Outer membrane cytochromes/flavin interactions in Shewanella spp.-A molecular perspective.
ABSTRACT: Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is intrinsically associated with the core phenomena of energy harvesting/energy conversion in natural ecosystems and biotechnology applications. However, the mechanisms associated with EET are complex and involve molecular interactions that take place at the "bionano interface" where biotic/abiotic interactions are usually explored. This work provides molecular perspective on the electron transfer mechanism(s) employed by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Molecular docking simulations were used to explain the interfacial relationships between two outer-membrane cytochromes (OMC) OmcA and MtrC and riboflavin (RF) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN), respectively. OMC-flavin interactions were analyzed by studying the electrostatic potential, the hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface properties, and the van der Waals surface of the OMC proteins. As a result, it was proposed that the interactions between flavins and OMCs are based on geometrical recognition event. The possible docking positions of RF and FMN to OmcA and MtrC were also shown.
Project description:The variety of solid surfaces to and from which microbes can deliver electrons by extracellular electron transport (EET) processes via outer-membrane c-type cytochromes (OM c-Cyts) expands the importance of microbial respiration in natural environments and industrial applications. Here, we demonstrate that the bifurcated EET pathway of OM c-Cyts sustains the diversity of the EET surface in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 via specific binding with cell-secreted flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and riboflavin (RF). Microbial current production and whole-cell differential pulse voltammetry revealed that RF and FMN enhance EET as bound cofactors in a similar manner. Conversely, FMN and RF were clearly differentiated in the EET enhancement by gene-deletion of OM c-Cyts and the dependency of the electrode potential and pH. These results indicate that RF and FMN have specific binding sites in OM c-Cyts and highlight the potential roles of these flavin-cytochrome complexes in controlling the rate of electron transfer to surfaces with diverse potential and pH.
Project description:Electron exchange reactions between microbial cells and solid materials, referred to as extracellular electron transfer (EET), have attracted attention in the fields of microbial physiology, microbial ecology, and biotechnology. Studies of model species of iron-reducing, or equivalently, current-generating bacteria such as Geobacter spp. and Shewanella spp. have revealed that redox-active proteins, especially outer membrane c-type cytochromes (OMCs), play a pivotal role in the EET process. Recent (meta)genomic analyses have revealed that diverse microorganisms that have not been demonstrated to have EET ability also harbor OMC-like proteins, indicating that EET via OMCs could be more widely preserved in microorganisms than originally thought. A methanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) was reported to harbor multiple OMC genes whose expression is elevated by Cu starvation. However, the physiological role of these genes is unknown. Therefore, in this study, we explored whether M. capsulatus (Bath) displays EET abilities via OMCs. In electrochemical analysis, M. capsulatus (Bath) generated anodic current only when electron donors such as formate were available, and could reduce insoluble iron oxides in the presence of electron donor compounds. Furthermore, the current-generating and iron-reducing activities of M. capsulatus (Bath) cells that were cultured in a Cu-deficient medium, which promotes high levels of OMC expression, were higher than those cultured in a Cu-supplemented medium. Anodic current production by the Cu-deficient cells was significantly suppressed by disruption of MCA0421, a highly expressed OMC gene, and by treatment with carbon monoxide (CO) gas (an inhibitor of c-type cytochromes). Our results provide evidence of EET in M. capsulatus (Bath) and demonstrate the pivotal role of OMCs in this process. This study raises the possibility that EET to solid compounds is a novel survival strategy of methanotrophic bacteria.
Project description:Bacterial extracellular electron transfer (EET) plays a key role in various natural and engineering processes. Outer membrane c-type cytochromes (OMCs) are considered to be essential in bacterial EET. However, most bacteria do not have OMCs but have redox proteins other than OMCs in their extracellular polymeric substances of biofilms. We hypothesized that these extracellular non-cytochrome c proteins (ENCP) could contribute to EET, especially with the facilitation of electron mediators. This study compared the electrode respiring capacity of wild type Shewanella decolorationis S12 and an OMC-deficient mutant. Although the OMC-deficient mutant was incapable in direct electricity generation in normal cultivation, it regained electricity generation capacity (26% of the wide type) with the aid of extracellular electron mediator (riboflavin). Further bioelectrochemistry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis suggested that the ENCP, such as proteins with Fe-S cluster, may participate in the falvin-mediated EET. The results highlighted an important and direct role of the ENCP, generated by either electricigens or other microbes, in natural microbial EET process with the facilitation of electron mediators.
Project description:The transfer of photoenergized electrons from extracellular photosensitizers across a bacterial cell envelope to drive intracellular chemical transformations represents an attractive way to harness nature's catalytic machinery for solar-assisted chemical synthesis. In Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1), trans-outer-membrane electron transfer is performed by the extracellular cytochromes MtrC and OmcA acting together with the outer-membrane-spanning porin⋅cytochrome complex (MtrAB). Here we demonstrate photoreduction of solutions of MtrC, OmcA, and the MtrCAB complex by soluble photosensitizers: namely, eosin Y, fluorescein, proflavine, flavin, and adenine dinucleotide, as well as by riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide, two compounds secreted by MR-1. We show photoreduction of MtrC and OmcA adsorbed on RuII -dye-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles and that these protein-coated particles perform photocatalytic reduction of solutions of MtrC, OmcA, and MtrCAB. These findings provide a framework for informed development of strategies for using the outer-membrane-associated cytochromes of MR-1 for solar-driven microbial synthesis in natural and engineered bacteria.
Project description:Certain dissimilatory bacteria have the remarkable ability to use extracellular metal oxide minerals instead of oxygen as terminal electron sinks, using a process known as "extracellular respiration". Specialized multiheme cytochromes located on the outer membrane of the microbe were shown to be crucial for electron transfer from the cell surface to the mineral. This process is facilitated by soluble, biogenic flavins secreted by the organism for the purpose of acting as an electron shuttle. However, their interactions with the outer-membrane cytochromes are not established on a molecular scale. Here, we study the interaction between the outer-membrane deca-heme cytochrome MtrC from Shewanella oneidensis and flavin mononucleotide (FMN in fully oxidized quinone form) using computational docking. We find that interaction of FMN with MtrC is significantly weaker than with known FMN-binding proteins, but identify a mildly preferred interaction site close to heme 2 with a dissociation constant (Kd) = 490 ?M, in good agreement with recent experimental estimates, Kd = 255 ?M. The weak interaction with MtrC can be qualitatively explained by the smaller number of hydrogen bonds that the planar headgroup of FMN can form with this protein compared to FMN-binding proteins. Molecular dynamics simulation gives indications for a possible conformational switch upon cleavage of the disulphide bond of MtrC, but without concomitant increase in binding affinities according to this docking study. Overall, our results suggest that binding of FMN to MtrC is reversible and not highly specific, which may be consistent with a role as redox shuttle that facilitates extracellular respiration.
Project description:Outer membrane (OM) cytochromes OmcA (SO1779) and MtrC (SO1778) are the integral components of electron transfer used by Shewanella oneidensis for anaerobic respiration of metal (hydr)oxides. Here the OmcA-MtrC interaction was identified in vivo using a novel hydrophobic chemical cross-linker (MRN) combined with immunoprecipitation techniques. In addition, identification of other OM proteins from the cross-linked complexes allows first visualization of the OmcA-MtrC interaction network. Further experiments on omcA and mtrC mutant cells showed OmcA plays a central role in the network interaction. For comparison, two commercial cross-linkers were also used in parallel, and both resulted in fewer OM protein identifications, indicating the superior properties of MRN for identification of membrane protein interactions. Finally, comparison experiments of in vivo cross-linking and cell lysate cross-linking resulted in significantly different protein interaction data, demonstrating the importance of in vivo cross-linking for study of protein-protein interactions in cells.
Project description:Extracellular microbe-mineral electron transfer is a major driving force for the oxidation of organic carbon in many subsurface environments. Extracellular multi-heme cytochromes of the Shewenella genus play a major role in this process but the mechanism of electron exchange at the interface between cytochrome and acceptor is widely debated. The 1.8 Å x-ray crystal structure of the decaheme MtrC revealed a highly conserved CX8C disulfide that, when substituted for AX8A, severely compromised the ability of S. oneidensis to grow under aerobic conditions. Reductive cleavage of the disulfide in the presence of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) resulted in the reversible formation of a stable flavocytochrome. Similar results were also observed with other decaheme cytochromes, OmcA, MtrF and UndA. The data suggest that these decaheme cytochromes can transition between highly reactive flavocytochromes or less reactive cytochromes, and that this transition is controlled by a redox active disulfide that responds to the presence of oxygen.
Project description:The Mtr respiratory pathway of Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 is required to effectively respire both soluble and insoluble forms of oxidized iron. Flavins (riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide) recently have been shown to be excreted by MR-1 and facilitate the reduction of insoluble substrates. Other Shewanella species tested accumulated flavins in supernatants to an extent similar to that of MR-1, suggesting that flavin secretion is a general trait of the species. External flavins have been proposed to act as both a soluble electron shuttle and a metal chelator; however, at biologically relevant concentrations, our results suggest that external flavins primarily act as electron shuttles for MR-1. Using deletion mutants lacking various Mtr-associated proteins, we demonstrate that the Mtr extracellular respiratory pathway is essential for the reduction of flavins and that decaheme cytochromes found on the outer surface of the cell (MtrC and OmcA) are required for the majority of this activity. Given the involvement of external flavins in the reduction of electrodes, we monitored current production by Mtr respiratory pathway mutants in three-electrode bioreactors under controlled flavin concentrations. While mutants lacking MtrC were able to reduce flavins at 50% of the rate of the wild type in cell suspension assays, these strains were unable to grow into productive electrode-reducing biofilms. The analysis of mutants lacking OmcA suggests a role for this protein in both electron transfer to electrodes and attachment to surfaces. The parallel phenotypes of Mtr mutants in flavin and electrode reduction blur the distinction between direct contact and the redox shuttling strategies of insoluble substrate reduction by MR-1.
Project description:Organic micro-contaminants (OMCs) enter in freshwaters and interact with other contaminants such as carbon nanoparticles, becoming a problem of unknown consequences for river ecosystems. Carbon nanoparticles (as fullerenes C60) are good adsorbents of organic contaminants and their interaction can potentially affect their toxicity to river biofilms. We tested the C60 interactions with selected OMCs and their effects on river biofilms in different short-term experiments. In these, river biofilms were exposed to C60 and three OMCs (triclosan, diuron, or venlafaxine) and their respective mixtures with fullerenes (C60 + each OMC). The effects were evaluated on structural, molecular, and functional descriptors of river biofilms. Our results showed that C60 did not cause toxic effects in river biofilms, whereas diuron and triclosan significantly affected the heterotrophic and phototrophic components of biofilms and venlafaxine affected only the phototrophic component. The joint exposure of C60 with venlafaxine was not producing differences with respect to the former response of the toxicant, but the overall response was antagonistic (i.e., decreased toxicity) with diuron, and synergistic (i.e., increased toxicity) with triclosan. We suggest that differences in the toxic responses could be related to the respective molecular structure of each OMC, to the concentration proportion between OMC and C60, and to the possible competition between C60 pollutants on blocking the receptors of the biological cell membranes. We conclude that the presence of C60 at low concentrations modified the toxicity of OMC to river biofilms. These interactions should therefore be considered when predicting toxicity of OMC in river ecosystems.
Project description:We investigate the single-cell reduction of toxic Cr(VI) by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1), an important bioremediation process, using Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Our experiments indicate that the toxic, highly soluble Cr(VI) can be efficiently reduced to less toxic, nonsoluble Cr(2)O(3) nanoparticles by MR-1. Cr(2)O(3) is observed to emerge as nanoparticles adsorbed on the cell surface and its chemical nature is identified by EDX imaging and Raman spectroscopy. Co-localization of Cr(2)O(3) and cytochromes by EDX imaging and Raman spectroscopy suggests a terminal reductase role for MR-1 surface-exposed cytochromes MtrC and OmcA. Our experiments revealed that the cooperation of surface proteins OmcA and MtrC makes the reduction reaction most efficient, and the sequence of the reducing reactivity of MR-1 is wild type > single mutant ?mtrC or mutant ?omcA > double mutant (?omcA-?mtrC). Moreover, our results also suggest that direct microbial Cr(VI) reduction and Fe(II) (hematite)-mediated Cr(VI) reduction mechanisms may coexist in the reduction processes.