Genome Sequence of Roseovarius mucosus Strain SMR3, Isolated from a Culture of the Diatom Skeletonema marinoi.
ABSTRACT: We present the genome of Roseovarius mucosus strain SMR3, a marine bacterium isolated from the diatom Skeletonema marinoi strain RO5AC sampled from top layer sediments at 14 m depth. Its 4,381,426 bp genome consists of a circular chromosome and two circular plasmids and contains 4,178 coding sequences (CDSs).
Project description:We report here the genome sequence of Loktanella vestfoldensis strain SMR4r, isolated from the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi strain RO5AC. Its 3,987,360-bp genome consists of a circular chromosome and two circular plasmids, one of which appears to be shared with an S. marinoi-associated Roseovarius species.
Project description:Marine diatoms are the dominant phytoplankton in the temperate oceans and coastal regions, contributing to global photosynthesis, biogeochemical cycling of key nutrients and minerals and aquatic food chains. Integral to the success of marine diatoms is a diverse array of bacterial species that closely interact within the diffusive boundary layer, or phycosphere, surrounding the diatom partner. Recently, we isolated seven distinct bacterial species from cultures of Skeletonema marinoi, a chain-forming, centric diatom that dominates the coastal regions of the temperate oceans. Genomes of all seven bacteria were sequenced revealing many unusual characteristics such as the existence of numerous plasmids of widely varying sizes. Here we have investigated the characteristics of the bacterial interactions with S. marinoi, demonstrating that several strains (Arenibacter algicola strain SMS7, Marinobacter salarius strain SMR5, Sphingorhabdus flavimaris strain SMR4y, Sulfitobacter pseudonitzschiae strain SMR1, Yoonia vestfoldensis strain SMR4r and Roseovarius mucosus strain SMR3) stimulate growth of the diatom partner. Testing of many different environmental factors including low iron concentration, high and low temperatures, and chemical signals showed variable effects on this growth enhancement by each bacterial species, with the most significant being light quality in which green and blue but not red light enhanced the stimulatory effect on S. marinoi growth by all bacteria. Several of the bacteria also inhibited growth of one or more of the other bacterial strains to different extents when mixed together. This study highlights the complex interactions between diatoms and their associated bacteria within the phycosphere, and that further studies are needed to resolve the underlying mechanisms for these relationships and how they might influence the global success of marine diatoms.
Project description:Arenibacter algicola strain SMS7 was isolated from a culture of the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi strain ST54, sampled from top-layer sediments in Kosterfjord, Sweden. Here, we present its 5,857,781-bp genome, consisting of a circular chromosome and one circular plasmid, in all containing 4,932 coding sequences.
Project description:As part of an ongoing investigation into the microbiome of the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi, the bacterial strain SMS3 was isolated from a culture of S. marinoi strain ST54, which had been propagated from a sample of top layer marine sediments taken from the Swedish west coast. We present here the sequenced genome of this bacterium, which we place in the taxon Antarctobacter heliothermus, based on a phylotaxonomic analysis and its high 16S rRNA sequence similarity to the A. heliothermus type strain DSM 11445T. Its 5,331,190 bp genome consists of a circular chromosome and three circular plasmids, and contains 5,019 CDSs. Strain SMS3 contains a phosphatidylcholine synthase gene, as well as genes involved in DMSP degradation, both of which imply a potential symbiotic relationship with its host.
Project description:Initial efforts to sequence the genome of the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi were hampered by the presence of genetic material from bacteria, and there was sufficient material from some of these bacteria to enable the assembly of full chromosomes. Here, we report the genome of strain SMS9, one such bacterial species identified in a non-axenic culture of S. marinoi strain ST54. Its 5,482,391 bp circular chromosome contains 4,641 CDSs, and has a G+C content of 35.6%. Based on 16S rRNA comparison, phylotaxonomic analysis, and the genome similarity metrics dDDH and OrthoANI, we place this strain in the genus Kordia, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first Kordia species to be initially described from European waters. As attempts to culture this strain have failed, however, the specifics of its relationship with S. marinoi are still uncertain.
Project description:When studying diatoms, an important consideration is the role of associated bacteria in the diatom-microbiome holobiont. To that end, bacteria isolated from a culture of Skeletonema marinoi strain R05AC were sequenced, one of which being bacterial strain SMR1, presented here. The genome consists of a circular chromosome and seven circular plasmids, totalling 5,121,602 bp. After phylotaxonomic analysis and 16S rRNA sequence comparison, we place this strain in the taxon Sulfitobacter pseudonitzschiae on account of similarity to the type strain. The annotated genome suggests similar interactions between strain SMR1 and its host diatom as have been shown previously in diatom-associated Sulfitobacter, for example bacterial production of growth hormone for its host, and breakdown of diatom-derived DMSP by Sulfitobacter for use as a sulfur source.
Project description:With the goal of identifying neuroactive secondary metabolites from microalgae, a microscale in vivo zebrafish bioassay for antiseizure activity was used to evaluate bioactivities of the diatom Skeletonema marinoi, which was recently revealed as being a promising source of drug-like small molecules. A freeze-dried culture of S. marinoi was extracted by solvents with increasing polarities (hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water) and these extracts were screened for anticonvulsant activity using a larval zebrafish epilepsy model with seizures induced by the GABAA antagonist pentylenetetrazole. The methanolic extract of S. marinoi exhibited significant anticonvulsant activity and was chosen for bioassay-guided fractionation, which associated the bioactivity with minor constituents. The key anticonvulsant constituent was identified as the nucleoside inosine, a well-known adenosine receptor agonist with previously reported antiseizure activities in mice and rat epilepsy models, but not reported to date as a bioactive constituent of microalgae. In addition, a UHPLC-HRMS metabolite profiling was used for dereplication of the other constituents of S. marinoi. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution spectrometry. These results highlight the potential of zebrafish-based screening and bioassay-guided fractionation to identify neuroactive marine natural products.
Project description:The experiment was designed to study the transcriptomic response of the centric diatom Skeletonema marinoi to the presence of cues from the grazer Calanus finmarchicus. Samples were collected in triplicate after 65 and 89 hours of exposure of diatom cells to the copepods. Control samples with no copepods were collected at the same time points.
Project description:Diatoms are important phytoplankton and contribute greatly to the primary productivity of marine ecosystems. Despite the ecological significance of diatoms and the importance of programmed cell death (PCD) in the fluctuation of diatom populations, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of PCD triggered by different nutrient stresses. Here we describe the physiological, morphological, biochemical, and molecular changes in response to low levels of nutrients in the ubiquitous diatom Skeletonema marinoi The levels of gene expression involved in oxidation resistance and PCD strongly increased upon nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) starvation. The enzymatic activity of caspase 3-like protein also increased. Differences in mRNA levels and protein activities were observed between the low-N and low-P treatments, suggesting that PCD could have a differential response to different nutrient stresses. When cultures were replete with N or P, the growth inhibition stopped. Meanwhile, the enzymatic activity of caspase 3-like protein and the number of cells with damaged membranes decreased. These results suggest that PCD is an important cell fate decision mechanism in the marine diatom S. marinoi Our results provide important insight into how diatoms adjust phenotypic and genotypic features of their cell-regulated death programs when stressed by nutrient limitations. Overall, this study could allow us to better understand the molecular mechanism behind the formation and termination of diatom blooms in the marine environment.IMPORTANCE Our study showed how the ubiquitous diatom S. marinoi responded to different nutrient limitations with PCD in terms of physiological, morphological, biochemical, and molecular characteristics. Some PCD-related genes (PDCD4, GOX, and HSP90) induced by N deficiency were relatively upregulated compared to those induced by P deficiency. In contrast, the expression of the TSG101 gene in S. marinoi showed a clear and constant increase during P limitation compared to N limitation. These findings suggest that PCD is a complex mechanism involving several different proteins. The systematic mRNA level investigations provide new insight into understanding the oxidative stress- and cell death-related functional genes of diatoms involved in the response to nutrient fluctuations (N or P stress) in the marine environment.