Characterization of protein complexes of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation E3 ubiquitin ligase Hrd1.
ABSTRACT: Hrd1 is the core structural component of a large endoplasmic reticulum membrane-embedded protein complex that coordinates the destruction of folding-defective proteins in the early secretory pathway. Defining the composition, dynamics, and ultimately, the structure of the Hrd1 complex is a crucial step in understanding the molecular basis of glycoprotein quality control but has been hampered by the lack of suitable techniques to interrogate this complex under native conditions. In this study we used genome editing to generate clonal HEK293 (Hrd1.KI) cells harboring a homozygous insertion of a small tandem affinity tag knocked into the endogenous Hrd1 locus. We found that steady-state levels of tagged Hrd1 in these cells are indistinguishable from those of Hrd1 in unmodified cells and that the tagged variant is functional in supporting the degradation of well characterized luminal and membrane substrates. Analysis of detergent-solubilized Hrd1.KI cells indicates that the composition and stoichiometry of Hrd1 complexes are strongly influenced by Hrd1 expression levels. Analysis of affinity-captured Hrd1 complexes from these cells by size-exclusion chromatography, immunodepletion, and absolute quantification mass spectrometry identified two major high-molecular-mass complexes with distinct sets of interacting proteins and variable stoichiometries, suggesting a hitherto unrecognized heterogeneity in the functional units of Hrd1-mediated protein degradation.
Project description:Accumulation of aberrant proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers the unfolded protein response pathway that helps the cell to survive under these stress conditions. Herp is a mammalian ubiquitin domain protein, which is strongly induced by the unfolded protein response. It is involved in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) and interacts directly with the ubiquitin ligase Hrd1, which is found in high molecular mass complexes of the ER membrane. Here we present the first evidence that Herp regulates Hrd1-mediated ubiquitylation in a ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain-dependent manner. We found that upon exposure of cells to ER stress, elevation of Herp steady state levels is accompanied by an enhanced association of Herp with pre-existing Hrd1. Hrd1-associated Herp is rapidly degraded and substituted by de novo synthesized Herp, suggesting a continuous turnover of the protein at Hrd1 complexes. Further analysis revealed the presence of multiple Hrd1 copies in a single complex enabling binding of a variable number of Herp molecules. Efficient ubiquitylation of the Hrd1-specific ERAD substrate ?1-antitrypsin null Hong Kong (NHK) required the presence of the Herp UBL domain, which was also necessary for NHK degradation. In summary, we propose that binding of Herp to Hrd1-containing ERAD complexes positively regulates the ubiquitylation activity of these complexes, thus permitting survival of the cell during ER stress.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) mediates the degradation of misfolded and unoligomerized proteins in the early secretory pathway. ERAD substrates are detected and delivered to membrane-embedded dislocation complexes. Following transfer into the cytosol, substrates are rapidly ubiquitinated and targeted to the 26S proteasome for degradation. Hrd1 is a highly conserved, ER-resident E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that functions in ERAD. In this study, we employed stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to quantitatively assess the impact of altered lipid homeostasis on the composition of S-tagged Hrd1 complexes affinity purified from HEK293 cells. Although lipid disequilibrium impaired ERAD substrate delivery to Hrd1, the overall composition of the Hrd1 complex was unaffected.
Project description:The mammalian ubiquitin ligase Hrd1 is the central component of a complex facilitating degradation of misfolded proteins during the ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent process of ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Hrd1 associates with cofactors to execute ERAD, but their roles and how they assemble with Hrd1 are not well understood. Here, we identify crucial cofactor interaction domains within Hrd1 and report a previously unrecognised evolutionarily conserved segment within the intrinsically disordered cytoplasmic domain of Hrd1 (termed the HAF-H domain), which engages complementary segments in the cofactors FAM8A1 and Herp (also known as HERPUD1). This domain is required by Hrd1 to interact with both FAM8A1 and Herp, as well as to assemble higher-order Hrd1 complexes. FAM8A1 enhances binding of Herp to Hrd1, an interaction that is required for ERAD. Our findings support a model of Hrd1 complex formation, where the Hrd1 cytoplasmic domain and FAM8A1 have a central role in the assembly and activity of this ERAD machinery.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) is a principal mechanism that targets ER-associated proteins for cytosolic proteasomal degradation. Here, our data demonstrate a critical role for the Sel1L-Hrd1 complex, the most conserved branch of ERAD, in early B cell development. Loss of Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD in B cell precursors leads to a severe developmental block at the transition from large to small pre-B cells. Mechanistically, we show that Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD selectively recognizes and targets the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) for proteasomal degradation in a BiP-dependent manner. The pre-BCR complex accumulates both intracellularly and at the cell surface in Sel1L-deficient pre-B cells, leading to persistent pre-BCR signaling and pre-B cell proliferation. This study thus implicates ERAD mediated by Sel1L-Hrd1 as a key regulator of B cell development and reveals the molecular mechanism underpinning the transient nature of pre-BCR signaling.
Project description:The assembly of MHC class I molecules is governed by stringent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control mechanisms. MHC class I heavy chains that fail to achieve their native conformation in complex with ?2-microglobulin (?2m) and peptide are targeted for ER-associated degradation. This requires ubiquitination of the MHC class I heavy chain and its dislocation from the ER to the cytosol for proteasome-mediated degradation, although the cellular machinery involved in this process is unknown. Using an siRNA functional screen in ?2m-depleted cells, we identify an essential role for the E3 ligase HRD1 (Synoviolin) together with the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2J1 in the ubiquitination and dislocation of misfolded MHC class I heavy chains. HRD1 is also required for the ubiquitination and degradation of the naturally occurring hemochromatosis-associated HFE-C282Y mutant, which is unable to bind ?2m. In the absence of HRD1, misfolded HLA-B27 accumulated in cells with a normal MHC class I assembly pathway, and HRD1 depletion prevented the appearance of low levels of cytosolic unfolded MHC I heavy chains. HRD1 and UBE2J1 associate in a complex together with non-?2m bound MHC class I heavy chains, Derlin 1, and p97 and discriminate misfolded MHC class I from conformational MHC I-?2m-peptide heterotrimers. Together these data support a physiological role for HRD1 and UBE2J1 in the homeostatic regulation of MHC class I assembly and expression.
Project description:Humoral immunity involves multiple checkpoints that occur in B cell development, maturation, and activation. The pre-B-cell receptor (pre-BCR) is expressed following the productive recombination of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene, and sSignalsing through the pre-BCR are required for the differentiation of pre-B cells into immature B cells. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling the pre-BCR expression and signaling strength remain undefined. Herein, we probed the role of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated, stress-activated E3 ubiquitin ligase HMG-CoA reductase degradation 1 (Hrd1) in B cell differentiation. Using mice with a specific Hrd1 deletion in pro-B cells and subsequent B cell developmental stages, we showed that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Hrd1 governs a critical checkpoint during B cell development. We observed that Hrd1 is required for degradation of the pre-BCR complex during the early stage of B cell development. As a consequence, loss of Hrd1 in the B cell lineage resulted in increased pre-BCR expression levels and a developmental defect in the transition from large to small pre-B cells. This defect, in turn, resulted in reduced fewer mature B cells in bone marrow and peripheral lymphoid organs. Our results revealed a novel critical role of Hrd1 in controlling a critical checkpoint in B cell-mediated immunity and suggest that Hrd1 may functioning as an E3 ubiquitin ligase of the pre-BCR complex.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) regulates protein homeostasis in the secretory pathway by targeting misfolded or unassembled proteins for degradation by the proteasome. Hrd1 is a conserved multi-spanning membrane bound ubiquitin ligase required for ubiquitination of many aberrant ER proteins, but few endogenous substrates of Hrd1 have been identified to date.Using a SILAC-based quantitative proteomic approach combined with CRISPR-mediated gene silencing, we searched for endogenous physiological substrates of Hrd1. We used RNA microarray, immunoblotting, cycloheximide chase combined with chemical genetics to define the role of Hrd1 in regulating the stability of endogenous ERAD substrates.We identified 58 proteins whose levels are consistently upregulated in Hrd1 null HEK293 cells. Many of these proteins function in pathways involved in stress adaptation or immune surveillance. We validated OS9, a lectin required for ERAD of glycoproteins as a highly upregulated protein in Hrd1 deficient cells. Moreover, the abundance of OS9 is inversely correlated with Hrd1 level in clinical synovium samples isolated from osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis patients. Intriguingly, immunoblotting detects two OS9 variants, both of which are upregulated when Hrd1 is inactivated. However, only one of these variants is subject to proteasome dependent degradation that requires Hrd1 and the AAA (ATPase associated with diverse cellular activities) ATPase p97. The stability of the other variant on the other hand is influenced by a lysosomal inhibitor.Hrd1 regulates the stability of proteins involved in ER stress response and immune activation by both proteasome dependent and independent mechanisms.
Project description:HRD1 (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl reductase degradation) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase. We found that HRD1 was significantly downregulated in 170 breast cancer tissues. Low tumoral HRD1 expression was correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and a shorter survival in breast cancer patients. P65 specifically bound to the HRD1 promoter and inhibited HRD1 expression. Suppression of NF-?B activity reversed IL-6-induced downregulation of HRD1 expression. HRD1 interacted with IGF-1R and promoted its ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. Overexpression of HRD1 resulted in the inhibition of growth, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, HRD1 attenuated IL-6-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in MCF10A cells. These findings uncover a novel role for HRD1 in breast cancer.
Project description:Two conserved ubiquitin ligases, Hrd1 and Doa10, mediate most endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) in yeast. Degradation signals (degrons) recognized by these ubiquitin ligases remain poorly characterized. Doa10 recognizes the Deg1 degron from the MAT?2 transcription factor. We previously found that deletion of the gene (NAT3) encoding the catalytic subunit of the NatB N-terminal acetyltransferase weakly stabilized a Deg1-fusion protein. By contrast, a recent analysis of several MAT?2 derivatives suggested that N-terminal acetylation of these proteins by NatB was crucial for recognition by Doa10. We now analyze endogenous MAT?2 degradation in cells lacking NatB and observe minimal perturbation relative to wild-type cells. However, NatB mutation strongly impairs degradation of ER-luminal Hrd1 substrates. This unexpected defect derives from a failure of Der1, a Hrd1 complex subunit, to be N-terminally acetylated in NatB mutant yeast. We retargeted Der1 to another acetyltransferase to show that it is the only ERAD factor requiring N-terminal acetylation. Preventing Der1 acetylation stimulates its proteolysis via the Hrd1 pathway, at least partially accounting for the ERAD defect observed in the absence of NatB. These results reveal an important role for N-terminal acetylation in controlling Hrd1 ligase activity toward a specific class of ERAD substrates.
Project description:Misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are retrotranslocated into the cytosol and polyubiquitinated before being degraded by the proteasome. The multi-spanning ubiquitin ligase Hrd1 forms the retrotranslocation channel and associates with three other membrane proteins (Hrd3, Usa1, Der1) of poorly defined function. The Hrd1 channel is gated by autoubiquitination, but how Hrd1 escapes degradation by the proteasome and returns to its inactive ground state is unknown. Here, we show that autoubiquitination of Hrd1 is counteracted by Ubp1, a deubiquitinating enzyme that requires its N-terminal transmembrane segment for activity towards Hrd1. The Hrd1 partner Hrd3 serves as a brake for autoubiquitination, while Usa1 attenuates Ubp1's deubiquitination activity through an inhibitory effect of its UBL domain. These results lead to a model in which the Hrd1 channel is regulated by cycles of autoubiquitination and deubiquitination, reactions that are modulated by the other components of the Hrd1 complex.