Microstructural Evolution and Dynamic Softening Mechanisms of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy during Hot Compressive Deformation.
ABSTRACT: The hot deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (7150) alloy was studied during hot compression at various temperatures (300 to 450 °C) and strain rates (0.001 to 10 s-1). A decline ratio map of flow stresses was proposed and divided into five deformation domains, in which the flow stress behavior was correlated with different microstructures and dynamic softening mechanisms. The results reveal that the dynamic recovery is the sole softening mechanism at temperatures of 300 to 400 °C with various strain rates and at temperatures of 400 to 450 °C with strain rates between 1 and 10 s-1. The level of dynamic recovery increases with increasing temperature and with decreasing strain rate. At the high deformation temperature of 450 °C with strain rates of 0.001 to 0.1 s-1, a partially recrystallized microstructure was observed, and the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) provided an alternative softening mechanism. Two kinds of DRX might operate at the high temperature, in which discontinuous dynamic recrystallization was involved at higher strain rates and continuous dynamic recrystallization was implied at lower strain rates.
Project description:The hot deformation behavior of a high carbon carbide-free bainitic steel was studied through isothermal compression tests that were performed on a Gleeble-1500D thermal mechanical simulator at temperatures of 1223-1423 K and strain rates of 0.01-5 s-1. The flow behavior, constitutive equations, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) characteristics, and processing map were respectively analyzed in detail. It is found that the flow stress increases with increasing the strain rate and decreases with increasing the temperature, and the single-peak DRX can be easily observed at high temperatures and/or low strain rates. The internal relationship between the flow stress and processing parameters was built by the constitutive equations embracing a parameter of Z/A, where the activation energy for hot deformation is 351.539 kJ/mol and the stress exponent is 4.233. In addition, the DRX evolution and the critical conditions for starting DRX were discussed. Then the model of the DRX volume fraction was developed with satisfied predictability. Finally, the processing maps at different strains were constructed according to the dynamic material model. The safety domains and flow instability regions were identified. The best processing parameters of this steel are within the temperature range of 1323-1423 K and strain rate range of 0.06-1 s-1.
Project description:To elucidate the hot deformation characteristics of TiAl alloys, flow stress prediction, microstructural evolution and deformation mechanisms were investigated in Ti-44Al-5Nb-1Mo-2V-0.2B alloy by isothermal compression tests. A constitutive relationship using the Arrhenius model involving strain compensation and back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model were developed. A comparison of two models suggested that the BP-ANN model had excellent capabilities and was more accurate in predicting flow stress. Based on the microstructural analysis, bending and elongation of colonies, ? and B2 grains were the main microstructural constituents at low temperature and high strain rate. Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) of ? and dynamic recovery (DRY) of ?/B2 were the main deformation mechanisms. With the increase of temperature and decrease of strain rate, phase transformation played an important role. The flake-like ? precipitates in B2 grains, and a coarsening of ? lamellae via ? lath dissolution during compression were observed. Additionally, the flow softening process commenced with dislocation pile-up and formation of sub-grain boundaries, followed by grain refinement, twins and nano-lamellar nucleation. Continuous DRX and phase transformation promoted the formability of Ti-44Al-5Nb-1Mo-2V-0.2B alloy.
Project description:Mg-Gd-Y-Zn-Zr Mg alloys show excellent performance in high-end manufacturing due to its strength, hardness and corrosion resistance. However, the hot deformation and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behaviors of Mg-13.5Gd-3.2Y-2.3Zn-0.5Zr were not studied. For this article, hot compression behavior of homogenized high rare-earth (RE) content Mg-13.5Gd-3.2Y-2.3Zn-0.5Zr (wt%) alloy was investigated by using the Gleeble-3500D thermo-simulation test machine under the temperature of 350?500 °C and the strain rate of 0.001?1 s-1. It was found that the high flow stress corresponded to the low temperature and high strain rate, which showed DRX steady state curve during the hot compression. The hot deformation average activation was 263.17 kJ/mol, which was obtained by the analysis of the hyperbolic constitutive equation and the Zener-Hollomon parameter. From observation of the microstructure, it was found that kink deformation of long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase was one of the important coordination mechanisms of hot deformation at low temperature. The processing map with the strain of 0.5 was established under the basis of dynamic material model (DMM); it described two high power dissipation domains: one appearing in the temperature range of 370?440 °C and the strain rate range of 0.001?0.006 s-1, the other appearing in the temperature range of 465?500 °C and strain rate range of 0.001?0.05 s-1, in which dynamic recrystallization (DRX) mainly ocurred. The highest degree of DRX was 18% from the observation of the metallographic.
Project description:Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) is an important grain refinement mechanism to fabricate steels with high strength and high ductility (toughness). The conventional DRX mechanism has reached the limitation of refining grains to several microns even though employing high-strain deformation. Here we show a DRX phenomenon occurring in the dynamically transformed (DT) ferrite, by which the required strain for the operation of DRX and the formation of ultrafine grains is significantly reduced. The DRX of DT ferrite shows an unconventional temperature dependence, which suggests an optimal condition for grain refinement. We further show that new strategies for ultra grain refinement can be evoked by combining DT and DRX mechanisms, based on which fully ultrafine microstructures having a mean grain size down to 0.35 microns can be obtained without high-strain deformation and exhibit superior mechanical properties. This study will open the door to achieving optimal grain refinement to nanoscale in a variety of steels requiring no high-strain deformation in practical industrial application.
Project description:Hot deformation behavior of Fe-30Mn-0.11C steel was investigated. Hot compression tests were carried out at various temperatures ranging from 800 °C to 1200 °C and at different strain rates of 0.01 s-1 to 10 s-1. The constitutive equation based on peak stress was established. Hot processing maps at different strains and recrystallization diagrams were also established and analyzed. The results show that dynamic recrystallization easily occur at high deformation temperatures and low strain rates. Safe and unstable zones are determined at the true strain of 0.6 and 0.7, and the hot deformation process parameters of partial dynamic recrystallization of the tested steel are also obtained.
Project description:Twin roll cast Al-Mn- and Al-Mn-Zr-based alloys were subjected to four passes of equal channel angular pressing. The resulting grain size of 400 nm contributes to a significant strengthening at room temperature. This microstructure is not fully stable at elevated temperatures and recrystallization and vast grain growth occur at temperatures between 350 and 450 °C. The onset of these microstructure changes depends on chemical and phase composition. Better stability is observed in the Al-Mn-Zr-based alloy. High temperature tensile tests reveal that equal channel angular pressing results in a softening of all studied materials at high temperatures. This can be explained by an active role of grain boundaries in the deformation process. The maximum values of ductility and strain rate sensitivity parameter m found in the Al-Mn-Zr-based alloy are below the bottom limit of superplasticity (155%, m = 0.25). However, some features typical for superplastic behavior were observed-the strain rate dependence of the parameter m, the strengthening with increasing grain size, and the fracture by diffuse necking. Grain boundary sliding is believed to contribute partially to the overall strain in specimens where the grain size remained in the microcrystalline range.
Project description:Multiple hot-compression tests were carried out on the 6082 aluminum (Al) alloy using a Gleeble-1500 thermal simulation testing machine. Data on flow stresses of the 6082 Al alloy at deformation temperatures of 623 to 773 K and strain rates from 0.01 to 5 s-1 were attained. Utilizing electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM), the dynamic recrystallization behaviors of the 6082 Al alloy during hot compression in isothermal conditions were explored. With the test data, a hot-working processing map for the 6082 Al alloy (based on dynamic material modeling (DMM)) was drawn. Using the work-hardening rate, the initial critical strain causing dynamic recrystallization was determined, and an equation for the critical strain was constructed. A dynamic model for the dynamic recrystallization of the 6082 Al alloy was established using analyses and test results from the EBSD. The results showed that the safe processing zone (with a high efficiency of power dissipation) mainly corresponded to a zone with deformation temperatures of 703 to 763 K and strain rates of 0.1 to 0.3 s-1. The alloy was mainly subjected to continuous dynamic recrystallization in the formation of the zone. According to the hot-working processing map and an analysis of the microstructures, it is advised that the following technological parameters be selected for the 6082 Al alloy during hot-forming: a range of temperatures between 713 and 753 K and strain rates between 0.1 and 0.2 s-1.
Project description:In the present work, the microstructure, texture, mechanical properties as well as hot deformation behavior of a Mg-2Zn-1Al-0.3Ca sheet manufactured by twin roll casting were investigated. The twin roll cast state reveals a dendritic microstructure with intermetallic compounds predominantly located in the interdendritic areas. The twin roll cast samples were annealed at 420 °C for 2 h followed by plane strain compression tests in order to study the hardening and softening behavior. Annealing treatment leads to the formation of a grain structure, consisting of equiaxed grains with an average diameter of approximately 19 µm. The twin roll cast state reveals a typical basal texture and the annealed state shows a weakened texture, by spreading basal poles along the transverse direction. The twin roll cast Mg-2Zn-1Al-0.3Ca alloy offers a good ultimate tensile strength of 240 MPa. The course of the flow curves indicate that dynamic recrystallization occurs during hot deformation. For the validity range from 250 °C to 450 °C as well as equivalent logarithmic strain rates from 0.01 s-1 to 10 s-1 calculated model coefficients are shown. The average activation energy for plastic flow of the twin roll cast and annealed Mg-2Zn-1Al-0.3Ca alloy amounts to 180.5 kJ/mol. The processing map reveals one domain with flow instability at temperatures above 370 °C and strain rates ranging from 3 s-1 to 10 s-1. Under these forming conditions, intergranular cracks arose and grew along the grain boundaries.
Project description:Controlling grain size in polycrystalline nickel base superalloy is vital for obtaining required mechanical properties. Typically, a uniform and fine grain size is required throughout forging process to realize the superplastic deformation. Strain amount occupied a dominant position in manipulating the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) process and regulating the grain size of the alloy during hot forging. In this article, the high-throughput double cone specimen was introduced to yield wide-range strain in a single sample. Continuous variations of effective strain ranging from 0.23 to 1.65 across the whole sample were achieved after reaching a height reduction of 70%. Grain size is measured to be decreased from the edge to the center of specimen with increase of effective strain. Small misorientation tended to generate near the grain boundaries, which was manifested as piled-up dislocation in micromechanics. After the dislocation density reached a critical value, DRX progress would be initiated at higher deformation region, leading to the refinement of grain size. During this process, the transformations from low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs) to high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) and from subgrains to DRX grains are found to occur. After the accomplishment of DRX progress, the neonatal grains are presented as having similar orientation inside the grain boundary.
Project description:Asymmetrical shear rolling with velocity asymmetry and geometry asymmetry is beneficial to enlarge deformation and refine grain size at the center of the thick plate compared to conventional symmetrical rolling. Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) plays a vital role in grain refinement during hot deformation. Finite element models (FEM) coupled with microstructure evolution models and cellular automata models (CA) are established to study the microstructure evolution of plate during asymmetrical shear rolling. The results show that a larger DRX fraction and a smaller average grain size can be obtained at the lower layer of the plate. The DRX fraction at the lower part increases with the ascending speed ratio, while that at upper part decreases. With the increase of the offset distance, the DRX fraction slightly decreases for the whole thickness of the plate. The differences in the DRX fraction and average grain size between the upper and lower surfaces increase with the ascending speed ratio; however, it varies little with the change of the speed ratio. Experiments are conducted and the CA models have a higher accuracy than FEM models as the grain morphology, DRX nuclei, and grain growth are taken into consideration in CA models, which are more similar to the actual DRX process during hot deformation.