Distinct Contributions of Autophagy Receptors in Measles Virus Replication.
ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a potent cell autonomous defense mechanism that engages the lysosomal pathway to fight intracellular pathogens. Several autophagy receptors can recognize invading pathogens in order to target them towards autophagy for their degradation after the fusion of pathogen-containing autophagosomes with lysosomes. However, numerous intracellular pathogens can avoid or exploit autophagy, among which is measles virus (MeV). This virus induces a complete autophagy flux, which is required to improve viral replication. We therefore asked how measles virus interferes with autophagy receptors during the course of infection. We report that in addition to NDP52/CALCOCO? and OPTINEURIN/OPTN, another autophagy receptor, namely T6BP/TAXIBP1, also regulates the maturation of autophagosomes by promoting their fusion with lysosomes, independently of any infection. Surprisingly, only two of these receptors, NDP52 and T6BP, impacted measles virus replication, although independently, and possibly through physical interaction with MeV proteins. Thus, our results suggest that a restricted set of autophagosomes is selectively exploited by measles virus to replicate in the course of infection.
Project description:Autophagy targets intracellular molecules, damaged organelles, and invading pathogens for degradation in lysosomes. Recent studies have identified autophagy receptors that facilitate this process by binding to ubiquitinated targets, including NDP52. Here, we demonstrate that the small guanosine triphosphatase Rab35 directs NDP52 to the corresponding targets of multiple forms of autophagy. The active GTP-bound form of Rab35 accumulates on bacteria-containing endosomes, and Rab35 directly binds and recruits NDP52 to internalized bacteria. Additionally, Rab35 promotes interaction of NDP52 with ubiquitin. This process is inhibited by TBC1D10A, a GAP that inactivates Rab35, but stimulated by autophagic activation via TBK1 kinase, which associates with NDP52. Rab35, TBC1D10A, and TBK1 regulate NDP52 recruitment to damaged mitochondria and to autophagosomes to promote mitophagy and maturation of autophagosomes, respectively. We propose that Rab35-GTP is a critical regulator of autophagy through recruiting autophagy receptor NDP52.
Project description:Autophagy targets pathogens, damaged organelles and protein aggregates for lysosomal degradation. These ubiquitylated cargoes are recognized by specific autophagy receptors, which recruit LC3-positive membranes to form autophagosomes. Subsequently, autophagosomes fuse with endosomes and lysosomes, thus facilitating degradation of their content; however, the machinery that targets and mediates fusion of these organelles with autophagosomes remains to be established. Here we demonstrate that myosin VI, in concert with its adaptor proteins NDP52, optineurin, T6BP and Tom1, plays a crucial role in autophagy. We identify Tom1 as a myosin VI binding partner on endosomes, and demonstrate that loss of myosin VI and Tom1 reduces autophagosomal delivery of endocytic cargo and causes a block in autophagosome-lysosome fusion. We propose that myosin VI delivers endosomal membranes containing Tom1 to autophagosomes by docking to NDP52, T6BP and optineurin, thereby promoting autophagosome maturation and thus driving fusion with lysosomes.
Project description:Selective macroautophagy/autophagy plays a pivotal role in the processing of foreign pathogens and cellular components to maintain homeostasis in human cells. To date, numerous studies have demonstrated the uptake of nanoparticles by cells, but their intracellular processing through selective autophagy remains unclear. Here we show that carbon-based nanodiamonds (NDs) coated with ubiquitin (Ub) bind to autophagy receptors (SQSTM1 [sequestosome 1], OPTN [optineurin], and CALCOCO2/NDP52 [calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2]) and are then linked to MAP1LC3/LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3) for entry into the selective autophagy pathway. NDs are ultimately delivered to lysosomes. Ectopically expressed SQSTM1-green fluorescence protein (GFP) could bind to the Ub-coated NDs. By contrast, the Ub-associated domain mutant of SQSTM1 (?UBA)-GFP did not bind to the Ub-coated NDs. Chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, prevented the ND-containing autophagosomes from fusing with lysosomes. Furthermore, autophagy receptors OPTN and CALCOCO2/NDP52, involved in the processing of bacteria, were found to be involved in the selective autophagy of NDs. However, ND particles located in the lysosomes of cells did not induce mitotic blockage, senescence, or cell death. Single ND clusters in the lysosomes of cells were observed in the xenografted human lung tumors of nude mice. This study demonstrated for the first time that Ub-coated nanoparticles bind to autophagy receptors for entry into the selective autophagy pathway, facilitating their delivery to lysosomes.
Project description:Autophagy defends the mammalian cytosol against bacterial infection. Efficient pathogen engulfment is mediated by cargo-selecting autophagy adaptors that rely on unidentified pattern-recognition or danger receptors to label invading pathogens as autophagy cargo, typically by polyubiquitin coating. Here we show in human cells that galectin 8 (also known as LGALS8), a cytosolic lectin, is a danger receptor that restricts Salmonella proliferation. Galectin 8 monitors endosomal and lysosomal integrity and detects bacterial invasion by binding host glycans exposed on damaged Salmonella-containing vacuoles. By recruiting NDP52 (also known as CALCOCO2), galectin 8 activates antibacterial autophagy. Galectin-8-dependent recruitment of NDP52 to Salmonella-containing vesicles is transient and followed by ubiquitin-dependent NDP52 recruitment. Because galectin 8 also detects sterile damage to endosomes or lysosomes, as well as invasion by Listeria or Shigella, we suggest that galectin 8 serves as a versatile receptor for vesicle-damaging pathogens. Our results illustrate how cells deploy the danger receptor galectin 8 to combat infection by monitoring endosomal and lysosomal integrity on the basis of the specific lack of complex carbohydrates in the cytosol.
Project description:Autophagy plays a key role during Salmonella infection, by eliminating these pathogens following escape into the cytosol. In this process, selective autophagy receptors, including the myosin VI adaptor proteins optineurin and NDP52, have been shown to recognize cytosolic pathogens. Here, we demonstrate that myosin VI and TAX1BP1 are recruited to ubiquitylated Salmonella and play a key role in xenophagy. The absence of TAX1BP1 causes an accumulation of ubiquitin-positive Salmonella, whereas loss of myosin VI leads to an increase in ubiquitylated and LC3-positive bacteria. Our structural studies demonstrate that the ubiquitin-binding site of TAX1BP1 overlaps with the myosin VI binding site and point mutations in the TAX1BP1 zinc finger domains that affect ubiquitin binding also ablate binding to myosin VI. This mutually exclusive binding and the association of TAX1BP1 with LC3 on the outer limiting membrane of autophagosomes may suggest a molecular mechanism for recruitment of this motor to autophagosomes. The predominant role of TAX1BP1, a paralogue of NDP52, in xenophagy is supported by our evolutionary analysis, which demonstrates that functionally intact NDP52 is missing in Xenopus and mice, whereas TAX1BP1 is expressed in all vertebrates analysed. In summary, this work highlights the importance of TAX1BP1 as a novel autophagy receptor in myosin VI-mediated xenophagy. Our study identifies essential new machinery for the autophagy-dependent clearance of Salmonella typhimurium and suggests modulation of myosin VI motor activity as a potential therapeutic target in cellular immunity.
Project description:Eukaryotic cells sterilize the cytosol by using autophagy to route invading bacterial pathogens to the lysosome. During macrophage infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a vacuolar pathogen, exogenous induction of autophagy can limit replication, but the mechanism of autophagy targeting and its role in natural infection remain unclear. Here we show that phagosomal permeabilization mediated by the bacterial ESX-1 secretion system allows cytosolic components of the ubiquitin-mediated autophagy pathway access to phagosomal M. tuberculosis. Recognition of extracelluar bacterial DNA by the STING-dependent cytosolic pathway is required for marking bacteria with ubiquitin, and delivery of bacilli to autophagosomes requires the ubiquitin-autophagy receptors p62 and NDP52 and the DNA-responsive kinase TBK1. Remarkably, mice with monocytes incapable of delivering bacilli to the autophagy pathway are extremely susceptible to infection. Our results reveal an unexpected link between DNA sensing, innate immunity, and autophagy and indicate a major role for this autophagy pathway in resistance to M. tuberculosis infection.
Project description:Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is linked to autophagy that facilitates elimination of intracellular pathogens. However, it is largely unknown whether autophagy controls TLR signaling. Here, we report that poly(I:C) stimulation induces selective autophagic degradation of the TLR adaptor molecule TRIF and the signaling molecule TRAF6, which is revealed by gene silencing of the ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20. This type of autophagy induced formation of autophagosomes and could be suppressed by an autophagy inhibitor and lysosomal inhibitors. However, this autophagy was not associated with canonical autophagic processes, including involvement of Beclin-1 and conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II. Through screening of TRIF-interacting 'autophagy receptors' in human cells, we identified that NDP52 mediated the selective autophagic degradation of TRIF and TRAF6 but not TRAF3. NDP52 was polyubiquitinated by TRAF6 and was involved in aggregation of TRAF6, which may result in the selective degradation. Intriguingly, only under the condition of A20 silencing, NDP52 could effectively suppress poly(I:C)-induced proinflammatory gene expression. Thus, this study clarifies a selective autophagic mechanism mediated by NDP52 that works downstream of TRIF-TRAF6. Furthermore, although A20 is known as a signaling fine-tuner to prevent excess TLR signaling, it paradoxically downregulates the fine-tuning effect of NDP52 on TLR signaling.
Project description:Disrupting functional protein homeostasis is an established therapeutic strategy for certain tumors. Ongoing studies are evaluating autophagy inhibition for overcoming chemotherapeutic resistance to such therapies by neutralizing lysosomal pH. New and sensitive methods to monitor autophagy in patients are needed to improve trial design and interpretation. We report that mitochondrial-damaged breast cancer cells and rat breast tumors accumulate p53-positive protein aggregates that resist lysosomal degradation. These aggregates were localized to enzymatically-active autolysosomes that were degrading autophagosomes and the autophagic receptor proteins TAX1BP1 and NDP52. NDP52 was identified to associate with aggregated proteins and knocking down NDP52 led to the accumulation of protein aggregates. TAX1BP1 was identified to partly localize with aggregates, and knocking down TAX1BP1 enhanced aggregate formation, suppressed autophagy, impaired NDP52 autophagic degradation and induced cell death. We propose that quantifying aggregates and autophagic receptors are two potential methods to evaluate autophagy and lysosomal degradation, as confirmed using primary human tumor samples. Collectively, this report establishes protein aggregates and autophagy receptors, TAX1BP1 and NDP52, as potential endpoints for monitoring autophagy during drug development and clinical studies.
Project description:A clinical isolate of measles virus (MeV) bearing a single amino acid alteration in the viral fusion protein (F; L454W) was previously identified in two patients with lethal sequelae of MeV central nervous system (CNS) infection. The mutation dysregulated the viral fusion machinery so that the mutated F protein mediated cell fusion in the absence of known MeV cellular receptors. While this virus could feasibly have arisen via intrahost evolution of the wild-type (wt) virus, it was recently shown that the same mutation emerged under the selective pressure of small-molecule antiviral treatment. Under these conditions, a potentially neuropathogenic variant emerged outside the CNS. While CNS adaptation of MeV was thought to generate viruses that are less fit for interhost spread, we show that two animal models can be readily infected with CNS-adapted MeV via the respiratory route. Despite bearing a fusion protein that is less stable at 37°C than the wt MeV F, this virus infects and replicates in cotton rat lung tissue more efficiently than the wt virus and is lethal in a suckling mouse model of MeV encephalitis even with a lower inoculum. Thus, either during lethal MeV CNS infection or during antiviral treatment in vitro, neuropathogenic MeV can emerge, can infect new hosts via the respiratory route, and is more pathogenic (at least in these animal models) than wt MeV.IMPORTANCE Measles virus (MeV) infection can be severe in immunocompromised individuals and lead to complications, including measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE). In some cases, MeV persistence and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) occur even in the face of an intact immune response. While they are relatively rare complications of MeV infection, MIBE and SSPE are lethal. This work addresses the hypothesis that despite a dysregulated viral fusion complex, central nervous system (CNS)-adapted measles virus can spread outside the CNS within an infected host.
Project description:Cells employ active measures to restrict infection by pathogens, even prior to responses from the innate and humoral immune defenses. In this context selective autophagy is activated upon pathogen induced membrane rupture to sequester and deliver membrane fragments and their pathogen contents for lysosomal degradation. Adenoviruses, which breach the endosome upon entry, escape this fate by penetrating into the cytosol prior to autophagosome sequestration of the ruptured endosome. We show that virus induced membrane damage is recognized through Galectin-8 and sequesters the autophagy receptors NDP52 and p62. We further show that a conserved PPxY motif in the viral membrane lytic protein VI is critical for efficient viral evasion of autophagic sequestration after endosomal lysis. Comparing the wildtype with a PPxY-mutant virus we show that depletion of Galectin-8 or suppression of autophagy in ATG5-/- MEFs rescues infectivity of the PPxY-mutant virus while depletion of the autophagy receptors NDP52, p62 has only minor effects. Furthermore we show that wildtype viruses exploit the autophagic machinery for efficient nuclear genome delivery and control autophagosome formation via the cellular ubiquitin ligase Nedd4.2 resulting in reduced antigenic presentation. Our data thus demonstrate that a short PPxY-peptide motif in the adenoviral capsid permits multi-layered viral control of autophagic processes during entry.