Homozygous nonsense mutation in SGCA is a common cause of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy in Assiut, Egypt.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:The genetic causes of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) have been studied in numerous countries, but such investigations have been limited in Egypt. METHODS:A cohort of 30 families with suspected LGMD from Assiut, Egypt, was studied using immunohistochemistry, homozygosity mapping, Sanger sequencing, and whole exome sequencing. RESULTS:Six families were confirmed to have pathogenic mutations, 4 in SGCA and 2 in DMD. Of these, 3 families harbored a single nonsense mutation in SGCA, suggesting that this may be a common mutation in Assiut, Egypt, originating from a founder effect. CONCLUSIONS:The Assiut region in Egypt appears to share at least several of the common LGMD genes found in other parts of the world. It is notable that 4 of the 6 mutations were ascertained by means of whole exome sequencing, even though it was the last approach adopted. This illustrates the power of this technique for identifying causative mutations for muscular dystrophies. Muscle Nerve 54: 690-695, 2016.
Project description:The current study characterizes a cohort of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) in the United States using whole-exome sequencing. Fifty-five families affected by LGMD were recruited using an institutionally approved protocol. Exome sequencing was performed on probands and selected parental samples. Pathogenic mutations and cosegregation patterns were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Twenty-two families (40%) had novel and previously reported pathogenic mutations, primarily in LGMD genes, and also in genes for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, congenital myopathy, myofibrillar myopathy, inclusion body myopathy and Pompe disease. One family was diagnosed via clinical testing. Dominant mutations were identified in COL6A1, COL6A3, FLNC, LMNA, RYR1, SMCHD1 and VCP, recessive mutations in ANO5, CAPN3, GAA, LAMA2, SGCA and SGCG, and X-linked mutations in DMD. A previously reported variant in DMD was confirmed to be benign. Exome sequencing is a powerful diagnostic tool for LGMD. Despite careful phenotypic screening, pathogenic mutations were found in other muscle disease genes, largely accounting for the increased sensitivity of exome sequencing. Our experience suggests that broad sequencing panels are useful for these analyses because of the phenotypic overlap of many neuromuscular conditions. The confirmation of a benign DMD variant illustrates the potential of exome sequencing to help determine pathogenicity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies are a group of genetically heterogeneous diseases that are inherited in both autosomal dominant (LGMDD) and autosomal recessive forms (LGMDR), the latter is more common especially in populations with high consanguineous marriages like Iran. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the genetic basis of patients who are suspicious of being affected by LGMDR. DNA samples of 60 families suspected of LGMD were extracted from their whole blood. Four short tandem repeat (STR) markers for each candidate genes related to LGMD R1 (calpain3 related)- R6 (?-sarcoglycan-related) were selected, and all these 24 STRs were applied in two sets of multiplex PCR. After autozygosity mapping, Sanger sequencing and variant analysis were done. Predicting identified variants' effect was performed using in-silico tools, and they were interpreted according to the American College of Medical Genomics and Genetics (ACMG) guideline. MLPA was used for those patients who had large deletions. Fresh muscle specimens were taken from subjects and were evaluated using the conventional panel of histochemical stains. RESULTS:forty out of sixty families showed homozygote haplotypes in CAPN3, DYSF, SGCA, and SGCB genes. The exons and intron-exon boundaries of the relevant genes were sequenced and totally 38 mutations including CAPN3 (n?=?15), DYSF (n?=?9), SGCB (n?=?11), and SGCA (n?=?3) were identified. Five out of them were novel. The most prevalent form of LGMDs in our study was calpainopathy followed by sarcoglycanopathy in which beta-sarcoglycanopathy was the most common form amongst them. Exon 2 deletion in the SGCB gene was the most frequent mutation in this study. We also reported evidence of a possible founder effect in families with mutations in DYSF and SGCB genes. We also detected a large consanguineous family suffered from calpainopathy who showed allelic heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS:This study can expand our knowledge about the genetic spectrum of LGMD in Iran, and also suggest the probable founder effects in some Iranian subpopulations which confirming it with more sample size can facilitate our genetic diagnosis and genetic counseling.
Project description:Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD type 2) are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases with the main characteristics of weakness and wasting of the pelvic and shoulder girdle muscles. Among them are sarcoglycanopathies caused by mutations in at least four genes named SGCA, SGCB, SGCG and SGCD. Here we report a consanguineous Iranian family with two children affected with LGMD type 2E. Mutation analysis revealed a novel homozygous exon 2 deletion of SGCB gene in the patients with the parents being heterozygous for this deletion. This result presents a novel underlying genetic mechanism for LGMD type 2E.
Project description:Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D (LGMD 2D) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the alpha-sarcoglycan gene. To determine how alpha-sarcoglycan deficiency leads to muscle fiber degeneration, we generated and analyzed alpha-sarcoglycan- deficient mice. Sgca-null mice developed progressive muscular dystrophy and, in contrast to other animal models for muscular dystrophy, showed ongoing muscle necrosis with age, a hallmark of the human disease. Sgca-null mice also revealed loss of sarcolemmal integrity, elevated serum levels of muscle enzymes, increased muscle masses, and changes in the generation of absolute force. Molecular analysis of Sgca-null mice demonstrated that the absence of alpha-sarcoglycan resulted in the complete loss of the sarcoglycan complex, sarcospan, and a disruption of alpha-dystroglycan association with membranes. In contrast, no change in the expression of epsilon-sarcoglycan (alpha-sarcoglycan homologue) was observed. Recombinant alpha-sarcoglycan adenovirus injection into Sgca-deficient muscles restored the sarcoglycan complex and sarcospan to the membrane. We propose that the sarcoglycan-sarcospan complex is requisite for stable association of alpha-dystroglycan with the sarcolemma. The Sgca-deficient mice will be a valuable model for elucidating the pathogenesis of sarcoglycan deficient limb-girdle muscular dystrophies and for the development of therapeutic strategies for this disease.
Project description:We evaluated 25 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients at a major Egyptian reference hospital in Assiut, Egypt, who had been treated for at least 1 year for tuberculosis. Typing patterns (IS6110) were diverse, and multidrug resistance was found among 11 (44%) of the isolates. Mutations associated with antimicrobial drug resistance were found in rpoB, katG, rpsL, and embB in the resistant isolates.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are large group of heterogeneous genetic diseases, having a hallmark feature of muscle weakness. Pathogenic mutations in the gene encoding the giant skeletal muscle protein titin (TTN) are associated with several muscle disorders, including cardiomyopathy, recessive congenital myopathies and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type10. The phenotypic spectrum of titinopathies is expanding, as next generation sequencing (NGS) technology makes screening of this large gene possible. AIM:This study aimed to identify the pathogenic variant in a consanguineous Pakistani family with autosomal recessive LGMD type 10. METHODS:DNA from peripheral blood samples were obtained, whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed and several molecular and bioinformatics analysis were conducted to identify the pathogenic variant. TTN coding and near coding regions were further amplified using PCR and sequenced via Sanger sequencing. RESULTS:Whole exome sequencing analysis revealed a novel homozygous missense variant (c.98807G?>?A; p.Arg32936His) in the TTN gene in the index patients. No heterozygous individuals in the family presented LGMD features. The variant p.Arg32936His leads to a substitution of the arginine amino acid at position 32,936 into histidine possibly causing LGMD type 10. CONCLUSION:We identified a homozygous missense variant in TTN, which likely explains LGMD type 10 in this family in line with similar previously reported data. Our study concludes that WES is a successful molecular diagnostic tool to identify pathogenic variants in large genes such as TTN in highly inbred population.
Project description:To identify the causative gene in an autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) with skeletal muscle vacuoles.Exome sequencing was used to identify candidate mutations in the studied pedigree. Genome-wide linkage was then used to narrow the list of candidates to a single disease-associated mutation. Additional pedigrees with dominant or sporadic myopathy were screened for mutations in the same gene (DNAJB6) using exome sequencing. Skeletal muscle from affected patients was evaluated with histochemistry and immunohistochemical stains for dystrophy-related proteins, SMI-31, TDP43, and DNAJB6.Exome analysis in 3 affected individuals from a family with dominant LGMD and vacuolar pathology identified novel candidate mutations in 22 genes. Linkage analysis excluded all variants except a Phe93Leu mutation in the G/F domain of the DNAJB6 gene, which resides within the LGMD locus at 7q36. Analysis of exome sequencing data from other pedigrees with dominant myopathy identified a second G/F domain mutation (Pro96Arg) in DNAJB6. Affected muscle showed mild dystrophic changes, vacuoles, and abnormal aggregation of proteins, including TDP-43 and DNAJB6 itself.Mutations within the G/F domain of DNAJB6 are a novel cause of dominantly-inherited myopathy. DNAJB6 is a member of the HSP40/DNAJ family of molecular co-chaperones tasked with protecting client proteins from irreversible aggregation during protein synthesis or during times of cellular stress. The abnormal accumulation of several proteins in patient muscle, including DNAJB6 itself, suggest that DNAJB6 function is compromised by the identified G/F domain mutations.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a genetically heterogeneous, hereditary disease characterized by limb-girdle weakness and histologically dystrophic changes. The prevalence of each subtype of LGMD varies among different ethnic populations. This study for the first time analyzed the phenotypes and genotypes in Taiwanese patients with LGMD in a referral center for neuromuscular diseases (NMDs).<h4>Results</h4>We enrolled 102 patients clinically suspected of having LGMD who underwent muscle biopsy with subsequent genetic analysis in the previous 10?years. On the basis of different pathological categories, we performed sequencing of target genes or panel for NMDs and then identified patients with type 1B, 1E, 2A, 2B, 2D, 2I, 2G, 2?N, and 2Q. The 1B patients with LMNA mutation presented with mild limb-girdle weakness but no conduction defect at the time. All 1E patients with DES mutation exhibited predominantly proximal weakness along with distal weakness. In our cohort, 2B and 2I were the most frequent forms of LGMD; several common or founder mutations were identified, including c.1097_1099delACA (p.Asn366del) in DES, homozygous c.101G?>?T (p.Arg34Leu) in SGCA, homozygous c.26_33dup (p.Glu12Argfs*20) in TCAP, c.545A?>?G (p.Tyr182Cys), and c.948delC (p.Cys317Alafs*111) in FKRP. Clinically, the prevalence of dilated cardiomyopathy in our patients with LGMD2I aged >?18?years was 100%, much higher than that in European cohorts. The only patient with LGMD2Q with PLEC mutation did not exhibit skin lesions or gastrointestinal abnormalities but had mild facial weakness. Muscle imaging of LGMD1E and 2G revealed a more uniform involvement than did other LGMD types.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our study revealed that detailed clinical manifestation together with muscle pathology and imaging remain critical in guiding further molecular analyses and are crucial for establishing genotype-phenotype correlations. We also determined the common mutations and prevalence for different subtypes of LGMD in our cohort, which could be useful when providing specific care and personalized therapy to patients with LGMD.
Project description:Myopathies are a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous group of disorders that can range from limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) to syndromic forms with associated features including intellectual disability. Here, we report the identification of mutations in transport protein particle complex 11 (TRAPPC11) in three individuals of a consanguineous Syrian family presenting with LGMD and in five individuals of Hutterite descent presenting with myopathy, infantile hyperkinetic movements, ataxia, and intellectual disability. By using a combination of whole-exome or genome sequencing with homozygosity mapping, we identified the homozygous c.2938G>A (p.Gly980Arg) missense mutation within the gryzun domain of TRAPPC11 in the Syrian LGMD family and the homozygous c.1287+5G>A splice-site mutation resulting in a 58 amino acid in-frame deletion (p.Ala372_Ser429del) in the foie gras domain of TRAPPC11 in the Hutterite families. TRAPPC11 encodes a component of the multiprotein TRAPP complex involved in membrane trafficking. We demonstrate that both mutations impair the binding ability of TRAPPC11 to other TRAPP complex components and disrupt the Golgi apparatus architecture. Marker trafficking experiments for the p.Ala372_Ser429del deletion indicated normal ER-to-Golgi trafficking but dramatically delayed exit from the Golgi to the cell surface. Moreover, we observed alterations of the lysosomal membrane glycoproteins lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) and LAMP2 as a consequence of TRAPPC11 dysfunction supporting a defect in the transport of secretory proteins as the underlying pathomechanism.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chronic disease greatly increases children's dependency on parents/caregivers (usually mothers) as they face new problems associated with caring for a child with chronic disease. Thus, chronic kidney disease (CKD) presents a burden for children and their families that last throughout life in different aspects. This study aimed to assess family impact and economic burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children on their families. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was carried out on 250 caregivers of children with CKD attending tertiary care hospital/health insurance clinics in Assiut, Egypt using PedsQL™ family impact module (FIM) for assessing family impact and economic burden between January and May 2018. RESULTS:Seventy six percent of caregivers shared paying for treatment with health insurance while 14% paid the total expenses out of their pockets. Although the majority (87.2%) of caregivers suffered different degrees of financial hardship, more than 60% of them had no coping strategy. The regression module showed that responding caregiver, degree of financial hardship, treatment modality, and socioeconomic class were significant predictors of total FIM (? = 0.38, P < 0.001; ? = 0.28, P < 0.001; ? = 0.22, P < 0.001; ? = 0.13, P = 0.006 respectively). CONCLUSION:Most caregivers were involved in paying for treatment of their children either totally or sharing with health insurance and suffered different degrees of financial hardship. Mothers, caregivers with great financial hardship, and caregivers of children on dialysis had the lowest scores of PedsQL™ FIM. There is a high need for expansion of health insurance umbrella to reduce financial hardship together with continued multidimensional support to families.