Dietary Patterns among Vietnamese and Hispanic Immigrant Elementary School Children Participating in an After School Program.
ABSTRACT: Immigrants in the U.S. may encounter challenges of acculturation, including dietary habits, as they adapt to new surroundings. We examined Vietnamese and Hispanic immigrant children's American food consumption patterns in a convenience sample of 63 Vietnamese and Hispanic children in grades four to six who were attending an after school program. Children indicated the number of times they consumed each of 54 different American foods in the past week using a food frequency questionnaire. We ranked each food according to frequency of consumption, compared the intake of foods to the USDA Healthy Eating Pattern, and performed dietary pattern analysis. Since the data were not normally distributed we used two nonparametric tests to evaluate statistical significance: the Kruskal-Wallis tested for significant gender and ethnicity differences and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test evaluated the food consumption of children compared with the USDA recommended amounts. We found that among USDA categories, discretionary food was most commonly consumed, followed by fruit. The sample as a whole ate significantly less than the recommended amount of grains, protein foods, and dairy, but met the recommended amount of fruit. Boys ate significantly more grains, proteins, and fruits than did girls. Dietary pattern analysis showed a very high sweet snack consumption among all children, while boys ate more fast food and fruit than girls. Foods most commonly consumed were cereal, apples, oranges, and yogurt. Ethnicity differences in food selection were not significant. The high intake of discretionary/snack foods and fruit, with low intake of grains, vegetables, protein, and dairy in our sample suggests Vietnamese and Hispanic immigrant children may benefit from programs to improve diet quality.
Project description:(1) Background: Food-based dietary guidelines promote population health and well-being through dietary patterns that reduce chronic disease risk while providing adequate energy and nutrients. In Australia, recommended dietary patterns based on servings per day from the five food groups—fruits, vegetables, cereals and grains, meats and alternatives, and dairy—have been developed for toddlers 1–2 years of age. However, no study has assessed the intake of the five food groups in this age group nationally. (2) Aim: To compare daily servings and the percentage of energy from the five food groups and discretionary foods in toddlers 1–2 years old to the Australian Dietary Guidelines. (3) Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a one-day food record for 475 toddlers. (4) Results: Apart from fruit and dairy, servings of the five food groups were below the recommendations. Two-thirds of toddlers did not consume enough vegetables, and only 10% consumed the recommended number of servings for cereals and grains. On average, toddlers consumed only half the recommended servings of meat and alternatives. Nearly all toddlers (89%) consumed discretionary foods, which accounted for ~12% of total energy. Forty-five percent of toddlers received breastmilk. On average, breastfed toddlers consumed fewer servings from the five food groups than non-breastfed toddlers. Dairy contributed 20% of daily energy in all toddlers; however, this food group accounted for 13% in breastfed and 32% in non-breastfed toddlers on the day of the food record. (4) Conclusions: Compared to the recommendations, alignment with the servings of the five food group foods was not achieved by most toddlers, except for fruit and dairy. Discretionary foods may have displaced nutritious family foods. Consistent with Australian Infant Feeding Guidelines, many toddlers in this study continued to receive breastmilk but the recommended dietary patterns do not include breastmilk. Dietary modeling, including breastmilk as the primary milk source, is urgently needed, along with practical advice on incorporating breastmilk in a toddler’s diet while optimizing food consumption.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Minimum Dietary Diversity (MDD) is a widely used indicator of adequate dietary micronutrient density for children 6-23 mo old. MDD food-group data remain underutilized, despite their potential for further informing nutrition programs and policies.<h4>Objectives</h4>We aimed to describe the diets of children meeting MDD and not meeting MDD in India using food group data, nationally and subnationally.<h4>Methods</h4>Food group data for children 6-23 mo old (n = 73,036) from the 2015-16 National Family Health Survey in India were analyzed. Per WHO standards, children consuming ≥5 of the following food groups in the past day or night met MDD: breast milk; grains, roots, or tubers; legumes or nuts; dairy; flesh foods; eggs; vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables; and other fruits and vegetables. Children not meeting MDD consumed <5 food groups. We analyzed the number and types of foods consumed by children meeting MDD and not meeting MDD at the national and subnational geographic levels.<h4>Results</h4>Nationally, children not meeting MDD most often consumed breast milk (84.5%), grains, roots, and tubers (62.0%), and/or dairy (42.9%). Children meeting MDD most often consumed grains, roots, and tubers (97.6%), vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables (93.8%), breast milk (84.1%), dairy (82.1%), other fruits and vegetables (79.5%), and/or eggs (56.5%). For children not meeting MDD, district-level dairy consumption varied the most (6.4%-79.9%), whereas flesh foods consumption varied the least (0.0%-43.8%). For children meeting MDD, district-level egg consumption varied the most (0.0%-100.0%), whereas grains, roots, and tubers consumption varied the least (66.8%-100.0%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Children not meeting MDD had low fruit, vegetable, and protein-rich food consumption. Many children meeting MDD also had low protein-rich food consumption. Examining the number and types of foods consumed highlights priorities for children experiencing the greatest dietary deprivation, providing valuable complementary information to MDD.
Project description:Despite recommendations to the contrary, consumption of discretionary (energy-dense, nutrient-poor) foods begins for some children early in the weaning period, and the proportion of children consuming discretionary foods increases markedly in the second year of life. The purpose of this study was to determine intake and sources of discretionary foods in a cohort of 828 Australian toddlers (mean age: 13.1mo), and to identify determinants of discretionary food intake. At approximately 12 months of age, 3 non-consecutive days of dietary intake data were collected using a 24-h recall and 2-day food record, and the percentage total energy derived from discretionary foods was estimated. Linear regression was used to identify associations between discretionary food intake and socio-demographic determinants (mother's age, level of education, country of birth, pre-pregnancy body mass index, socioeconomic position, parity, age of child when mother returned to work, and child's sex) and age at which complementary foods were introduced. The average energy intake of children in this cohort was 4040 (±954.7 SD) kJ with discretionary foods contributing an average of 11.2% of total energy. Sweet biscuits, and cakes, muffins, scones and cake-type desserts contributed 10.8% and 10.2% of energy intake from discretionary foods, respectively. Other key contributors to energy intake from discretionary foods included sausages, frankfurters and saveloys (8.3%), vegetable products and dishes where frying was the main cooking technique (8.6%), butter (7.3%), and finally manufactured infant sweet or savory snack foods (9.3%). Higher intakes of discretionary food were associated with children having two or more siblings (<i>p</i> = 0.002), and being born to younger mothers (<25 years) (<i>p</i> = 0.008) and mothers born in Australia or the United Kingdom (<i>p</i> < 0.001). Parents, in particular young mothers and those with larger families, need practical guidance on how much of, and how often, these foods should be eaten by their children.
Project description:Over one third of Australians' daily energy intake is from discretionary foods and drinks. While many health promotion efforts seek to limit discretionary food intake, the population health impact of reductions in the consumption of different types of discretionary foods (e.g., sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), confectionery, sweet biscuits) has not been quantified. This study estimated the potential reductions in body weight, obesity-related disease incidence, and healthcare cost savings associated with consumption of one less serving per week of different discretionary foods. Reductions in the different types of discretionary food were modelled individually to estimate the impact on energy consumption and population body weight by 5-year age and sex groups. It was assumed that one serving of discretionary food each week was replaced with either a serving of fruit or popcorn, and a serving (375 mL) of SSBs was replaced with coffee, tea, or milk. Proportional multi-state multiple-cohort Markov modelling estimated likely resultant health adjusted life years (HALYs) gained and healthcare costs saved over the lifetime of the 2010 Australian population. A reduction of one serving of SSBs (375 mL) had the greatest potential impact in terms of weight reduction, particularly in ages 19-24 years (mean 0.31 kg, 95% UI: 0.23 kg to 0.37 kg) and overall healthcare cost savings of AUD 793.4 million (95% UI: 589.1 M to 976.1 M). A decrease of one serving of sweet biscuits had the second largest potential impact on weight change overall, with healthcare cost savings of $640.7 M (95% CI: $402.6 M to $885.8 M) and the largest potential weight reduction amongst those aged 75 years and over (mean 0.21 kg, 95% UI: 0.14 kg to 0.27 kg). The results demonstrate that small reductions in discretionary food consumption are likely to have substantial health benefits at the population level. Moreover, the study highlights that policy responses to improve population diets may need to be tailored to target different types of foods for different population groups.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Research on the association between school meal consumption and overall dietary intake post-Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act implementation is limited. OBJECTIVE:This study examines the association between frequency of participating in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs and children's dietary intakes. DESIGN:The Healthy Communities Study was a cross-sectional observational study conducted between 2013 and 2015. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING:US children aged 4 to 15 years (n=5,106) were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Dietary measures were assessed using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Dietary Screener Questionnaire. Dietary intake included fruit and vegetables, fiber, whole grains, dairy, calcium, total added sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages, and energy-dense foods of minimal nutritional value. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:Multivariate statistical models assessed associations between frequency of eating school breakfast or lunch (every day vs not every day) and dietary intake, adjusting for child- and community-level covariates. RESULTS:Children who ate school breakfast every day compared with children who ate 0 to 4 days/wk, reported consuming more fruits and vegetables (0.1 cup/day, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.1), dietary fiber (0.4 g/day, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.7), whole grains (0.1 oz/day, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.1), dairy (0.1 cup/day, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.1), and calcium (34.5 mg/day, 95% CI: 19.1, 49.9). Children who ate school lunch every day, compared with those who ate less frequently, consumed more dairy (0.1 cup/day, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.2) and calcium (32.4 mg/day, 95% CI: 18.1, 46.6). No significant associations were observed between school meal consumption and energy-dense nutrient-poor foods or added sugars. CONCLUSIONS:Eating school breakfast and school lunch every day by US schoolchildren was associated with modestly healthier dietary intakes. These findings suggest potential nutritional benefits of regularly consuming school meals.
Project description:Can brief messages about health influence children's consumption of identical foods? Across a series of studies, we manipulated children's consumption of identical foods (fruit sauces) by pairing those foods with brief messages about each food's health status. What initially appeared to be a preference for foods described as healthy among 5- to 6-year-old children (Studies 1-2) actually reflected a preference for alternatives to foods described as unhealthy (Studies 3-5), including comparison foods that were described with negative or neutral content. Although the 2 foods on each trial were identical, children consistently ate more of the alternative to a food described as unhealthy. Similar effects were observed among 8- to 9-year-old children (Study 6). These results demonstrate that children's eating behavior is affected by messages they receive from other people, including messages about health. Further, these studies reveal basic psychological mechanisms that contribute to children's choices among foods, which could lead to effective interventions in the food domain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise is a multicomponent obesity-prevention intervention, which was evaluated among Head Start (HS) centers in American Indian and predominantly Hispanic communities in rural New Mexico. This study examines the intervention's foodservice outcomes: fruits, vegetables, whole grains, discretionary fats, added sugars, and fat from milk served in meals and snacks.Sixteen HS centers were randomized to intervention/comparison groups, following stratification by ethnicity and preintervention median body mass index of enrolled children. The foodservice component included quarterly trainings for foodservice staff about food purchasing and preparation. Foods served were evaluated before and after the 2-year intervention, in the fall 2008 and spring 2010.The intervention significantly decreased fat provided through milk and had no significant effect on fruit, vegetables and whole-grain servings, discretionary fats, and added sugar served in HS meals and snacks. When effect modification by site ethnicity was examined, the effect on fat provided through milk was only found in American Indian sites.Foodservice interventions can reduce the amount of fat provided through milk served in HS. More research is needed regarding the implementation of foodservice interventions to improve the composition of foods served in early education settings.
Project description:Excessive salt intake has negative effects on health and persists as a dietary problem in Spanish children. However, the analysis of dietary sodium sources has not been extensively studied. A group of 321 children between 7 and 11 years old from five Spanish regional communities was studied. A three-day dietary record was used to determine the contribution of food and beverages to dietary sodium intake. The food consumed was classified based on the level of processing (NOVA classification) and the nutritional profile. Boys consumed more dietary sodium and sodium from ultra-processed food (UPF) than girls (p < 0.05). The main sources of dietary sodium from discretionary food were meat and meat products (25.1%), some ready-to-eat and pre-cooked dishes (7.4%) and sugars and sweets (6.3%). More than 4/5 of the total dietary sodium consumed came from processed foods (PF) and UPF. Ready-to-eat and pre-cooked dishes (14.4%), meat and meat products (10.6%), and cereals (10.2%) were the most relevant UPF. These results demonstrate that a key point for Spanish children is a reduction in the sodium content in PF and UPF, whether these foods are for basic or discretionary consumption. Furthermore, a decrease in the frequency and the quantity of discretionary food consumption should be encouraged.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To examine sodium and potassium urinary excretion by socioeconomic status (SES), discretionary salt use habits and dietary sources of sodium and potassium in a sample of Australian schoolchildren. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:Primary schools located in Victoria, Australia. PARTICIPANTS:666 of 780 children aged 4-12 years who participated in the Salt and Other Nutrients in Children study returned a complete 24-hour urine collection. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:24-hour urine collection for the measurement of sodium and potassium excretion and 24-hour dietary recall for the assessment of food sources. Parent and child reported use of discretionary salt. SES defined by parental highest level of education. RESULTS:Participants were 9.3 years (95%?CI 9.0 to 9.6) of age and 55% were boys. Mean urinary sodium and potassium excretion was 103 (95% CI 99 to 108) mmol/day (salt equivalent 6.1?g/day) and 47 (95% CI 45 to 49) mmol/day, respectively. Mean molar Na:K ratio was 2.4 (95% CI 2.3 to 2.5). 72% of children exceeded the age-specific upper level for sodium intake. After adjustment for age, sex and day of urine collection, children from a low socioeconomic background excreted 10.0 (95% CI 17.8 to 2.1) mmol/day more sodium than those of high socioeconomic background (p=0.04). The major sources of sodium were bread (14.8%), mixed cereal-based dishes (9.9%) and processed meat (8.5%). The major sources of potassium were dairy milk (11.5%), potatoes (7.1%) and fruit/vegetable juice (5.4%). Core foods provided 55.3% of dietary sodium and 75.5% of potassium while discretionary foods provided 44.7% and 24.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:For most children, sodium intake exceeds dietary recommendations and there is some indication that children of lower socioeconomic background have the highest intakes. Children are consuming about two times more sodium than potassium. To improve sodium and potassium intakes in schoolchildren, product reformulation of lower salt core foods combined with strategies that seek to reduce the consumption of discretionary foods are required.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>There are limited data on the evolution of eating habits, including snacking, in Australia. This study aimed to understand snacking trends among Australian children over three previous National Nutrition Surveys.<h4>Methods</h4>Data were analysed from a single weekday 24-h recall in the National Nutrition Surveys 1995, 2007, 2011-12 among children 2-16y (n = 8258). A snacking occasion was defined as an eating occasion that occurred between meals based on time of day.<h4>Results</h4>The percentage of children snacking increased over time (92.5 ± 0.5(SE) % in 1995, 98.1 ± 0.3% in 2007, and 95.8 ± 0.4% in 2011-12) (P < 0.001), particularly among those having four or more snacking occasions (7.1 ± 0.5% in 1995, 17.9 ± 0.6% in 2007, and 18.5 ± 0.8% in 2011-2) (P < 0.001). The mean number of snacking occasions increased from 2.0 ± 0.0 in 1995, to 2.5 ± 0.0 in 2007 and 2011-12 (P < 0.001). The energy contribution from snacking increased from 24.1 ± 0.3% in 1995 to 27.7 ± 0.3% in 2007 and 30.5 ± 0.4% in 2011-12 (P < 0.001), while the energy from discretionary food during snacking decreased from 56.5 ± 0.7% in 1995 to 47.3 ± 0.5% in 2007 and 47.9 ± 0.7% in 2011-12 (P < 0.001). There were differences in the top foods consumed during snacking: non-alcoholic beverages were prominent contributors in 1995 but not in 2007 or 2011, and pome fruit was the second top energy contributor during snacking in 2007 and 2011 but only fourth in 1995.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Snacking is a prominent dietary pattern that has increased over time in frequency and energy contribution. Foods and beverages consumed during snacking occasions include a mix of core foods and discretionary foods, and while the contribution of discretionary foods has decreased, there is still an opportunity to encourage consumption of more nutrient dense foods during snacking.