Association of body mass index with mortality and functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.
ABSTRACT: The relation between obesity and stroke outcome has been disputed. This study was aimed to determine the association of body mass index (BMI) with mortality and functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Data were from a national, multi-centre, prospective, hospital-based register: the ChinaQUEST (Quality Evaluation of Stroke Care and Treatment) study. Of 4782 acute ischemic stroke patients, 282 were underweight (BMI?
Project description:The prognostic implications of very low body mass index (BMI) values remain unclear in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). This study aimed to investigate the prognostic impact of BMI classification based on the World Health Organization criteria in patients with ADHF. Among 3509 patients with ADHF and available BMI data at discharge in 19 participating hospitals in Japan between October 2014 and March 2016, the study population was divided into five groups; (1) Severely underweight: BMI?<?16 kg/m2, (2) Underweight: BMI???16 kg/m2 and?<?18.5 kg/m2, (3) Normal weight: BMI???18.5 kg/m2 and?<?25 kg/m2, (4) Overweight: BMI???25 kg/m2 and?<?30 kg/m2 (5) Obese: BMI???30 kg/m2. The primary outcome measure was all-cause death. The median follow-up duration was 471 days, with 96.4% follow up at 1-year. The cumulative 1-year incidence of all-cause death was higher in underweight groups, and lower in overweight groups (Severely underweight: 36.3%, Underweight: 23.9%, Normal weight: 14.4%, Overweight: 7.9%, and Obese: 9.0%, P?<?0.001). After adjusting confounders, the excess mortality risk remained significant in the severely underweight group (HR, 2.32; 95%CI, 1.83–2.94; P?<?0.001), and in the underweight group (HR, 1.31; 95%CI, 1.08–1.59; P?=?0.005) relative to the normal weight group, while the lower mortality risk was no longer significant in the overweight group (HR, 0.82; 95%CI, 0.62–1.10; P?=?0.18) and in the obese group (HR, 1.09; 95%CI, 0.65–1.85; P?=?0.74). Very low BMI was associated with a higher risk for one-year mortality after discharge in patients with ADHF.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and self-rated health (SRH) in Korean adults. METHODS:The study included 214,997 adults who participated in the 2016 Korean Community Health Survey. Participants were categorized into four groups according to WHO Asian classification based on their BMI: underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal-weight (18.5-22.9 kg/m2), overweight (23.0?24.9 kg/m2), obese (25.0?29.9 kg/m2), and severely obese (?30.0 kg/m2). Multivariate Poisson regression analysis with sampling weights and robust variance estimators was performed to evaluate the relationship between BMI categories and poor SRH. RESULTS:A J-shaped association was observed between BMI and poor SRH in both sexes. Compared to normal-weight subjects, the age, lifestyle, and comorbidities adjusted prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) in men for poor SRH were 1.73 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-1.88) for underweight, 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83-0.92) for overweight, 0.98 (95% CI, 0.93-1.03) for obese, and 1.79 (95% CI, 1.63-1.97) for severely obese. In women, compared to normal-weight subjects, the age, lifestyle, and comorbidities adjusted PRRs for poor SRH were 1.33 (95% CI, 1.26-1.41) for underweight, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.98-1.06) for overweight, 1.15 (95% CI, 1.10-1.19) for obese, and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.31-1.53) for severely obese. Associations between underweight and SRH were stronger at older ages than at younger ages, whereas those between high BMI and SRH were stronger at younger ages than at older ages. CONCLUSIONS:This cross-sectional study using a nationally representative survey observed a J-shaped relationship between BMI and poor SRH. This association differed depending on age and presence or absence of comorbidities.
Project description:Background:The prevalence of obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) has been increasing worldwide. The aims of this study were to evaluate associations of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and rate of GWG in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters with pregnancy outcomes in Chinese urban women, and to examine the dose-response relationship between rate of GWG and pregnancy outcomes. Methods:A retrospective analysis included 8926 women who delivered live singletons at ≥28 weeks of gestation between June 2012 and March 2013 among Chinese urban women. BMI was classified into underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 24 kg/m2), overweight (24 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 28 kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2) according to the Chinese standard. Rate of GWG in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters was classified as insufficient, adequate and excessive if it was below, within, or above the 2009 IOM guidelines (0.44-0.58 kg/w [underweight], 0.35-0.50 kg/w [normal], 0.23-0.33 kg/w [overweight], and 0.17-0.27 kg/w [obese]). Logistic regression models and restricted cubic spline analyses were used to assess the association of prepregnancy BMI and rate of GWG with cesarean delivery, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age (SGA) and large-for-gestational age (LGA). Results:22.6 and 50.0% of women had insufficient and excessive rate of GWG, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, prepregnancy underweight was associated with increased risk of SGA (OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.40-2.09), while both overweight and obesity were associated with higher risk of cesarean delivery (overweight: OR [95% CI] = 1.80 [1.56-2.08]; obese: 2.34 [1.69-3.24]) and LGA (overweight: 1.75 [1.44-2.13]; obese: 2.48 [1.71-3.60]). Both insufficient (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.08-1.65) and excessive rates of GWG (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.20-1.73) were associated with higher risk of preterm birth. Insufficient rate of GWG was associated with increased odds of SGA (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.16-1.82), while excessive rate of GWG was associated with higher risk for cesarean delivery (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.10-1.35) and LGA (OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.33-1.87). Additionally, there were significant nonlinear associations between rate of GWG and preterm birth (U-shaped, P for nonlinear < 0.001). Conclusions:Prepregnancy overweight, obesity and underweight, and insufficient and excessive rate of GWG were associated with increased risk of pregnancy outcomes in Chinese urban women.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>The impact of excess body weight on prognosis after stroke is controversial. Many studies report higher survival rates in obese patients ("obesity paradox"). Recently, obesity has been linked to worse outcomes after intravenous (IV) thrombolysis, but the number and sample size of these studies were small. Here, we aimed to assess the relationship between body weight and stroke outcome after IV thrombolysis in a large cohort study.<h4>Methods</h4>In a prospective observational multicenter study, we analyzed baseline and outcome data of 896 ischemic stroke patients who underwent IV thrombolysis. Patients were categorized according to body mass index (BMI) as underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), obese (30-34.9 kg/m2) or severely obese (>35 kg/m2). Using uni- and multivariate modeling, we assessed the relationship of BMI with favorable outcome (defined as modified Rankin Scale 0 or 1) and mortality 3 months after stroke as well as the occurrence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhages (sICH). We also measured the incidence of patients that had an early neurological improvement of >40% on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) after 24 hours.<h4>Results</h4>Among 896 patients, 321 were normal weight (35.8%), 22 underweight (2.5%), 378 overweight (42.2%), 123 obese (13.7%) and 52 severely obese (5.8%). Three-month mortality was comparable in obese vs. non-obese patients (8.1% vs. 8.3%) and did not differ significantly among different BMI groups. This was also true for favorable clinical outcome, risk of sICH and early neurological improvement on NIHSS at 24 hours. These results remained unchanged after adjusting for potential confounding factors in the multivariate analyses.<h4>Conclusion</h4>BMI was not related to clinical outcomes in stroke patients treated with IVT. Our data suggest that the current weight-adapted dosage scheme of IV alteplase is appropriate for different body weight groups, and challenge the existence of the obesity paradox after stroke.
Project description:This sub-analysis of the XAPASS, a prospective, single-arm, observational study, aimed to evaluate relationships between body mass index (BMI) and safety (major bleeding and all-cause mortality) and effectiveness [stroke/non-central nervous system (non-CNS) systemic embolism (SE)/myocardial infarction (MI)] outcomes in Japanese patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) receiving rivaroxaban. Patients were categorized according to BMI (kg/m2) as underweight (<?18.5), normal weight (18.5 to?<?25), overweight (25 to?<?30), or obese (??30). In total, 9578 patients with NVAF completed the 1-year follow-up and were evaluated; of these, 7618 patients had baseline BMI data. Overall, 542 (5.7%), 4410 (46.0%), 2167 (22.6%), and 499 (5.2%) patients were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analysis demonstrated that none of the BMI categories were independent predictors of major bleeding whereas being underweight was independently associated with increased all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 3.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.40-5.26, p?<?0.001]. The incidence of stroke/non-CNS SE/MI was higher in patients who were underweight than in those of normal weight (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.20-3.70, p?=?0.009). However, in multivariable analyses, being underweight was not identified as an independent predictor of stroke/non-CNS SE/MI (HR 1.64, 95% CI 0.90-2.99, p?=?0.104). In conclusion, the high incidence of thromboembolic events and all-cause mortality in patients who were underweight highlights that thorough evaluation of disease status and comorbidities may be required in this population.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The relationships between morbid obesity, changes in body mass index (BMI) before cancer diagnosis, and lung cancer outcomes by histology (SCLC and NSCLC) have not been well studied. METHODS:Individual level data analysis was performed on 25,430 patients with NSCLC and 2787 patients with SCLC from 16 studies of the International Lung Cancer Consortium evaluating the association between various BMI variables and lung cancer overall survival, reported as adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) from Cox proportional hazards models and adjusted penalized smoothing spline plots. RESULTS:Overall survival of NSCLC had putative U-shaped hazard ratio relationships with BMI based on spline plots: being underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2; aHR = 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.43-1.70) or morbidly overweight (BMI > 40 kg/m2; aHR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.95-1.26) at the time of diagnosis was associated with worse stage-specific prognosis, whereas being overweight (25 kg/m2 ? BMI < 30 kg/m2; aHR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.85-0.95) or obese (30 kg/m2 ? BMI ? 40 kg/m2; aHR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.82-0.91) was associated with improved survival. Although not significant, a similar pattern was seen with SCLC. Compared with an increased or stable BMI from the period between young adulthood until date of diagnosis, a decreased BMI was associated with worse outcomes in NSCLC (aHR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.2-1.3) and SCLC patients (aHR=1.26 (95% CI: 1.0-1.6). Decreased BMI was consistently associated with worse outcome, across clinicodemographic subsets. CONCLUSIONS:Both being underweight or morbidly obese at time of diagnosis is associated with lower stage-specific survival in independent assessments of NSCLC and SCLC patients. In addition, a decrease in BMI at lung cancer diagnosis relative to early adulthood is a consistent marker of poor survival.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Obesity paradox refers to lower mortality in subjects with higher body mass index (BMI), and has been documented under a variety of condition. However, whether obesity paradox exists in adults requiring mechanical ventilation in intensive critical units (ICU) remains controversial.<h4>Methods</h4>MEDLINE, EMBASE, China Biology Medicine disc (CBM) and CINAHL electronic databases were searched from the earliest available date to July 2017, using the following search terms: "body weight", "body mass index", "overweight" or "obesity" and "ventilator", "mechanically ventilated", "mechanical ventilation", without language restriction. Subjects were divided into the following categories based on BMI (kg/m2): underweight, < 18.5 kg/m2; normal, 18.5-24.9 kg/m2; overweight, BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2; obese, 30-39.9 kg/m2; and severely obese > 40 kg/m2. The primary outcome was mortality, and included ICU mortality, hospital mortality, short-term mortality (<6 months), and long-term mortality (6 months or beyond). Secondary outcomes included duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay (LOS) in ICU and hospital. A random-effects model was used for data analyses. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 15,729 articles were screened. The final analysis included 23 articles (199,421 subjects). In comparison to non-obese patients, obese patients had lower ICU mortality (odds ratio (OR) 0.88, 95% CI 0.0.84-0.92, I2 = 0%), hospital mortality (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.74-0.93, I2 = 52%), short-term mortality (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.88, I2 = 0%) as well as long-term mortality (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.60-0.79, I2 = 0%). In comparison to subjects with normal BMI, obese patients had lower ICU mortality (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.82-0.93, I2 = 5%). Hospital mortality was lower in severely obese and obese subjects (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.94, I2 = 74%, and OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.73-0.89, I2 = 30%). Short-term mortality was lower in overweight and obese subjects (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.75-0.90, I2 = 0%, and, OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.66-0.84, I2 = 8%, respectively). Long-term mortality was lower in severely obese, obese and overweight subjects (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18-0.83, and OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.46-0.86, I2 = 56%, and OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.57-0.77, I2 = 0%). All 4 mortality measures were higher in underweight subjects than in subjects with normal BMI. Obese subjects had significantly longer duration on mechanical ventilation than non-obese group (mean difference (MD) 0.48, 95% CI 0.16-0.80, I2 = 37%), In comparison to subjects with normal BMI, severely obese BMI had significantly longer time in mechanical ventilation (MD 1.10, 95% CI 0.38-1.83, I2 = 47%). Hospital LOS did not differ between obese and non-obese patients (MD 0.05, 95% CI -0.52 to 0.50, I2 = 80%). Obese patients had longer ICU LOS than non-obese patients (MD 0.38, 95% CI 0.17-0.59, I2 = 70%). Hospital LOS and ICU LOS did not differ significantly in subjects with different BMI status.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In ICU patients receiving mechanical ventilation, higher BMI is associated with lower mortality and longer duration on mechanical ventilation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The "obesity paradox" has not been elucidated in the long-term outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We investigated the association between obesity and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in ACS patients with and without diabetes. METHODS:We identified 6978 patients with ACS aged 40-79 years from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort between 2002 and 2015. Baseline body mass index (BMI) was categorized as underweight (<?18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5-22.9 kg/m2), overweight (23.0-24.9 kg/m2), obese class I (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese class II (??30.0 kg/m2). The primary outcome was major adverse CV events (MACE)-CV death, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke. The secondary outcomes were the individual components of MACE, hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), and all-cause death. RESULTS:After adjustment for confounding variables, compared to normal-weight patients without diabetes (reference group), obese class I patients with and without diabetes had a lower risk of MACE, but only significant in patients without diabetes (with diabetes: hazard ratio [HR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-1.14; without diabetes: HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.62-0.97). Obese class II patient with diabetes had a higher risk of MACE with no statistical significance (HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.82-1.59). Underweight patients with and without diabetes had a higher risk of MACE, but only significant in patients with diabetes (with diabetes: HR 1.79, 95% CI 1.24-2.58; without diabetes: HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.77-1.97). CONCLUSION:In ACS patients, obesity had a protective effect on CV outcomes, especially in patients without diabetes.
Project description:The rate of obesity is increasing in Asia, but the clinical impact of body mass index (BMI) on the outcome of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains unknown. We aimed to assess this impact while focusing on the risk of exacerbation, health-care utilization, and medical costs.We examined 43,864 subjects registered in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) database from 2007 to 2012, and linked the data of COPD patients who had mild to moderate airflow obstruction (n = 1,320) to National Health Insurance (NHI) data. COPD was confirmed by spirometry. BMI was used to stratify patients into four categories: underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2), normal range (18.5-22.9 kg/m2), overweight (23-24.9 kg/m2), and obese (?25 kg/m2).Of the 1,320 patients with COPD with mild to moderate airflow obstruction, 27.8% had a BMI ?25 kg/m2. Compared with normal-weight patients, obese patients tended to experience fewer exacerbations (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.88; 95% CI 0.77-0.99; P = 0.04), although this association was not significant in a multivariable analysis. COPD-related health-care utilization and medical expenses were higher among underweight patients than the other groups. After adjustment, the risk of COPD-related hospitalization was highest among underweight and higher among overweight patients vs normal-weight patients (adjusted IRRs: 7.12, 1.00, 1.26, and 1.02 for underweight, normal, overweight, and obese groups, respectively; P = 0.01).Decreased weight tends to negatively influence prognosis of COPD with mild to moderate airflow obstruction, whereas higher BMI was not significantly related to worse outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer (BC) development, recurrence, and death. In view of this, we aimed to investigate the clinical value of obesity in BC patients treated with anti-HER2 therapies in the NeoALTTO trial, which randomized 455 patients to neo-adjuvant lapatinib, trastuzumab, or their combination plus paclitaxel. METHODS:Patients were classified according to their basal body mass index (BMI) into underweight (<?18.5?kg/m2), normal (??18.5; <?25?kg/m2), overweight (??25; <?30?kg/m2), and obese (??30?kg/m2) WHO categories. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using BMI as a categorical variable. Pathological complete response (pCR) and event-free survival (EFS) were the NeoALTTO primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS:Among 454 patients analyzed, 14 (3%), 220 (48%), 137 (30%), and 83 (18%) were classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese, respectively; 231 (51%) and 223 (49%) had hormone receptor (HR)-positive and HR-negative primary tumors; 160 (35%) achieved pCR. In the overall patient population, no association was found between BMI groups and pCR, as we reported pCR rates of 57.1%, 35%, 30.7%, and 39.8% in underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese cases, respectively. In contrast, in HR-positive tumors, overweight or obesity was generally associated with decreased likelihood of achieving a pCR independently of other clinical variables, including planned surgery, nodal status, and tumor size (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.55, 95%CI 0.30-1.01, as compared to normal or underweight; p =?0.053); notably, no differential effect of BMI with respect to pCR was observed in HR-negative cases (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.30, 95%CI 0.76-2.23, as compared to normal or underweight; p =?0.331), resulting in a statistically significant interaction between BMI and HR status (p =?0.036). There was no association between BMI and EFS neither in the overall nor in the HR-positive population, but this analysis was under-powered. CONCLUSIONS:NeoALTTO patients overweight or obese at baseline and with HR-positive primary BC appeared less likely to achieve pCR after neo-adjuvant anti-HER2 therapies. This finding paves the way to future research in targeting the interplay between HER2/HR signaling and metabolism.