Simvastatin-induced sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 expression is KLF2-dependent in human lung endothelial cells.
ABSTRACT: We have demonstrated that simvastatin and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) both attenuate increased vascular permeability in preclinical models of acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. As Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) serves as a critical regulator for cellular stress response in endothelial cells (EC), we hypothesized that simvastatin enhances endothelial barrier function via increasing expression of the barrier-promoting S1P receptor, S1PR1, via a KLF2-dependent mechanism. S1PR1 luciferase reporter promoter activity in human lung artery EC (HPAEC) was tested after simvastatin (5??M), and S1PR1 and KLF2 protein expression detected by immunoblotting. In vivo, transcription and expression of S1PR1 and KLF2 in mice lungs were detected by microarray profiling and immunoblotting after exposure to simvastatin (10?mg/kg). Endothelial barrier function was measured by trans-endothelial electrical resistance with the S1PR1 agonist FTY720-(S)-phosphonate. Both S1PR1 and KLF2 gene expression (mRNA, protein) were significantly increased by simvastatin in vitro and in vivo. S1PR1 promoter activity was significantly increased by simvastatin (P?
Project description:The breakdown of the endothelial cell (EC) barrier contributes significantly to sepsis mortality. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is one of the most effective EC barrier-stabilizing signaling molecules. Stabilization is mainly transduced via the S1P receptor type 1 (S1PR1). Here, we demonstrate that S1P was autonomously produced by ECs. S1P secretion was significantly higher in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) compared to the endothelial cell line EA.hy926. Constitutive barrier stability of HUVEC, but not EA.hy926, was significantly compromised by the S1PR1 antagonist W146 and by the anti-S1P antibody Sphingomab. HUVEC and EA.hy926 differed in the expression of the S1P-transporter Spns2, which allowed HUVEC, but not EA.hy926, to secrete S1P into the extracellular space. Spns2 deficient mice showed increased serum albumin leakage in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Lung ECs isolated from Spns2 deficient mice revealed increased leakage of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled dextran and decreased resistance in electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) measurements. Spns2 was down-regulated in HUVEC after stimulation with pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which contributed to destabilization of the EC barrier. Our work suggests a new mechanism for barrier integrity maintenance. Secretion of S1P by EC via Spns2 contributed to constitutive EC barrier maintenance, which was disrupted under inflammatory conditions via the down-regulation of the S1P-transporter Spns2.
Project description:Endothelial cell (EC) barrier dysfunction induced by inflammatory agonists is a frequent pathophysiologic event in multiple diseases. The platelet-derived phospholipid sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) reverses this dysfunction by potently enhancing the EC barrier through a process involving Rac GTPase-dependent cortical actin rearrangement as an integral step. In this study we explored the role of the ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) family of actin-binding linker protein in modulating S1P-induced human pulmonary EC barrier enhancement. S1P induces ERM translocation to the EC periphery and promotes ERM phosphorylation on a critical threonine residue (Ezrin-567, Radixin-564, Moesin-558). This phosphorylation is dependent on activation of PKC isoforms and Rac1. The majority of ERM phosphorylation on these critical threonine residues after S1P occurs in moesin and ezrin. Baseline radixin phosphorylation is higher than in the other two ERM proteins but does not increase after S1P. S1P-induced moesin and ezrin threonine phosphorylation is not mediated by the barrier enhancing receptor S1PR1 because siRNA downregulation of S1PR1 fails to inhibit these phosphorylation events, while stimulation of EC with the S1PR1-specific agonist SEW2871 fails to induce these phosphorylation events. Silencing of either all ERM proteins or radixin alone (but not moesin alone) reduced S1P-induced Rac1 activation and phosphorylation of the downstream Rac1 effector PAK1. Radixin siRNA alone, or combined siRNA for all three ERM proteins, dramatically attenuates S1P-induced EC barrier enhancement (measured by transendothelial electrical resistance (TER), peripheral accumulation of di-phospho-MLC, and cortical cytoskeletal rearrangement. In contrast, moesin depletion has the opposite effects on these parameters. Ezrin silencing partially attenuates S1P-induced EC barrier enhancement and cytoskeletal changes. Thus, despite structural similarities and reported functional redundancy, the ERM proteins differentially modulate S1P-induced alterations in lung EC cytoskeleton and permeability. These results suggest that ERM activation is an important regulatory event in EC barrier responses to S1P.
Project description:<b>Aims:</b> Pathological cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy are common features of left ventricular remodeling that often progress to heart failure (HF). Endothelial cells (ECs) are the most abundant non-myocyte cells in adult mouse heart. Simvastatin, a strong inducer of Krüppel-like Factor 2 (Klf2) in ECs, ameliorates pressure overload induced maladaptive cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. This study aims to explore the detailed molecular mechanisms of the anti-remodeling effects of simvastatin. <b>Methods and Results:</b> RGD-magnetic-nanoparticles were used to endothelial specific delivery of siRNA and we found absence of simvastatin's protective effect on pressure overload induced maladaptive cardiac remodeling and dysfunction after <i>in vivo</i> inhibition of EC-Klf2. Mechanism studies showed that EC-Klf2 inhibition reversed the simvastatin-mediated reduction of fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast formation, as well as cardiomyocyte size and cardiac hypertrophic genes, which suggested that EC-Klf2 might mediate the anti-fibrotic and anti-hypertrophy effects of simvastatin. Similar effects were observed after Klf2 inhibition in cultured ECs. Moreover, Klf2 regulated its direct target gene TGF?1 in ECs and mediated the protective effects of simvastatin, and inhibition of EC-Klf2 increased the expression of EC-TGF?1 leading to simvastatin losing its protective effects. Also, EC-Klf2 was found to regulate EC-Foxp1 and loss of EC-Foxp1 attenuated the protective effects of simvastatin similar to EC-Klf2 inhibition. <b>Conclusions:</b> We conclude that cardiac microvasculature ECs are important in the modulation of pressure overload induced maladaptive cardiac remodeling and dysfunction, and the endothelial Klf2-TGF?1 or Klf2-Foxp1-TGF?1 pathway mediates the preventive effects of simvastatin. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism of the non-cholesterol lowering effects of simvastatin for HF prevention.
Project description:Mechanical forces generated through adhesive interaction of endothelial cells (EC) influence nuclear envelope and thereby gene transcription. Alteration in EC mechanical forces may trigger aberrant gene transcription leading to lethal vascular diseases including acute lung injury (ALI). The intrinsic pathways that instruct EC nuclear-mechanotransduction and thereby maintains vascular homeostasis remain elusive. We have identified focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-mediated mechanotransduction at the nuclear envelope in instructing transcription of EC-barrier protective genes. We show that loss of EC-FAK increases intracellular tension, which in turn activates nuclear envelop protein emerin, and DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a). Methylation of transcription factor KLF2 promoter by DNMT3a impaired KLF2 synthesis and transcription of the crucial barrier-maintaining gene, S1PR1. Restoring KLF2 or S1PR1 expression or impairing emerin or DNMT3a activity rescued vascular homeostasis in lungs with FAK-deficient or WT-damaged endothelium. Thus, FAK protects against tension-induced aberrant DNA methylation in EC and is a promising target to prevent ALI. Overall design: 2 samples (ATAC-seq)
Project description:Despite the medical importance of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), in vivo cellular heterogeneity of GPCR signaling and downstream transcriptional responses are not understood. We report the comprehensive characterization of transcriptomes (bulk and single-cell) and chromatin domains regulated by sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1) in adult mouse aortic endothelial cells. First, S1PR1 regulates NF?B and nuclear glucocorticoid receptor pathways to suppress inflammation-related mRNAs. Second, S1PR1 signaling in the heterogenous endothelial cell (EC) subtypes occurs at spatially-distinct areas of the aorta. For example, a transcriptomically distinct arterial EC population at vascular branch points (aEC1) exhibits ligand-independent S1PR1/ß-arrestin coupling. In contrast, circulatory S1P-dependent S1PR1/ß-arrestin coupling was observed in non-branch point aEC2 cells that exhibit an inflammatory gene expression signature. Moreover, S1P/S1PR1 signaling regulates the expression of lymphangiogenic and inflammation-related transcripts in an adventitial lymphatic EC (LEC) population in a ligand-dependent manner. These insights add resolution to existing concepts of endothelial heterogeneity, GPCR signaling and S1P biology.
Project description:Endothelial cell (EC) barrier dysfunction results in increased vascular permeability, leading to increased mass transport across the vessel wall and leukocyte extravasation, the key mechanisms in pathogenesis of tissue inflammation and edema. We have previously demonstrated that OxPAPC (oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) significantly enhances vascular endothelial barrier properties in vitro and in vivo and attenuates endothelial hyperpermeability induced by inflammatory and edemagenic agents via Rac and Cdc42 GTPase dependent mechanisms. These findings suggested potential important therapeutic value of barrier-protective oxidized phospholipids. In this study, we examined involvement of signaling complexes associated with caveolin-enriched microdomains (CEMs) in barrier-protective responses of human pulmonary ECs to OxPAPC. Immunoblotting from OxPAPC-treated ECs revealed OxPAPC-mediated rapid recruitment (5 minutes) to CEMs of the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1P(1)), the serine/threonine kinase Akt, and the Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor Tiam1 and phosphorylation of caveolin-1, indicative of signaling activation in CEMs. Abolishing CEM formation (methyl-beta-cyclodextrin) blocked OxPAPC-mediated Rac1 activation, cytoskeletal reorganization, and EC barrier enhancement. Silencing (small interfering RNA) Akt expression blocked OxPAPC-mediated S1P(1) activation (threonine phosphorylation), whereas silencing S1P(1) receptor expression blocked OxPAPC-mediated Tiam1 recruitment to CEMs, Rac1 activation, and EC barrier enhancement. To confirm our in vitro results in an in vivo murine model of acute lung injury with pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability, we observed that selective lung silencing of caveolin-1 or S1P(1) receptor expression blocked OxPAPC-mediated protection from ventilator-induced lung injury. Taken together, these results suggest Akt-dependent transactivation of S1P(1) within CEMs is important for OxPAPC-mediated cortical actin rearrangement and EC barrier protection.
Project description:While the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1) axis is critically important for lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs, S1PR1-activation also occurs in vascular endothelial cells (ECs), including those of the high-endothelial venules (HEVs) that mediate lymphocyte immigration into lymph nodes (LNs). To understand the functional significance of the S1P/S1PR1-Gi axis in HEVs, we generated Lyve1;Spns2?/? conditional knockout mice for the S1P-transporter Spinster-homologue-2 (SPNS2), as HEVs express LYVE1 during development. In these mice HEVs appeared apoptotic and were severely impaired in function, morphology and size; leading to markedly hypotrophic peripheral LNs. Dendritic cells (DCs) were unable to interact with HEVs, which was also observed in Cdh5CRE-ERT2;S1pr1?/? mice and wildtype mice treated with S1PR1-antagonists. Wildtype HEVs treated with S1PR1-antagonists in vitro and Lyve1-deficient HEVs show severely reduced release of the DC-chemoattractant CCL21 in vivo. Together, our results reveal that EC-derived S1P warrants HEV-integrity through autocrine control of S1PR1-Gi signaling, and facilitates concomitant HEV-DC interactions.
Project description:The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) is abundant in endothelial cells, where it regulates vascular development and microvascular barrier function. In investigating the role of endothelial cell S1P1 in adult mice, we found that the endothelial S1P1 signal was enhanced in regions of the arterial vasculature experiencing inflammation. The abundance of proinflammatory adhesion proteins, such as ICAM-1, was enhanced in mice with endothelial cell-specific deletion of S1pr1 and suppressed in mice with endothelial cell-specific overexpression of S1pr1, suggesting a protective function of S1P1 in vascular disease. The chaperones ApoM(+)HDL (HDL) or albumin bind to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in the circulation; therefore, we tested the effects of S1P bound to each chaperone on S1P1 signaling in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exposure of HUVECs to ApoM(+)HDL-S1P, but not to albumin-S1P, promoted the formation of a cell surface S1P1-?-arrestin 2 complex and attenuated the ability of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF? to activate NF-?B and increase ICAM-1 abundance. Although S1P bound to either chaperone induced MAPK activation, albumin-S1P triggered greater Gi activation and receptor endocytosis. Endothelial cell-specific deletion of S1pr1 in the hypercholesterolemic Apoe(-/-) mouse model of atherosclerosis enhanced atherosclerotic lesion formation in the descending aorta. We propose that the ability of ApoM(+)HDL to act as a biased agonist on S1P1 inhibits vascular inflammation, which may partially explain the cardiovascular protective functions of HDL.
Project description:At the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers, P-glycoprotein, an ATP-driven drug efflux pump, is a major obstacle to central nervous system (CNS) pharmacotherapy. Recently, we showed that signaling through tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), sphingolipids, and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) rapidly and reversibly reduced basal P-glycoprotein transport activity in the rat blood-brain barrier. The present study extends those findings to the mouse blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers and, importantly, identifies multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (Mrp1, Abcc1) as the transporter that mediates S1P efflux from brain and spinal cord endothelial cells. In brain and spinal cord capillaries isolated from wild-type mice, TNF-α, sphingosine, S1P, the S1PR agonist fingolimod (FTY720), and its active, phosphorylated metabolite, FTY720P, reduced P-glycoprotein transport activity; these effects were abolished by a specific S1PR1 antagonist. In brain and spinal cord capillaries isolated from Mrp1-null mice, neither TNF-α nor sphingosine nor FTY720 reduced P-glycoprotein transport activity. However, S1P and FTY720P had the same S1PR1-dependent effects on transport activity as in capillaries from wild-type mice. Thus, deletion of Mrp1 alone terminated endogenous signaling to S1PR1. These results identify Mrp1 as the transporter essential for S1P efflux from the endothelial cells and thus for inside-out S1P signaling to P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers.
Project description:Disruption of pulmonary endothelial cell (EC) barrier function is a critical pathophysiologic event in highly morbid inflammatory conditions such as sepsis and acute respiratory disease stress syndrome. Actin cytoskeleton, an essential regulator of endothelial permeability, is a dynamic structure whose stimuli-induced rearrangement is linked to barrier modulation. Here, we used atomic force microscopy to characterize structural and mechanical changes in the F-actin cytoskeleton of cultured human pulmonary artery EC in response to both barrier-enhancing (induced by sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)) and barrier-disrupting (induced by thrombin) conditions. Atomic force microscopy elasticity measurements show differential effects: for the barrier protecting molecule S1P, the elastic modulus was elevated significantly on the periphery; for the barrier-disrupting molecule thrombin, on the other hand, it was elevated significantly in the central region of the cell. The force and elasticity maps correlate with F-actin rearrangements as identified by immunofluorescence analysis. Significantly, reduced expression (via siRNA) of cortactin, an actin-binding protein essential to EC barrier regulation, resulted in a shift in the S1P-mediated elasticity pattern to more closely resemble control, unstimulated endothelium.