Longitudinal changes in amyloid positron emission tomography and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging in the nondemented Down syndrome population.
ABSTRACT: Down syndrome (DS) arises from a triplication of chromosome 21, causing overproduction of the amyloid precursor protein and predisposes individuals to early Alzheimer's disease (AD).Fifty-two nondemented adults with DS underwent two cycles of carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh compound B ([11C]PiB) and T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans 3.0 ± 0.6 years apart. Standard uptake value ratio (SUVR) images (50-70 minutes; cerebellar gray matter [GM]) and GM volumes were analyzed in standardized space (Montreal Neurological Institute space).85% of PiB(-) subjects remained PiB(-), whereas 15% converted to PiB(+), predominantly in the striatum. None reverted from PiB(+) to PiB(-). Increases in SUVR were distributed globally, but there were no decreases in GM volume. The PiB positivity groups differed in the percent rate of change in SUVR [PiB(-): 0.5%/year, PiB converters: 4.9%/year, and PiB(+): 3.7%/year], but not in GM volume.Despite the characteristic striatum-first pattern, the global rate of amyloid accumulation differs by pre-existing amyloid burden and precedes atrophy or dementia in the DS population, similar to general AD progression.
Project description:Down syndrome (DS) predisposes individuals to early Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using Pittsburgh Compound B ([11C]PiB), a pattern of striatal amyloid beta (A?) that is elevated relative to neocortical binding has been reported, similar to that of nondemented autosomal dominant AD mutation carriers. However, it is not known whether changes in striatal and neocortical [11C]PiB retention differ over time in a nondemented DS population when compared to changes in a nondemented elderly (NDE) population. The purpose of this work was to assess longitudinal changes in trajectories of A? in a nondemented DS compared to an NDE cohort. The regional trajectories for anterior ventral striatum (AVS), frontal cortex, and precuneus [11C]PiB retention were explored over time using linear mixed effects models with fixed effects of time, cohort, and time-by-cohort interactions and subject as random effects. Significant differences between DS and NDE cohort trajectories for all 3 region of interests were observed (p < 0.05), with the DS cohort showing a faster accumulation in the AVS and slower accumulation in the frontal cortex and precuneus compared to the NDE cohort. These data add to the previously reported distinct pattern of early striatal deposition not commonly seen in sporadic AD by demonstrating that individuals with DS may also accumulate A? at a rate faster in the AVS when compared to NDE subjects.
Project description:Understanding the variation in uptake between different amyloid PET tracers is important to appropriately interpret data using different amyloid tracers. Therefore, we compared the uptake differences in [18F]Flutemetamol (FMT) and [11C]PiB (PiB) PET in the same people.Structural MRI, FMT PET and PiB PET were each performed in 30 young cognitively normal (yCN), 31 elderly cognitively normal (eCN) and 21 Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) participants. PiB and FMT images for each participant were compared quantitatively using voxel- and region-based analyses. Region of interest (ROI) analyses included comparisons of grey matter (GM) regions as well as white matter (WM) regions. Regional comparisons of each tracer between different groups and comparisons of the two modalities within the different groups were performed. To compare mean SUVr between modalities, and between diagnostic groups, we used paired t-tests and Student's t-test, respectively. We also compared the ability of the two tracers to discriminate between diagnostic groups using AUROC estimates. The effect of using different normalization regions on SUVr values was also evaluated.Both FMT and PiB showed greater uptake throughout GM structures in AD vs. eCN or yCN. In all dual-modality group comparisons (FMT vs. PiB in yCN, eCN, and AD), greater WM uptake was seen with FMT vs. PiB. In yCN and eCN greater diffuse GM uptake was seen with FMT vs. PiB. When comparing yCN to eCN within each tracer, greater WM uptake was seen in eCN vs yCN.Flutemetamol and PiB show similar topographical GM uptake in AD and CN participants and the tracers show comparable group discrimination. Greater WM accumulation with FMT suggests that quantitative differences vs. PiB will be apparent when using WM or GM as a reference region. Both imaging tracers demonstrate increased WM uptake in older people. These findings suggest that using different amyloid tracers or different methods of analyses in serial brain imaging in an individual may result in artifactual amyloid change measurements. Clinical use of several amyloid tracers in the same patient will have challenges that need to be carefully considered.
Project description:Importance:Adults with Down syndrome (DS) are at high-risk of revealing Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, in part due to the triplication of chromosome 21 encoding the amyloid precursor protein. Adults with DS are uniformly affected by AD pathology by their 30's and have a 70% to 80% chance of clinical dementia by their 60's. Our previous studies have assessed longitudinal changes in amyloid beta (A?) accumulation in DS. Objective:The goal of the present study was to assess the presence of brain tau using [18F]AV-1451 positron emission tomography (PET) in DS and to assess the relationship of brain tau pathology to A? using Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET. Design:Cohort study. Setting:Multi-center study. Participants:Participants consisted of a sample of individuals with DS and sibling controls recruited from the community; exclusion criteria included contraindications for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or a medical or psychiatric condition that impaired cognitive functioning. Exposures:PET brain scans to assess A? ([11C]PiB) and tau ([18F]AV-1451) burden. Main outcomes and measures:Multiple linear regression models (adjusted for chronological age, sex and performance site) were used to examine associations between regional [18F]AV-1451 standard uptake value ratio (SUVR) (based on regions associated with Braak stages 1-6) and global [11C]PiB SUVR (as both a continuous and dichotomous variable). Results:A cohort of 156 participants (mean age = 39.05, SD(8.4)) were examined. These results revealed a significant relationship between in vivo A? and tau pathology in DS. As a dichotomous variable, [18F]AV-1451 retention was higher in each Braak region in PiB(+) participants. We also found, based on our statistical models, starting with the Braak 3 region of interest (ROI), an acceleration of [18F]AV-1451 SUVR deposition with [11C]PiB SUVR increases.
Project description:Adults with Down syndrome (DS) invariably develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. Understanding amyloid deposition in DS can yield crucial information about disease pathogenesis.Forty-nine adults with DS aged 25-65 underwent positron emission tomography with Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB). Regional PIB binding was assessed with respect to age, clinical, and cognitive status.Abnormal PIB binding became evident from 39 years, first in striatum followed by rostral prefrontal-cingulo-parietal regions, then caudal frontal, rostral temporal, primary sensorimotor and occipital, and finally parahippocampal cortex, thalamus, and amygdala. PIB binding was related to age, diagnostic status, and cognitive function.PIB binding in DS, first appearing in striatum, began around age 40 and was strongly associated with dementia and cognitive decline. The absence of a substantial time lag between amyloid accumulation and cognitive decline contrasts to sporadic/familial AD and suggests this population's suitability for an amyloid primary prevention trial.
Project description:In Down syndrome (DS), the overproduction of amyloid precursor protein is hypothesized to predispose young adults to early expression of Alzheimer-like neuropathology.PET imaging with carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh compound B examined the pattern of amyloid-? deposition in 68 nondemented adults with DS (30-53 years) to determine the relationship between deposition and normal aging. Standard uptake value ratio (SUVR) images were created with cerebellar gray matter as the reference region.Multiple linear regression revealed slight but highly significant (corrected P < .05) positive correlations between SUVR and age. The striatum showed the strongest correlation, followed by precuneus, parietal cortex, anterior cingulate, frontal cortex, and temporal cortex.There is an age-related amyloid-? deposition in the DS population, but as a pattern of elevated cortical retention becomes apparent, the correlation of SUVR with age ceases to be significant. Factors unrelated to aging may drive an increase in deposition during early Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: ?-amyloid (A?) plaques in brain's grey matter (GM) are one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and can be imaged in vivo using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with (11)C or (18)F radiotracers. Estimating A? burden in cortical GM has been shown to improve diagnosis and monitoring of AD. However, lacking structural information in PET images requires such assessments to be performed with anatomical MRI scans, which may not be available at different clinical settings or being contraindicated for particular reasons. This study aimed to develop an MR-less A? imaging quantification method that requires only PET images for reliable A? burden estimations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proposed method has been developed using a multi-atlas based approach on (11)C-PiB scans from 143 subjects (75 PiB+ and 68 PiB- subjects) in AIBL study. A subset of 20 subjects (PET and MRI) were used as atlases: 1) MRI images were co-registered with tissue segmentation; 2) 3D surface at the GM-WM interfacing was extracted and registered to a canonical space; 3) Mean PiB retention within GM was estimated and mapped to the surface. For other participants, each atlas PET image (and surface) was registered to the subject's PET image for PiB estimation within GM. The results are combined by subject-specific atlas selection and Bayesian fusion to generate estimated surface values. RESULTS: All PiB+ subjects (N = 75) were highly correlated between the MR-dependent and the PET-only methods with Intraclass Correlation (ICC) of 0.94, and an average relative difference error of 13% (or 0.23 SUVR) per surface vertex. All PiB- subjects (N = 68) revealed visually akin patterns with a relative difference error of 16% (or 0.19 SUVR) per surface vertex. CONCLUSION: The demonstrated accuracy suggests that the proposed method could be an effective clinical inspection tool for A? imaging scans when MRI images are unavailable.
Project description:Introduction:Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) show enhanced amyloid beta (A?) deposition in the brain. A new positron emission tomography (PET) index of amyloid load (A?L ) was recently developed as an alternative to standardized uptake value ratios (SUVrs) to quantify A? burden with high sensitivity for detecting and tracking A? change.1. Methods:A?L was calculated in a DS cohort (N = 169, mean age ± SD = 39.6 ± 8.7 years) using [C-11]Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET imaging. DS-specific PiB templates were created for A? carrying capacity (K) and non-specific binding (NS). Results:The highest values of A? carrying capacity were found in the striatum and precuneus. Longitudinal changes in A?L displayed less variability when compared to SUVrs. Discussion:These results highlight the utility of A?L for characterizing A? deposition in DS. Rates of A? accumulation in DS were found to be similar to that observed in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD; ?3% to 4% per year), suggesting that AD progression in DS is of earlier onset but not accelerated.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the potential clinical value of quantitative functional FDG PET and pathological amyloid-? PET with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and clinical assessments in the prediction of Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. METHODS:We studied 82 subjects for up to 96 months (median = 84 months) in a longitudinal Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) project. All preprocessed PET images were spatially normalized to standard Montreal Neurologic Institute space. Regions of interest (ROI) were defined on MRI template, and standard uptake values ratios (SUVRs) to the cerebellum for FDG and amyloid-? PET were calculated. Predictive values of single and multiparametric PET biomarkers with and without clinical assessments and CSF biomarkers for AD progression were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and logistic regression model. RESULTS:The posterior precuneus and cingulate SUVRs were identified for both FDG and amyloid-? PET in predicating progression in normal controls (NCs) and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). FDG parietal and lateral temporal SUVRs were suggested for monitoring NCs and MCI group progression, respectively. 18F-AV45 global cortex attained (78.6%, 74.5%, 75.4%) (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy) in predicting NC progression, which is comparable to the 11C-PiB global cortex SUVR's in predicting MCI to AD. A logistic regression model to combine FDG parietal and posterior precuneus SUVR and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog) Total Mod was identified in predicating NC progression with (80.0%, 94.9%, 93.9%) (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy). The selected model including FDG posterior cingulate SUVR, ADAS-Cog Total Mod, and Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) scores for predicating MCI to AD attained (96.4%, 81.2%, 83.6%) (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy). 11C-PiB medial temporal SUVR with MMSE significantly increased 11C-PiB PET AUC to 0.915 (p<0.05) in predicating MCI to AD with (77.8%, 90.4%, 88.5%) (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy). CONCLUSION:Quantitative FDG and 11C-PiB PET with clinical cognitive assessments significantly improved accuracy in the predication of AD progression.
Project description:The focus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuroimaging research has shifted towards an investigation of the earliest stages of AD pathogenesis, which manifests in every young adult with Down syndrome (DS; trisomy 21) resulting from a deterministic genetic predisposition to amyloid precursor protein overproduction. Due to morphological differences in brain structure in the DS population, special consideration must be given to processing pipelines and the use of normative atlases developed for the non-DS population. Further, the use of typical MRI to MRI template spatial normalization is less desirable in this cohort due to a greater presence of motion artefacts in MRI images. The diffuse nature of PiB uptake and comparatively lower spatial resolution of the PET image permits the purposing of this modality as a template for spatial normalization, which can substantially improve the robustness of this procedure in the cases of MRI images with motion. The aim of this work was to establish standardized methods for spatial normalization and tissue type segmentation using DS specific templates in order to perform voxel-wise analyses. A total of 72 adults with DS underwent [11C]PiB PET to assess brain amyloid burden and volumetric MRI imaging. A DS specific PiB template for spatial normalization and a set of DS specific prior probability templates were created with two-pass methods. With implementation of this DS specific PiB template, no participants were excluded due to poor spatial normalization, thus maximizing the sample size for PiB analyses in standardized space. In addition, difference images between prior probability templates created from the general population and the DS population reflected known morphological differences, particularly in the frontal cortex. In conclusion, DS specific templates that account for unique challenges improve spatial normalization and tissue type segmentation, and provide a framework for reliable voxel-wise analysis of AD biomarkers in this atypical population.
Project description:To examine neurodegenerative imaging biomarkers in Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia from middle to old age.Persons with AD dementia and elevated brain ?-amyloid with Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET imaging underwent [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET and structural MRI. We evaluated 3 AD-related neurodegeneration biomarkers: hippocampal volume adjusted for total intracranial volume (HVa), FDG standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) in regions of interest linked to AD, and cortical thickness in AD-related regions of interest. We examined associations of each biomarker with age and evaluated age effects on cutpoints defined by the 90th percentile in AD dementia. We assembled an age-, sex-, and intracranial volume-matched group of 194 similarly imaged clinically normal (CN) persons.The 97 participants with AD dementia (aged 49-93 years) had PiB SUVR ?1.8. A nonlinear (inverted-U) relationship between FDG SUVR and age was seen in the AD group but an inverse linear relationship with age was seen in the CN group. Cortical thickness had an inverse linear relationship with age in AD but a nonlinear (flat, then inverse linear) relationship in the CN group. HVa showed an inverse linear relationship with age in both AD and CN groups. Age effects on 90th percentile cutpoints were small for FDG SUVR and cortical thickness, but larger for HVa.In persons with AD dementia with elevated PiB SUVR, values of each neurodegeneration biomarker were associated with age. Cortical thickness had the smallest differences in 90th percentile cutpoints from middle to old age, and HVa the largest differences.