Specific MicroRNA Pattern in Colon Tissue of Young Children with Eosinophilic Colitis.
ABSTRACT: Eosinophilic colitis (EC) is a common cause of haematochezia in infants and young children. The exact pathomechanism is not understood, and the diagnosis is challenging. The role of microRNAs as key class of regulators of mRNA expression and translation in patients with EC has not been explored. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the miRNA profile in EC with respect to eosinophilic inflammation. Patients enrolled in the study (n = 10) had persistent rectal bleeding, and did not respond to elimination dietary treatment. High-throughput microRNA sequencing was carried out on colonic biopsy specimens of children with EC (EC: n = 4) and controls (C: n = 4) as a preliminary screening of the miRNA profile. Based on the next-generation sequencing (NGS) results and literature data, a potentially relevant panel of miRNAs were selected for further measurements by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR (EC: n = 14, C: n = 10). Validation by RT-PCR resulted in significantly altered expression of miR-21, -31, -99b, -125a, -146a, -184, -221, -223, and -559 compared to controls (p ? 0.05). Elevation in miR-21, -99b, -146a, -221, and -223 showed statistically significant correlation to the extent of tissue eosinophilia. Based on our results, we conclude that the dysregulated miRNAs have a potential role in the regulation of apoptosis by targeting Protein kinase B/Mechanistic target of rapamycin (AKT/mTOR)-related pathways in inflammation by modulating Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B)-related signalling and eosinophil cell recruitment and activation, mainly by regulating the expression of the chemoattractant eotaxin and the adhesion molecule CD44. Our results could serve as a basis for further extended research exploring the pathomechanism of EC.
Project description:<i>Introduction:</i> Since currently no sensitive and specific biomarkers for early detection of lung adenocarcinoma (AD) exist and the majority of AD patients are diagnosed at late stages of disease, the development of effective screening tests for early-stage lung AD is urgently needed. Serum microRNAs (miRNAs) have been documented as novel noninvasive biomarkers in tumor diagnosis; thus, we studied the profile of serum miRNA in AD patients in order to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs as potential biomarkers for early detection of AD. <i>Patients and Methods:</i> Serum samples were collected from 180 AD patients and 180 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Serum miRNA profiling was performed by low-density array (LDA) using RNA extracted from blood samples of 20 patients and 20 controls. To validate the selected miRNAs, a stem-loop based RT-qPCR assay was used and serum samples from 160 patients and 160 controls were examined. <i>Results:</i> Profiling data showed 11 differentially expressed miRNAs in the serum samples from AD patients compared with the controls. Among them, 6 selected miRNAs in AD patients, including miR-103, miR-146a, miR-151, miR-21, miR-221, miR-222, and miR-223, were validated by RT-qPCR. In particular, the top three, miR-146a, miR-222, and miR-223, were confirmed to be significantly expressed in stage I/II AD patients compared with healthy controls. <i>Conclusion:</i> A panel of miRNAs with miR-146a, miR-222 and miR-223 could be used as potential noninvasive biomarkers for early detection of AD.
Project description:Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is an important physiological compensatory mechanism in response to chronic increase in hemodynamic overload. There are two different forms of LV hypertrophy, one physiological and another pathological. Aerobic exercise induces beneficial physiological LV remodeling. The molecular/cellular mechanisms for this effect are not totally known, and here we review various mechanisms including the role of microRNA (miRNA). Studies in the heart, have identified antihypertrophic miRNA-1, -133, -26, -9, -98, -29, -378, and -145 and prohypertrophic miRNA-143, -103, -130a, -146a, -21, -210, -221, -222, -27a/b, -199a/b, -208, -195, -499, -34a/b/c, -497, -23a, and -15a/b. Four miRNAs are recognized as cardiac-specific: miRNA-1, -133a/b, -208a/b, and -499 and called myomiRs. In our studies we have shown that miRNAs respond to swimming aerobic exercise by 1) decreasing cardiac fibrosis through miRNA-29 increasing and inhibiting collagen, 2) increasing angiogenesis through miRNA-126 by inhibiting negative regulators of the VEGF pathway, and 3) modulating the renin-angiotensin system through the miRNAs-27a/b and -143. Exercise training also increases cardiomyocyte growth and survival by swimming-regulated miRNA-1, -21, -27a/b, -29a/c, -30e, -99b, -100, -124, -126, -133a/b, -143, -144, -145, -208a, and -222 and running-regulated miRNA-1, -26, -27a, -133, -143, -150, and -222, which influence genes associated with the heart remodeling and angiogenesis. We conclude that there is a potential role of these miRNAs in promoting cardioprotective effects on physiological growth.
Project description:The role of microRNAs (miRNAs), a key class of regulators of mRNA expression and translation, in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has not been explored.We aimed to identify miRNAs dysregulated in patients with EoE and assess the potential of these miRNAs as disease biomarkers.Esophageal miRNA expression was profiled in patients with active EoE and those with glucocorticoid-induced disease remission. Expression profiles were compared with those of healthy control subjects and patients with chronic (noneosinophilic) esophagitis. Expression levels of the top differentially expressed miRNAs from the plasma of patients with active EoE and patients with EoE remission were compared with those of healthy control subjects.EoE was associated with 32 differentially regulated miRNAs and was distinguished from noneosinophilic forms of esophagitis. The expression levels of the most upregulated miRNAs (miR-21 and miR-223) and the most downregulated miRNA (miR-375) strongly correlated with esophageal eosinophil levels. Bioinformatic analysis predicted interplay of miR-21 and miR-223 with key roles in the polarization of adaptive immunity and regulation of eosinophilia, and indeed, these miRNAs correlated with key elements of the EoE transcriptome. The differentially expressed miRNAs were largely reversible in patients who responded to glucocorticoid treatment. EoE remission induced a single miRNA (miR-675) likely to be involved in DNA methylation. Plasma analysis of the most upregulated esophageal miRNAs identified miR-146a, miR-146b, and miR-223 as the most differentially expressed miRNAs in the plasma.We have identified a marked dysregulated expression of a select group of miRNAs in patients with EoE and defined their reversibility with glucocorticoid treatment and their potential value as invasive and noninvasive biomarkers.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small ( approximately 22 nucleotide) non-coding RNAs whose altered expression has been associated with various types of cancers, including leukemia. In the present study, we conducted a quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of expression of 23 human precursor miRNAs in bone marrow specimens of 85 Chinese primary leukemia patients, including 53 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 32 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases. We show that 16 miRNAs were differentially expressed between AMLs and ALLs. Of them, eight were previously reported (i.e., miR-23a, miR-27a/b, miR-128a, miR-128b, miR-221, miR-222, miR-223, and let-7b) and eight were newly identified (i.e., miR-17, miR-20a, miR-29a/c, miR-29b, miR-146a, miR-150, miR-155, and miR-196b). More importantly, through correlating miRNA expression signatures with outcome of patients, we further show that expression signatures of a group of miRNAs are associated with overall survival of patients. Of them, three (i.e., miR-146a, miR-181a/c, and miR-221), five (i.e., miR-25, miR-26a, miR-29b, miR-146a, and miR-196b), and three (i.e., miR-26a, miR-29b, and miR-146a) miRNAs are significantly associated with overall survival (P<0.05) of the 32 ALL, 53 AML, and 40 non-M3 AML patients, respectively. Particularly, the expression signature of miR-146a is significantly inversely correlated with overall survival of both ALL and AML patients. The prognostic significance of miR-146a in AML has been confirmed further in an independent study of 61 Chinese new AML patient samples. We also identified 622 putative target genes of miR-146a that are predicted by at least three out of the five major prediction programs (i.e., TragetScan, PicTar, miRanda, miRBase Targets, and PITA). Through gene ontology analysis, we found that these genes were particularly enriched (2- to 9-fold higher than expected by chance) in the GO categories of "negative regulation of biology processes," "negative regulation of cellular processes," "apoptosis," and "cell cycle," which may be related to the association of miR-146a with poor survival.
Project description:Microarray?based techniques are being used to obtain miRNA and gene expression signatures associated with different samples. In order to deepen our understanding of BRCA1-associated tumorigenesis, we integrated data from microarray experiments to obtain significant miRNA-mRNA relationships associated with the presence of the BRCA1 gene. We obtained significant miRNA-gene-pathway relationships underlying the array signatures. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that miR-146a, miR-99b and miR-205, induced in HCC1937 BRCA1-expressing cells, commonly regulate the TRAF2 gene, a key regulator of NF-?B and MAPK pathways. In addition, re-expression of miR-146a, miR-99b or miR-205 in HCC1937 BRCA1-null cells was sufficient to modulate NF-?B activity. Thus, integration between miRNA-mRNA expression data allowed us to define genes and pathways controlled by miRNAs induced in the context of BRCA1 expression. Comparison of miRNA expression profiles between two isogenic cell lines differing in BRCA1 gene expression status. Single-color experiments in a pairwise comparison design with three technical replicates per cell line.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating autoimmune disease affecting over 2.3 million people worldwide, and it is characterized by inflammation and demyelination of nerve cells. The currently available biomarkers for the diagnosis and management of MS have inherent limitations, therefore, additional new biomarkers are needed. We studied the microRNA (miRNA) profile of splenocytes of mice having experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of human MS. A miRNA-microarray analysis revealed increased expression of nine miRNAs (let-7e, miR-23b, miR-31, miR-99b, miR-125a, miR-146b, miR-155, miR-193b, and miR-221) following EAE development. Interestingly, serum levels of miR-99b, miR-125a, and miR-146b were significantly higher in EAE mice compared to normal mice. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the experimentally validated as well as predicted gene targets of specific miRNAs that are important for disease progression in MS. Specifically, we observed inverse correlation in the levels of miR-99b versus LIF, and between miR-125a versus BDNF and LIF. Our results suggest that above-mentioned miRNAs may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of MS, and that miR-99b, miR-125a, and miR-146b in particular may serve as useful biomarkers for disease activity.
Project description:Noncoding RNAs (ncRNA) include a diverse range of functional RNA species-microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) being most studied in pathophysiology. Cardiovascular morbidity is associated with differential expression of myriad miRNAs; miR-21, miR-155, miR-126, miR-146a/b, miR-143/145, miR-223, and miR-221 are the top 9 most reported miRNAs in hypertension and atherosclerotic disease. A single miRNA may have hundreds of messenger RNA targets, which makes a full appreciation of the physiologic ramifications of such broad-ranging effects a challenge. miR-21 is the most prominent ncRNA associated with hypertension and atherosclerotic disease due to its role as a "mechano-miR", responding to arterial shear stresses. "Immuno-miRs", such as miR-155 and miR-223, affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) via regulation of hematopoietic cell differentiation, chemotaxis, and activation in response to many pro-atherogenic stimuli. "Myo-miRs", such as miR-1 and miR-133, affect cardiac muscle plasticity and remodeling in response to mechanical overload. This in-depth review analyzes observational and experimental reports of ncRNAs in CVD, including future applications of ncRNA-based strategies in diagnosis, prediction (e.g., survival and response to small molecule therapy), and biologic therapy.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are stable in the circulation and are likely to function in inter-organ communication during a variety of metabolic responses that involve changes in gene expression, including exercise training. However, it is unknown whether differences in circulating-miRNA (c-miRNA) levels are characteristic of training modality.We investigated whether levels of candidate c-miRNAs differ between elite male athletes of two different training modalities (n = 10 per group)--endurance (END) and strength (STR)--and between these groups and untrained controls (CON; n = 10). Fasted, non-exercised, morning plasma samples were analysed for 14 c-miRNAs (miR-1, miR-16-2, miR-20a-1, miR-21, miR-93, miR-103a, miR-133a, miR-146a, miR-192, miR-206, miR-221, miR-222, miR-451, miR-499). Moreover, we investigated whether c-miRNA levels were associated with quantitative performance-related phenotypes within and between groups.miR-222 was present at different levels in the three participant groups (p = 0.028) with the highest levels being observed in END and the lowest in STR. A number of other c-miRNAs were present at higher levels in END than in STR (relative to STR, ± 1 SEM; miR-222: 1.94 fold (1.73-2.18), p = 0.011; miR-21: 1.56 fold (1.39-1.74), p = 0.013; miR-146a: 1.50 fold (1.38-1.64), p = 0.019; miR-221: 1.51 fold (1.34-1.70), p = 0.026). Regression analyses revealed several associations between candidate c-miRNA levels and strength-related performance measures before and after adjustment for muscle or fat mass, but not following adjustment for group.Certain c-miRNAs (miR-222, miR-21, miR-146a and miR-221) differ between endurance- and resistance-trained athletes and thus have potential as useful biomarkers of exercise training and / or play a role in exercise mode-specific training adaptations. However, levels of these c-miRNAs are probably unrelated to muscle bulk or fat reserves.
Project description:MicroRNAs are ~22-nt long regulatory RNAs that serve as critical modulators of post-transcriptional gene regulation. The diversity of miRNAs in endothelial cells (ECs) and the relationship of this diversity to epithelial and hematologic cells is unknown. We investigated the baseline miRNA signature of human ECs cultured from the aorta (HAEC), coronary artery (HCEC), umbilical vein (HUVEC), pulmonary artery (HPAEC), pulmonary microvasculature (HPMVEC), dermal microvasculature (HDMVEC), and brain microvasculature (HBMVEC) to understand the diversity of miRNA expression in ECs.We identified 166 expressed miRNAs, of which 3 miRNAs (miR-99b, miR-20b and let-7b) differed significantly between EC types and predicted EC clustering. We confirmed the significance of these miRNAs by RT-PCR analysis and in a second data set by Sylamer analysis. We found wide diversity of miRNAs between endothelial, epithelial and hematologic cells with 99 miRNAs shared across cell types and 31 miRNAs unique to ECs. We show polycistronic miRNA chromosomal clusters have common expression levels within a given cell type.EC miRNA expression levels are generally consistent across EC types. Three microRNAs were variable within the dataset indicating potential regulatory changes that could impact on EC phenotypic differences. MiRNA expression in endothelial, epithelial and hematologic cells differentiate these cell types. This data establishes a valuable resource characterizing the diverse miRNA signature of ECs.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a class of non-coding RNAs that play a crucial regulatory role in skeletal muscle development and disease. Several acute inflammation conditions including sepsis and cancer are characterized by a loss of skeletal muscle due primarily to excessive muscle catabolism. As a well-known inducer of acute inflammation, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge can cause serious skeletal muscle wasting. However, knowledge of the role of miRNAs in the course of inflammatory muscle catabolism is still very limited. In this study, RNA extracted from the skeletal muscle of pigs injected with LPS or saline was subjected to small RNA deep sequencing. We identified 304 conserved and 114 novel candidate miRNAs in the pig. Of these, four were significantly increased in the LPS-challenged samples and five were decreased. The expression of five miRNAs (ssc-miR-146a-5p, ssc-miR-221-5p, ssc-miR-148b-3p, ssc-miR-215 and ssc-miR-192) were selected for validation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which found that ssc-miR-146a-5p and ssc-miR-221-5p were significantly upregulated in LPS-challenged pig skeletal muscle. Moreover, we treated mouse C2C12 myotubes with 1000 ng/mL LPS as an acute inflammation cell model. Expression of TNF-?, IL-6, muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) and muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) mRNA was strongly induced by LPS. Importantly, miR-146a-5p and miR-221-5p also showed markedly increased expression in LPS-treated C2C12 myotubes, suggesting the two miRNAs may be involved in muscle catabolism systems in response to acute inflammation caused by a LPS challenge. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine miRNA expression profiles in weaned pig skeletal muscle challenged with LPS, and furthers our understanding of miRNA function in the regulation of inflammatory muscle catabolism.