EPR Imaging Spin Probe Trityl Radical OX063: A Method for Its Isolation from Animal Effluent, Redox Chemistry of Its Quinone Methide Oxidation Product, and in Vivo Application in a Mouse.
ABSTRACT: We report herein a method for the recovery, purification, and application of OX063, a costly, commercially available nontoxic spin probe widely used for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging, as well as its corresponding quinone methide (QM) form. This precious probe can be successfully recovered after use in animal model experiments (25-47% recovery from crude lyophilizate with 98.5% purity), even from samples that are >2 years old. Significantly, the recovered trityl can be reused in further animal model EPR imaging experiments. The work also describes support for the observed formation of an air-sensitive radical derived from the QM under reducing conditions.
Project description:Pulse techniques in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) allow for a reduction in measurement times and increase in sensitivity but require the synthesis of paramagnetic probes with long relaxation times. Here it is shown that the recently synthesized phosphonated trityl radical possesses long relaxation times that are sensitive to probe the microenvironment, such as oxygenation and acidity of an aqueous solution. In principle, application of Fourier transform EPR (FT-EPR) spectroscopy makes it possible to acquire the entire EPR spectrum of the trityl probe and assess these microenvironmental parameters within a few microseconds. The performed analysis of the FT-EPR spectra takes into consideration oxygen-, proton-, buffer-, and concentration-induced contributions to the spectral shape, therefore enabling quantitative and discriminative assessment of pH, pO2, and concentrations of the probe and inorganic phosphate.
Project description:EPR oximetry with the use of trityl radicals can enable sensitive O2 measurement in biological cells and tissues. However, in vitro cellular and in vivo biological applications are limited by rapid trityl probe degradation or biological clearance and the need to enhance probe O2 sensitivity. We synthesized novel perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions, ?200nm droplet size, containing esterified perchlorinated triphenyl methyl (PTM) radicals dispersed in physiological aqueous buffers. These formulations exhibit excellent EPR signal stability, over 20-fold greater than free PTM probes, with high oxygen sensitivity ?17mG/mmHg enabling pO2 measurement in aqueous solutions or cell suspensions with sensitivity >0.5mmHg. Thus, PFC-PTM probes hold great promise to enable combined O2 delivery and sensing as needed to restore or enhance tissue oxygenation in disease.
Project description:Novel dendritic trityl radicals (DTR1 and DTR2) with a TAM radical core, PAMAM branching and carboxylate exterior surface exhibit high stability towards oxidoreductants as evidenced by their electrochemical and EPR properties, offering potential application as dual oxygen and pH probe.
Project description:Electron spin-lattice relaxation of two trityl radicals, d24-OX063 and Finland trityl, were studied under conditions relevant to their use in dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). The dependence of relaxation kinetics on temperature up to 100 K and on concentration up to 60 mM was obtained at X- and W-bands (0.35 and 3.5 Tesla, respectively). The relaxation is quite similar at both bands and for both trityl radicals. At concentrations typical for DNP, relaxation is mediated by excitation transfer and spin-diffusion to fast-relaxing centers identified as triads of trityl radicals that spontaneously form in the frozen samples. These centers relax by an Orbach-Aminov mechanism and determine the relaxation, saturation and electron spin dynamics during DNP.
Project description:Substituted trityl radicals are important spin probes for functional electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging including oxygen and pH mapping in vivo. Here we report the synthetic procedure for large scale synthesis of deuterated Finland trityl radical with superior EPR spectral properties and higher sensitivity towards oxygen concentrations in solution. Additionally Finland trityl radicals substituted with linkers suitable for attaching peptide, or other synthetic precursors have been synthesized. The effect of deutero-substitution on EPR spectra of homologous derivatives has been evaluated. The compounds are potential candidates for targeted spin probes in EPR imaging.
Project description:Recently, new applications of trityl-nitroxide biradicals were proposed. In the present study, attachment of a trityl radical to alkoxyamines was performed for the first time. The rate constants kd of C-ON bond homolysis in these alkoxyamines were measured and found to be equal to those for alkoxyamines without trityl. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the products of alkoxyamine homolysis (trityl-TEMPO and trityl-SG1 biradicals) were recorded, and the corresponding exchange interactions were estimated. The decomposition of trityl-alkoxyamine showed more than an 80% yield of biradicals, meaning that the C-ON bond homolysis is the main reaction. The suitability of these labelled initiators/controllers for polymerisation was exemplified by means of successful nitroxide-mediated polymerisation (NMP) of styrene. Thus, this is the first report of a spin-labelled alkoxyamine suitable for NMP.
Project description:Measurement of thiol concentrations is of great importance for characterizing their critical role in normal metabolism and disease. Low-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and imaging, coupled with the use of exogenous paramagnetic probes, have been indispensable techniques for the in vivo measurement of various physiological parameters owing to the specificity, noninvasiveness and good depth of magnetic field penetration in animal tissues. However, in vivo detection of thiol levels by EPR spectroscopy and imaging is limited due to the need for improved probes. We report the first synthesis of trityl radical-conjugated disulfide biradicals (TSSN and TSST) as paramagnetic thiol probes. The use of trityl radicals in the construction of these biradicals greatly facilitates thiol measurement by EPR spectroscopy since trityls have extraordinary stability in living tissues with a single narrow EPR line that enables high sensitivity and resolution for in vivo EPR spectroscopy and imaging. Both biradicals exhibit broad characteristic EPR spectra at room temperature because of their intramolecular spin-spin interaction. Reaction of these biradicals with thiol compounds such as glutathione (GSH) and cysteine results in the formation of trityl monoradicals which exhibit high spectral sensitivity to oxygen. The moderately slow reaction between the biradicals and GSH (k(2) ? 0.3 M(-1) s(-1) for TSSN and 0.2 M(-1) s(-1) for TSST) allows for in vivo measurement of GSH concentration without altering the redox environment in biological systems. The GSH concentration in rat liver was determined to be 3.49 ± 0.14 mM by TSSN and 3.67 ± 0.24 mM by TSST, consistent with the value (3.71 ± 0.09 mM) determined by the Ellman's reagent. Thus, these trityl-based thiol probes exhibit unique properties enabling measurement of thiols in biological systems and should be of great value for monitoring redox metabolism.
Project description:Understanding the interactions of trityl radicals with proteins is required to expand their biomedical applications. In this work, we demonstrate that the Finland trityl radical CT-03 binds to bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solution. Upon binding with BSA, CT-03 exhibits a much broader electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal and this line broadening can be reversed by proteolysis of the BSA. The binding induces a red-shift of the maximal UV-Vis absorbance wavelength of CT-03 around 470 nm, likely due to localization of CT-03 in the relatively hydrophobic region of the protein. The interaction between CT-03 and BSA is driven by a hydrophobic interaction with an estimated binding constant of 2.18 ×105 M-1 at 298 K. Furthermore, only one CT-03 is bound to each molecule of BSA and the binding site is determined to be the sub-domain IIA (Sudlow's site I). This protein binding of the trityl probe to albumin can be used to study the structure and function of albumin and also must be considered for its use as an in vivo imaging agent or spin label.
Project description:Tris(2,3,5,6-tetrathiaaryl)methyl radicals, so-called trityl radicals, are emerging as spin labels for distance measurements in biological systems based on Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Here, the synthesis and characterization of rigid model systems carrying either two or three trityl moieties is reported. The monofunctionalized trityl radicals are connected to the molecular bridging scaffold via an esterification reaction employing the Mukaiyama reagent 2-chloro-methylpyridinium iodide. The bis- and tris-trityl compounds exhibit different inter-spin distances, strength of electron-electron exchange and dipolar coupling and can give rise to multi-spin effects. They are to serve as benchmark systems in comparing EPR distance measurement methods.
Project description:Sulfatases hydrolytically cleave sulfate esters through a unique catalytic aldehyde, which is introduced by a posttranslational oxidation. To profile active sulfatases in health and disease, activity-based proteomic tools are needed. Herein, quinone methide (QM) traps directed against sulfatases are evaluated as activity-based proteomic probes (ABPPs). Starting from a p-fluoromethylphenyl sulfate scaffold, enzymatically generated QM-traps can inactivate bacterial aryl sulfatases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and human steroid sulfatase. However, multiple enzyme-generated QMs form, diffuse, and non-specifically label purified enzyme. In complex proteomes, QM labeling is sulfatase-dependent but also non-specific. Thus, fluoromethylphenyl sulfates are poor ABPPs for sulfatases.