors that inhibit CelA during biomass deconstruction are significantly different than those that impact the performance of fungal cellulases and commercial mixtures. This work contributes to understanding of cellulase inhibition and enzyme function and will suggest a rational approach to engineering optimal activity.
Project description:Background:The increasing interest in replacing petroleum-based products by more sustainable materials in the packaging sector gives relevance to cellulose as a biodegradable natural resource. Moreover, its properties can be modified physically, chemically or biotechnologically in order to obtain new bioproducts. Refined cotton linters with high cellulose content were treated with hydrolytic (cellulases) and oxidative (LPMO and Laccase_Tempo) enzymes to evaluate their effect on fibre properties and in improving mechanical fibrillation. Results:Cellulases released cellooligosaccharides, reducing fibre length and partially degrading cellulose. They also improved mechanical fibrillation yielding up to 18% of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). LPMO introduced a slight amount of COOH groups in cellulose fibres, releasing cellobionic acid to the effluents. The action of cellulases was improved after LPMO treatment; however, the COOH groups created disappeared from fibres. After mechanical fibrillation of LPMO-cellulase-treated cotton linters a 23% yield of NFC was obtained. Laccase_Tempo treatment also introduced COOH groups in cellulose fibres from cotton, yielding 10% of NFC. Degree of polymerization was reduced by Laccase_Tempo, while LPMO treatment did not significantly affect it but produced a higher reduction in fibre length. The combined treatment with LPMO and cellulase provided films with higher transparency (86%), crystallinity (92%), smoothness and improved barrier properties to air and water than films casted from non-treated linters and from commercial NFC. Conclusions:The combined enzymatic treatment with LPMO and cellulases boosted mechanical fibrillation of cotton linters, improving the NFC production and providing bioproducts with high transparency and high barrier properties.
Project description:The common sea hare Aplysia kurodai is known to be a good source for the enzymes degrading seaweed polysaccharides. Recently four cellulases, i.e., 95, 66, 45, and 21 kDa enzymes, were isolated from A. kurodai (Tsuji et al., 2013). The former three cellulases were regarded as glycosyl-hydrolase-family 9 (GHF9) enzymes, while the 21 kDa cellulase was suggested to be a GHF45 enzyme. The 21 kDa cellulase was significantly heat stable, and appeared to be advantageous in performing heterogeneous expression and protein-engineering study. In the present study, we determined some enzymatic properties of the 21 kDa cellulase and cloned its cDNA to provide the basis for the protein engineering study of this cellulase. The purified 21 kDa enzyme, termed AkEG21 in the present study, hydrolyzed carboxymethyl cellulose with an optimal pH and temperature at 4.5 and 40°C, respectively. AkEG21 was considerably heat-stable, i.e., it was not inactivated by the incubation at 55°C for 30 min. AkEG21 degraded phosphoric-acid-swollen cellulose producing cellotriose and cellobiose as major end products but hardly degraded oligosaccharides smaller than tetrasaccharide. This indicated that AkEG21 is an endolytic ?-1,4-glucanase (EC 188.8.131.52). A cDNA of 1013 bp encoding AkEG21 was amplified by PCR and the amino-acid sequence of 197 residues was deduced. The sequence comprised the initiation Met, the putative signal peptide of 16 residues for secretion and the catalytic domain of 180 residues, which lined from the N-terminus in this order. The sequence of the catalytic domain showed 47-62% amino-acid identities to those of GHF45 cellulases reported in other mollusks. Both the catalytic residues and the N-glycosylation residues known in other GHF45 cellulases were conserved in AkEG21. Phylogenetic analysis for the amino-acid sequences suggested the close relation between AkEG21 and fungal GHF45 cellulases.
Project description:The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is a model laboratory organism, but in nature is commonly found growing on dead plant material, particularly grasses. Using functional genomics resources available for N. crassa, which include a near-full genome deletion strain set and whole genome microarrays, we undertook a system-wide analysis of plant cell wall and cellulose degradation. We identified approximately 770 genes that showed expression differences when N. crassa was cultured on ground Miscanthus stems as a sole carbon source. An overlap set of 114 genes was identified from expression analysis of N. crassa grown on pure cellulose. Functional annotation of up-regulated genes showed enrichment for proteins predicted to be involved in plant cell wall degradation, but also many genes encoding proteins of unknown function. As a complement to expression data, the secretome associated with N. crassa growth on Miscanthus and cellulose was determined using a shotgun proteomics approach. Over 50 proteins were identified, including 10 of the 23 predicted N. crassa cellulases. Strains containing deletions in genes encoding 16 proteins detected in both the microarray and mass spectrometry experiments were analyzed for phenotypic changes during growth on crystalline cellulose and for cellulase activity. While growth of some of the deletion strains on cellulose was severely diminished, other deletion strains produced higher levels of extracellular proteins that showed increased cellulase activity. These results show that the powerful tools available in N. crassa allow for a comprehensive system level understanding of plant cell wall degradation mechanisms used by a ubiquitous filamentous fungus.