Maternal Methyl Donor Supplementation during Gestation Counteracts the Bisphenol A-Induced Impairment of Intestinal Morphology, Disaccharidase Activity, and Nutrient Transporters Gene Expression in Newborn and Weaning Pigs.
ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to explore whether exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy could change intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring using pigs as a model, and whether methyl donor (MET) could counteract the BPA-induced impacts. Fifty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were divided into four dietary groups throughout gestation: control diet (CON); control diet supplemented with BPA (50 mg/kg); control diet supplemented with MET (3 g/kg betaine, 400 mg/kg choline, 150 ?g/kg vitamin B12, and 15 mg/kg folic acid); and control diet with BPA and MET supplementation (BPA + MET). Intestine samples were collected from pigs' offspring at birth and weaning. Maternal BPA exposure during pregnancy significantly reduced the ratio of jejunum villus height to crypt depth, decreased the jejunum sucrase activity, down-regulated the mRNA expression of jejunum peptide transporter 1 (Pept1) and DNA methyl transferase 3a (DNMT3a), and decreased the DNA methylation level of jejunum Pept1 in offspring (p < 0.05). Maternal MET supplementation significantly raised the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in jejunum and ileum, improved the jejunum lactase activity, up-regulated the mRNA expression of jejunum Pept1, lactase (LCT), DNMT1, DNMT3a, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and increased the DNA methylation level of jejunum Pept1 in offspring (p < 0.05). However, the ratio of jejunum villus height to crypt depth was higher in BPA + MET treatment compared with CON and BPA treatment (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, there was no difference in the jejunum sucrase activity, the mRNA expression of jejunum Pept1 and DNMT3a, and the DNA methylation level of jejunum Pept1 between CON and BPA + MET treatment. These results indicated that maternal exposure to BPA during gestation might suppress offspring's intestinal digestion and absorption function, whereas supplementation of MET could counteract these damages, which might be associated with DNA methylation.
Project description:In the jejunum, PepT1 is particularly enriched in the well-differentiated absorptive epithelial cells in the villi. Studies of expression and function of PepT1 along the crypt-villus axis demonstrated that this protein is crucial to the process of di/tripeptide absorption. We recently exhibited that PepT1 plays an important role in multiple biological functions, including the ability to regulate the expression/secretion of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) and the expression levels of multiple proteins. In this study, we observed that PepT1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited reduced body weight and shorten intestinal microvilli. We then examined the expression levels of various miRNAs and their target proteins along the crypt-villi axis in the jejunum of PepT1 KO mice. We found that PepT1 KO altered the distribution of miRNAs along the crypt-villus axis and changed the miRNA profiles of both villi and crypts. Using miRNA-target prediction and 2D-DIGE/mass spectrometry on villi and crypts samples, we found that ablation of PepT1 further directly or indirectly altered expression levels of certain protein targets. Collectively, our results suggest that PepT1 contributes to maintain balance of homeostasis and proper functions in the small intestine, and dysregulated miRNAs and proteins along the crypt-villus axis are highly related to this process.
Project description:The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri LR1, a new strain isolated from the feces of weaned pigs, on the growth performance, intestinal morphology, immune responses, and intestinal barrier function in weaned pigs. A total of 144 weaned pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire, 21 d of age) with an initial BW of 6.49 ± 0.02 kg were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 8 replicate pens, each of per treatment and 6 pigs. Pigs were fed a basal diet (CON, controls), the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg olaquindox and 75 mg/kg aureomycin (OA) or the basal diet supplemented with 5 × 1010 cfu/kg L. reuteri LR1 for a 14-d period. At the end of study, the ADG, ADFI, and G:F were calculated, and 1 randomly selected pig from each pen was euthanized for sample collection. The LR1 increased ADG (22.73%, P < 0.05) compared with CON. The villus height of the ileum was increased (P < 0.05) and crypt depth in duodenum was reduced (P < 0.05), along with increased (P < 0.05) villus height to crypt depth ratio of the jejunum and ileum by LR1 compared with CON and OA. LR1 increased (P < 0.05) ileal mucosal content of IL-22 and transforming growth factor-? compared with OA. Compared with CON, LR1 increased (P < 0.05) and OA decreased (P < 0.05) the ileal content of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), and the abundance of transcripts of porcine ?-defensin 2 and protegrin 1-5. Compared with CON, LR1 increased (P < 0.05) tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 and occludin transcripts in the mucosa of the jejunum and ileum, and those of mucin-2 in ileal mucosa. The relative expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 were increased (P < 0.05) in ileal mucosa in pigs fed LR1 compared with CON. In conclusion, these data indicated that dietary LR1 supplementation at 5 × 1010 cfu/kg improved growth performance, intestinal morphology, and intestinal barrier function in weaned pigs.
Project description:This study was conducted to evaluate effects of the single and combined use of curcumin (CUR) and piperine (PIP) on performance, intestinal barrier function, and antioxidant capacity of weaned piglets. A total of 50 Wuzhishan piglets weaned at 35 days of age were randomly assigned to five groups receiving a corn-soybean basal diet (CON), the basal diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg piperine, 200 mg/kg curcumin (low-CUR), 200 mg/kg curcumin + 50 mg/kg piperine (PIP + CUR), and 300 mg/kg curcumin (high-CUR), respectively. The results showed that the feed/gain ratio (F/G) and plasma d-lactate and diamine oxidase activity (DAO) of the CUR + PIP and high-CUR groups were lower than those of the CON group (all P < 0.05), while the jejunum and ileum villus height, the villus height/crypt depth ratio, and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of occludin, claudin-1, and zonula occluden-1 in jejunal and ileal mucosa were higher in the CUR + PIP and high-CUR groups than in the CON group (all P < 0.05). Moreover, the piglets in the CUR + PIP and high-CUR groups had higher serum and intestinal mucosa activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and lower malonaldehyde concentration than piglets in the CON group (all P < 0.05). The above parameters were not significantly different between the CUR + PIP and high-CUR groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the combination of CUR and PIP seemed to be as advantageous as high-CUR to piglets, but it was more effective than the single use of CUR and PIP. These data indicated that the basal diet supplemented with CUR + PIP or high-CUR could improve the intestinal permeability and suppress oxidative stress of weaned Wuzhishan piglets.
Project description:The ban on the use of antibiotic in feed encouraged nutritionists to using alternatives to maintain growth performance and intestinal function of broilers. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Yupingfeng polysaccharides (YP) supplementation on growth performance and expression of SGLT1, GLUT2 and GLUT5 in Qingyuan partridge chicken. Experiment 1: a total of 540 chickens were randomly allocated to five groups with six replication. Dietary treatments were: (1) CON (control group), basal diet; (2) T1, CON + 0.5 g kg-1 YP; (3) T2, CON + 1 g kg-1 YP; (4) T3, CON + 2 g kg-1 YP; (5) T4, CON + 4 g kg-1 YP. Experiment 2, a total of 162 were randomly allocated to three groups with three replication. Dietary treatments were: (1) CON, basal diet; (2) T1, CON + 0.5 g kg-1 YP; (3) T2, CON + 1 g kg-1 YP. From days 1 to 14 and overall, chicken fed T1 diet had higher ADG. On day 42, there was increased villus height of jejunum in T1 group. On days 14 and 28, there was decreased villus height of duodenum and jejunum in T2 group. In duodenum, the expression of SGLT1 (days 21, 35 and 42), GLUT2 (days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42) and GLUT5 (days 7, 14, 21 and 28) was increased with YP supplementation. In jejunum, the expression of SGLT1 (days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35), GLUT2 (days 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42) and GLUT5 (days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42) was increased with YP supplementation. In ileum, the expression of SGLT1 (days 7, 21, 35 and 42), GLUT2 (days 7, 14, 21 and 42) and GLUT5 (days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42) was increased with YP supplementation. Dietary YP supplementation improves growth performance and expression of SGLT1, GLUT2 and GLUT5 in intestine.
Project description:This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus delbrueckii (LAB) on intestinal morphology, barrier function, immune response, and antioxidant capacity in weaned piglets challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 36 two-line crossbred (Landrace?×?large Yorkshire) weaned piglets (28 days old) were divided into three groups: (1) nonchallenged control (CON); (2) LPS-challenged control (LPS); and (3) LAB+LPS treatment (0.2% LAB+LPS). Compared to the LPS piglets, the LAB+LPS piglets improved intestinal morphology, indicated by greater (P < 0.05) villus height in the duodenum and ileum; villus height?:?crypt depth ratio in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, as well as decreased (P < 0.05) crypt depth in the jejunum and ileum; and better intestinal barrier function, indicated by upregulated (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of tight junction proteins in the intestinal mucosa. Moreover, compared to the LPS piglets, LAB significantly decreased (P < 0.05) concentrations of TNF-? and IL-1? in the small intestine and increased (P < 0.05) IL-10 levels in the jejunum and ileum. Additionally, LAB increased (P < 0.05) T-AOC activities of the colon, GSH concentrations of the jejunum, and mRNA expression of CAT and Cu/Zn-SOD, while reduced (P < 0.05) MDA concentrations in the jejunum and ileum in LPS-changed piglets. Collectively, our results indicate that supplementation of LAB improved intestinal integrity and immune response and alleviated intestinal oxidative damage in LPS-challenged piglets.
Project description:Maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in the offspring's intestinal development and immunity. The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of maternal energy on intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring, using pigs as a model; and (2) to evaluate the potential effect and mechanisms of maternal energy in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. After mating, thirty-six nine-parity sows (Landrace × Yorkshire), body weight (BW) (initial body weight 233.56 ± 2.77 kg) were allocated to two dietary treatment groups; a control diet (CON) group and a low-energy diet (LED) group. The nutrient levels of the CON were based on the nutrient recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC, 2012), and contained 3.40 MCal digestible energy (DE)/kg diet and 7.3% crude protein; while the LED contained 3.00 MCal DE/kg diet. The dietary treatments were introduced from day 1 of gestation to farrowing. Intestine samples were collected from the pigs' offspring at birth, and at weaning (day 28 post-birth). At weaning, male pigs from control and LED groups were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 ?g/kg body weight) or saline (n = 6), and sacrificed at 4 h post-injection to collect blood, intestine and digesta samples for biochemical analysis. The results indicated that the maternal LED markedly decreased the BW, small intestinal weight, and the ratio of jejunum and ileum villus height to crypt depth in the offspring. Moreover, the activities of lactase and sucrase in newborn piglets' intestine, and sucrase and maltase in weaning piglet intestine were markedly decreased by the maternal LED. In addition, maternal LED significantly increased the mRNA relative expression of ileal IL-6 and TNF-? in newborn piglets. Plasma IL-1? concentration and colonic Escherichia coli amount were affected by maternal diet (p < 0.05) and LPS challenge (p < 0.001). Maternal LED significant increased the mRNA relative expression of ileal TLR-4, IL-1? and NF-?B as well as decreased ZO-1 in weaning pigs after LPS challenge (p < 0.05). In conclusion, decreasing energy intake could suppress the offspring's intestinal digestion and absorption function, and increase the susceptibility of weaning piglets to LPS challenge.
Project description:Background:Tannic acid (TA) is potential to reduce diarrhea in weaning pigs, but knowledge about the influence of TA on intestinal barrier integrity and function is still scarce. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary TA supplementation on growth performance, diarrhea rate, intestinal barrier integrity and function of weaned pigs. Methods:A total of 108 crossbred (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) piglets, with an initial average body weight of 6.60?±?0.27?kg, were allotted to 3 groups (6 pigs/pen and 6 replicates/group) in a randomized complete block design according to their gender and body weight. Piglets were fed the basal diet with 0 (control, CON), 0.2% and 1.0% TA, respectively. The trial lasted for 28?d. Results:Compared with the CON group, dietary 0.2% and 1.0% TA supplementation didn't affect ADFI, ADG and F:G (P?>?0.05), but reduced diarrhea rate, diarrhea index and diarrhea score of piglets (P?<?0.05), reduced diamine oxidase (DAO) activity and D-lactic acid concentration in serum (P?<?0.01). The higher occludin expression and localization were observed in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum after supplementation with 0.2% or 1.0% TA (P?<?0.05). Adding 0.2% TA to diet significantly decreased crypt depth, increased villus height/crypt depth ratio in the duodenum (P?<?0.05), and dietary 1.0% TA tended to decrease crypt depth (P?<?0.10) and significantly decreased villus height (P?<?0.05) of the ileum. Moreover, lower malondialdehyde content in the ileum was detected in the pigs fed 1.0% TA (P?<?0.05). In the duodenum, both 0.2% and 1.0% TA groups had higher occludin (OCLN) mRNA and 0.2% TA group had higher zonula occludens-2 (ZO-2) level (P?<?0.05). Meanwhile, dietary 1.0% TA supplementation tended to up-regulate OCLN mRNA levels in the jejunum (P?<?0.10) and 0.2% TA supplementation tended to up-regulate zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) mRNA levels in the ileum (P?<?0.10). Conclusion:In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 0.2% or 1.0% TA could effectively alleviate post-weaning diarrhea without altering growth performance in weaned piglets, which might be achieved by improving intestinal barrier integrity and function.
Project description:Broilers are often deprived of feed and water for up to 48 h after hatch. This delayed access to feed (DAF) can inhibit small intestine development. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of DAF on small intestinal morphology, mRNA abundance of the goblet cell marker Muc2 and absorptive cell marker PepT1, and the distribution of goblet cells in young broilers. Cobb 500 chicks, hatching within a 12-h window, were randomly allocated into 3 groups: control with no feed delay (ND), 24-h feed delay (DAF24), and 36-h feed delay (DAF36). Morphology, gene expression, and in situ hybridization analyses were conducted on the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum at 0, 24, 36, 72, 120, and 168 h after hatch. Statistical analysis was performed using a t test for ND and DAF24 at 24 h. A 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (P < 0.05) were used for ND, DAF24, and DAF36 from 36 h. At 24 to 36 h, DAF decreased the ratio of villus height/crypt depth (VH/CD) in the duodenum but increased VH/CD in the ileum due to changes in CD, whereas at 72 h, DAF decreased VH/CD due to a decrease in VH. The mRNA abundance of PepT1 was upregulated, while Muc2 mRNA was downregulated in DAF chicks. Cells expressing Muc2 mRNA were present along the villi and in the crypts. The ratio of the number of goblet cells found in the upper half to the lower half of the villus was greater in DAF chicks than in ND chicks, suggesting that DAF affected the appearance of new goblet cells. The number of Muc2 mRNA-expressing cells in the crypt, however, was generally not affected by DAF. In conclusion, DAF transiently affected small intestinal morphology, upregulated PepT1 mRNA, downregulated Muc2 mRNA, and changed the distribution of goblet cells in the villi. By 168 h, however, these parameters were not different between ND, DAF24, and DAF36 chicks.
Project description:?-Conglycinin (?-CG), an anti-nutritional factor, is a major allergen in soybeans to induce intestinal dysfunction and diarrhea in neonatal animals, including piglets and human infants. This study with a piglet model determined the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on intestinal function and autophagy in response to ?-CG challenge. Twenty-four 12-day-old piglets (3.44?±?0.28 kg), which had been weaned at 7 days of age and adapted for 5 days after weaning, were randomly allocated to the control, ?-CG, and ?-CG?+?NAC groups. Piglets in the control group were fed a liquid diet containing 10% casein, whereas those in the ?-CG and ?-CG?+?NAC groups were fed the basal liquid diets containing 9.5% casein and 0.5% ?-CG for 2 days. Thereafter, pigs in the ?-CG?+?NAC group were orally administrated with 50 mg (kg BW)<sup>-1</sup> NAC for 3 days, while pigs in the other two groups were orally administrated with the same volume of sterile saline. NAC numerically reduced diarrhea incidence (-?46.2%) and the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde, but increased claudin-1 and intestinal fatty-acid binding protein (iFABP) protein abundances and activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the jejunum of ?-CG-challenged piglets. Although ?-CG challenge decreased the villus height, villus height/crypt depth ratio, and mRNA levels of claudin-1 and occludin, no significant differences were observed in these indices between the control and ?-CG?+?NAC groups, suggesting the positive effects of NAC supplementation on intestinal mucosal barrier function. Moreover, NAC increased the concentrations of citrulline and D-xylose in the plasma, as well as the expression of genes for aquaporin (AQP) 3, AQP4, peptide transporter 1 (PepT1), sodium/glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT-1), potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 13 (KCNJ13), and solute carrier family 1 member 1 (SLC1A1) in the jejunum, demonstrating that NAC augmented intestinal metabolic activity and absorptive function. Remarkably, NAC decreased Atg5 protein abundance and the LC3II/LC3I ratio (an indicator of autophagy) in the jejunum of ?-CG-challenged piglets. Taken together, NAC supplementation improved intestinal function and attenuated intestinal autophagy in ?-CG-challenged piglets.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance is a major issue in animal industries and antibiotic-free alternatives are needed to treat infectious diseases and improve performance of pigs. Plant extracts have been suggested as a potential solution. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (Aps) and ginseng polysaccharide (Gps) on growth performance, intestinal morphology, immune function, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and microfloral community in weaned piglets. A total of 180 weaned piglets were randomly divided into three treatment groups during a 28-days feeding experiment, including a basal diet (Con), basal diet supplemented with 800 mg/kg Aps (Aps), and basal diet supplemented with 800 mg/kg Gps (Gps). Results showed that both Aps and Gps increased body weight, average daily gain and feed conversion rate, and reduced the rate of diarrhea. Gps also decreased aspartate aminotransferase compared to the Con piglets after 14 days. No significant effects on alanine aminotransferase were observed. Both Aps and Gps piglets exhibited higher serum immunoglobulin M levels after 14 and 28 days, and also decreased jejunal crypt depth, increased jejunal villus length and villus height/crypt depth ratio, and increased expression of toll-like receptor 4, myeloid differentiation primary response 88, nuclear factor-kappa B proteins in the jejunum. Aps and Gps piglets also had higher concentrations of acetic acid, isobutyric acid, and butyrate in their colon. Data of high-throughput sequencing revealed that Aps and Gps affected bacterial quantity and diversity in the colon. Species richness and evenness were higher in both Aps and Gps piglets than the control piglets. Aps and Gps piglets also had a higher relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae and Anaerostipes, and the Aps piglets had a higher relative abundance of Lactobacillus gasseri and L. amylovorus. Therefore, dietary supplementation with Aps and Gps could be beneficial for optimizing the performance of industry pigs and reducing dependence on antibiotics. Furthermore, Plant polysaccharides play a great role in promoting the sustainable development of animal husbandry.