Chronic treatment with paeonol improves endothelial function in mice through inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated oxidative stress.
ABSTRACT: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leads to endothelial dysfunction which is commonly associated in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases. We explored the vascular protective effects of chronic treatment with paeonol (2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone), the major compound from the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa on ER stress-induced endothelial dysfunction in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were injected intraperitoneally with ER stress inducer, tunicamycin (1 mg/kg/week) for 2 weeks to induce ER stress. The animals were co-administered with or without paeonol (20 mg/kg/oral gavage), reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, tempol (20 mg/kg/day) or ER stress inhibitor, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, 150 mg/kg/day) respectively. Blood pressure and body weight were monitored weekly and at the end of treatment, the aorta was isolated for isometric force measurement. Protein associated with ER stress (GRP78, ATF6 and p-eIF2?) and oxidative stress (NOX2 and nitrotyrosine) were evaluated using Western blotting. Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability were determined using total nitrate/nitrite assay and western blotting (phosphorylation of eNOS protein). ROS production was assessed by en face dihydroethidium staining and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence assay, respectively. Our results revealed that mice treated with tunicamycin showed an increased blood pressure, reduction in body weight and impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxations (EDRs) of aorta, which were ameliorated by co-treatment with either paeonol, TUDCA and tempol. Furthermore, paeonol reduced the ROS level in the mouse aorta and improved NO bioavailability in tunicamycin treated mice. These beneficial effects of paeonol observed were comparable to those produced by TUDCA and tempol, suggesting that the actions of paeonol may involve inhibition of ER stress-mediated oxidative stress pathway. Taken together, the present results suggest that chronic treatment with paeonol preserved endothelial function and normalized blood pressure in mice induced by tunicamycin in vivo through the inhibition of ER stress-associated ROS.
Project description:The present study was designed to examine the impact of chronic Akt activation on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cardiac mechanical anomalies, if any, and the underlying mechanism involved.Wild-type and transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of the active mutant of Akt (Myr-Akt) were subjected to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (1 or 3 mg/kg). ER stress led to compromised echocardiographic (elevated left ventricular end-systolic diameter and reduced fractional shortening) and cardiomyocyte contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) mishandling, and cell survival in wild-type mice associated with mitochondrial damage. In vitro ER stress induction in murine cardiomyocytes upregulated the ER stress proteins Gadd153, GRP78, and phospho-eIF2?, and promoted reactive oxygen species production, carbonyl formation, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, and mitochondrial permeation pore (mPTP) opening associated with overtly impaired cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties. Interestingly, these anomalies were mitigated by chronic Akt activation or the ER chaperon tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA). Treatment with tunicamycin also dephosphorylated Akt and its downstream signal glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) (leading to activation of GSK3?), the effect of which was abrogated by Akt activation and TUDCA. The ER stress-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and mitochondrial anomalies were obliterated by the mPTP inhibitor cyclosporin A, GSK3? inhibitor SB216763, and ER stress inhibitor TUDCA.This research reported the direct relationship between ER stress and cardiomyocyte contractile and mitochondrial anomalies for the first time.Taken together, these data suggest that ER stress may compromise cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties, possibly through the Akt/GSK3?-dependent impairment of mitochondrial integrity.
Project description:Recent evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress provoked under diabetic conditions augments the expression of scavenger receptors on macrophages, promoting the uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein uptake and atherogenesis. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the chemical chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) attenuates lipid accumulation in macrophages subjected to ER stress.Cultured human macrophages were subjected to ER stress by treating them with tunicamycin. Lipid uptake by macrophages subjected to ER stress in the presence or absence of TUDCA was assessed by oil red O staining and by assessing the cellular uptake of Dil-oxidized low-density lipoprotein by fluorescence measurement. Protein levels and phosphorylation status of ER stress markers, insulin-signaling molecules, and scavenger receptor were assessed by Western blotting.Treatment of cultured human macrophages with the ER stressor tunicamycin caused an increase in the protein levels of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD-36) and augmentation of lipid uptake both of which were inhibited by TUDCA. TUDCA treatment inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress as evidenced by the attenuation of phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2a and glucose reactive protein-78. In addition, TUDCA improved insulin signaling in macrophages by augmenting Akt phosphorylation and blunting c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity.Inhibition of macrophage ER stress may represent a potential strategy in preventing atherogenesis under diabetic conditions.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the development of hypertension 3 through the induction of endothelial impairment. As 3',4'-dihydroxyflavonol (DiOHF) 4 reduces vascular injury caused by ischaemia/reperfusion or diabetes, and flavonols have been demonstrated to attenuate ER stress, we investigated whether DiOHF can protect mice from ER stress-induced endothelial dysfunction. Male C57BLK/6?J mice were injected with tunicamycin to induce ER stress in the presence or absence of either DiOHF or tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an inhibitor of ER stress. Tunicamycin elevated blood pressure and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation. Moreover, in aortae there was evidence of ER stress, oxidative stress and reduced NO production. This was coincident with increased NOX2 expression and reduced phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) on Ser1176. Importantly, the effects of tunicamycin were significantly ameliorated by DiOHF or TUDCA. DiOHF also inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress and apoptosis in cultured human endothelial cells (HUVEC). These results provide evidence that ER stress is likely an important initiator of endothelial dysfunction through the induction of oxidative stress and a reduction in NO synthesis and that DiOHF directly protects against ER stress- induced injury. DiOHF may be useful to prevent ER and oxidative stress to preserve endothelial function, for example in hypertension.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been recognised as a common pathway in the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a negative regulator of insulin signalling and is localised on the ER membrane. The aim of the study was to investigate the cross-talk between ER stress and PTP1B.Leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob), Ptp1b (also known as Ptpn1) knockout and C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a high-fat or normal-chow diet for 20 weeks. ER stress was induced in cultured myotubes by treatment with tunicamycin. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to assess proteins involved in the ER stress response. Myotube glucose uptake was determined by measuring 2-deoxy[(3)H]glucose incorporation.A high-fat diet induced ER stress and PTP1B expression in the muscle tissue of mice and these responses were attenuated by treatment with the ER chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA). Cultured myotubes exhibited increased levels of PTP1B in response to tunicamycin treatment. Silencing of Ptp1b with small interfering RNA (siRNA) or overexpression of Ptp1b with adenovirus construct failed to alter the levels of ER stress. Ptp1b knockout mice did not differ from the wild-type mice in the extent of tunicamycin-induced upregulation of glucose-regulated protein-78. However, tunicamycin-induced phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2? and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase-2 were significantly attenuated in the Ptp1b knockout mice. Treatment with TUDCA or silencing of PTP1B reversed tunicamycin-induced blunted myotube glucose uptake.Our data suggest that PTP1B is activated by ER stress and is required for full-range activation of ER stress pathways in mediating insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle.
Project description:Insulin resistance is commonly associated with obesity. Studies conducted in obese mouse models found that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to insulin resistance, and treatment with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a bile acid derivative that acts as a chemical chaperone to enhance protein folding and ameliorate ER stress, increases insulin sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of TUDCA therapy on multiorgan insulin action and metabolic factors associated with insulin resistance in obese men and women.Twenty obese subjects ([means +/- SD] aged 48 +/- 11 years, BMI 37 +/- 4 kg/m2) were randomized to 4 weeks of treatment with TUDCA (1,750 mg/day) or placebo. A two-stage hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure in conjunction with stable isotopically labeled tracer infusions and muscle and adipose tissue biopsies were used to evaluate in vivo insulin sensitivity, cellular factors involved in insulin signaling, and cellular markers of ER stress. RESULTS Hepatic and muscle insulin sensitivity increased by approximately 30% (P < 0.05) after treatment with TUDCA but did not change after placebo therapy. In addition, therapy with TUDCA, but not placebo, increased muscle insulin signaling (phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate(Tyr) and Akt(Ser473) levels) (P < 0.05). Markers of ER stress in muscle or adipose tissue did not change after treatment with either TUDCA or placebo.These data demonstrate that TUDCA might be an effective pharmacological approach for treating insulin resistance. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the target cells and mechanisms responsible for this effect.
Project description:Stress induced BSA (bovine serum albumin) protein aggregation is effectively mitigated in vitro by TUDCA (tauroursodeoxycholic acid) than by PBA (4- phenylbutyric acid), chemical chaperones approved by FDA for the treatment of biliary cirrhosis and urea cycle disorders respectively. TUDCA, unlike PBA, enhances trypsin mediated digestion of BSA. TUDCA activates PERK, an ER-resident kinase that phosphorylates the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor2 (eIF2?) and promotes the expression of activated transcription factor 4 (ATF4) in HepG2 cells. In contrast, PBA induced eIF2? phosphorylation is not mediated by PERK activation and results in low ATF4 expression. Neither chaperones promote expression of BiP, an ER chaperone, and CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein), downstream target of eIF2?-ATF4 pathway. Both chaperones mitigate tunicamycin induced PERK-eIF2?-ATF4-CHOP arm of UPR and expression of BiP. TUDCA, unlike PBA does not decrease cell viability and it also mitigates tunicamycin, UV-irradiation and PBA induced PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase) cleavage and cell death. These findings therefore suggest that TUDCA's antiapoptotic activity to protect HepG2 cells and PBA's activity that limits tumor cell progression may be important while considering their therapeutic potential.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Cardiac damage and vascular dysfunction are major causes of morbidity and mortality in hypertension. In the present study, we explored the beneficial therapeutic effect of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inhibition on cardiac damage and vascular dysfunction in hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS:Mice were infused with angiotensin II (400 ng/kg per minute) with or without ER stress inhibitors (taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid and 4-phenylbutyric acid) for 2 weeks. Mice infused with angiotensin II displayed an increase in blood pressure, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis associated with enhanced collagen I content, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) activity, and ER stress markers, which were blunted after ER stress inhibition. Hypertension induced ER stress in aorta and mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA), enhanced TGF-?1 activity in aorta but not in MRA, and reduced endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation and endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) in aorta and MRA. The inhibition of ER stress significantly reduced TGF-?1 activity, enhanced endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation, and improved EDR. The inhibition of TGF-?1 pathway improved EDR in aorta but not in MRA, whereas the reduction in reactive oxygen species levels ameliorated EDR in MRA only. Infusion of tunicamycin in control mice induced ER stress in aorta and MRA, and reduced EDR by a TGF-?1-dependent mechanism in aorta and reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in MRA. CONCLUSIONS:ER stress inhibition reduces cardiac damage and improves vascular function in hypertension. Therefore, ER stress could be a potential target for cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most frequent cause of drug-induced acute liver failure. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether paeonol protected against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Mice treated with paeonol (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) received 400 mg/kg acetaminophen intraperitoneally (i.p.) and hepatotoxicity was assessed. Pre-treatment with paeonol for 6 and 24 h ameliorated APAP-induced hepatic necrosis and significantly reduced the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels in a dose-dependent manner. Post-treatment with 100 mg/kg paeonol ameliorated APAP-induced hepatic necrosis and reduced AST and ALT levels in the serum after APAP administration for 24 h. Western blot revealed that paeonol inhibited APAP-induced phosphorylated JNK protein expression but not p38 and Erk1/2. Moreover, paeonol showed anti-oxidant activities with reducing hepatic MDA contents and increasing hepatic SOD, GSH-PX and GSH levels. Paeonol dose-dependently prevented against H2O2 or APAP-induced LDH releasing and ROS production in primary mouse hepatocytes. In addition, the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory genes such as TNF-?, MCP-1, IL-1? and IL-6 in the liver were dose-dependently reduced by paeonol pre-treatment. Pre-treatment with paeonol significantly inhibited IKK?/?, I?B? and p65 phosphorylation which contributed to ameliorating APAP-induced hepatic inflammation. Collectively, the present study demonstrates paeonol has a protective ability against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and might be an effective candidate compound against drug-induced acute liver failure.
Project description:Vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis and collagen synthesis contribute to aortic stiffening. A cellular signaling mechanism contributing to apoptotic and fibrotic events is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that induction of ER stress in a normotensive rat would cause profibrotic and apoptotic signaling, thereby contributing to aortic stiffening. Furthermore, we hypothesized that inhibition of ER stress in an angiotensin II (Ang II) model of hypertension would improve aortic stiffening. Induction of ER stress with tunicamycin in normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats (10 ?g/kg per day, osmotic pump, 28 days) caused an increase in systolic blood pressure (mm Hg; 160±5) compared with vehicle-treated (127±3) or tunicamycin-treated rats that were cotreated with ER stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid (100 mg/kg per day, 28 days, [124±6]). There was an increase in aortic apoptosis (fold; 3.0±0.3), collagen content (1.4±0.1), and fibrosis (2.0±0.1) in the tunicamycin-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated rats. Inhibition of ER stress in male Sprague-Dawley rats given Ang II (60 ng/min, osmotic pump, 28 days) and treated with either tauroursodeoxycholic acid or phenylbutyric acid (100 mg/kg per day, i.p., 28 days) led to a 20 mm Hg decrease in blood pressure with either inhibitor compared with Ang II treatment alone. Aortic apoptosis, increased collagen content, and fibrosis in Ang II-treated rats were attenuated with ER stress inhibition. We conclude that ER stress is a new signaling mechanism that contributes to aortic stiffening via promoting apoptosis and fibrosis.
Project description:Paraquat (PQ), a widely used herbicide, could cause neurodegenerative diseases, yet the mechanism remains incompletely understood. This study aimed to investigate the direct effect of PQ on NSC in vivo and its possible mechanism. Adult C57BL/6 mice were subcutaneously injected with 2 mg/kg PQ, 20 mg/kg PQ or vehicle control once a week for 2 weeks, and sacrificed 1 week after the last PQ injection. Furthermore, extra experiments with Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid (TUDCA) intervention were performed to observe the relationship between ER stress, neuroinflammation and the neural stem cell (NSC) impairment. The results showed that 20 mg/kg PQ caused the NSC number decrease in both subgranular zones (SGZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ). Further analysis indicated that the 20 mg/kg PQ suppressed the proliferation of NSC, without affecting the apoptosis. Moreover, 20 mg/kg PQ also induced ER stress in microglia and caused neuroinflammation in SGZ and SVZ. Interestingly, the ER stress inhibitor could simultaneously ameliorate the neuroinflammation and NSC reduction. These data suggested that increased ER stress in microglia might be a possible pathway for PQ-induced neuroinflammation and NSC impairment. That is a previously unknown mechanism for PQ neurotoxicity.