Active Nanofibrous Membrane Effects on Gingival Cell Inflammatory Response.
ABSTRACT: Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is involved in normal skin wound healing and also has anti-inflammatory properties. The association of α-MSH to polyelectrolyte layers with various supports has been shown to improve these anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of nanofibrous membrane functionalized with α-MSH linked to polyelectrolyte layers on gingival cell inflammatory response. Human oral epithelial cells (EC) and fibroblasts (FB) were cultured on plastic or electrospun Poly-#-caprolactone (PCL) membranes with α-MSH covalently coupled to Poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA-α-MSH), for 6 to 24 h. Cells were incubated with or without Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS). Cell proliferation and migration were determined using AlamarBlue test and scratch assay. Expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) was evaluated using RT-qPCR method. Cell cultures on plastic showed that PGA-α-MSH reduced EC and FB migration and decreased IL-6 and TGF-β expression in Pg-LPS stimulated EC. PGA-α-MSH functionalized PCL membranes reduced proliferation of Pg-LPS stimulated EC and FB. A significant decrease of IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β expression was also observed in Pg-LPS stimulated EC and FB. This study showed that the functionalization of nanofibrous PCL membranes efficiently amplified the anti-inflammatory effect of PGA-α-MSH on gingival cells.
Project description:Ibuprofen (IBU) has been shown to improve periodontal treatment outcomes. The aim of this study was to develop a new anti-inflammatory scaffold by functionalizing an electrospun nanofibrous poly-?-caprolactone membrane with IBU (IBU-PCL) and to evaluate its impact on periodontal inflammation, wound healing and regeneration in vitro and in vivo. IBU-PCL was synthesized through electrospinning. The effects of IBU-PCL on the proliferation and migration of epithelial cells (EC) and fibroblasts (FB) exposed to Porphyromonas gingivlais lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS) were evaluated through the AlamarBlue test and scratch assay, respectively. Anti-inflammatory and remodeling properties were investigated through Real time qPCR. Finally, the in vivo efficacy of the IBU-PCL membrane was assessed in an experimental periodontitis mouse model through histomorphometric analysis. The results showed that the anti-inflammatory effects of IBU on gingival cells were effectively amplified using the functionalized membrane. IBU-PCL reduced the proliferation and migration of cells challenged by Pg-LPS, as well as the expression of fibronectin-1, collagen-IV, integrin ?3?1 and laminin-5. In vivo, the membranes significantly improved the clinical attachment and IBU-PCL also reduced inflammation-induced bone destruction. These data showed that the IBU-PCL membrane could efficiently and differentially control inflammatory and migratory gingival cell responses and potentially promote periodontal regeneration.
Project description:This study used in vivo microdialysis to examine the effects of intragingival application of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg-LPS) on gingival tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 levels in rats. A microdialysis probe with an injection needle attached to the surface of the dialysis membrane was implanted into the gingiva of the upper incisor. For comparison, the effects of LPS derived from Escherichia coli (Ec-LPS) on IL-6 and TNF-α levels were also analysed. Pg-LPS (1 μg/1 μL) or Ec-LPS (1 or 6 μg/1 μL) was applied by microsyringe, with gingival dialysates collected every hour. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that gingival dialysates contained approximately 389 pg·mL⁻¹ of IL-6 basally; basal TNF-α levels were lower than the detection limit of the ELISA. Pg-LPS failed to alter IL-6 levels but markedly increased TNF-α levels, which remained elevated for 2 h after treatment. Neither IL-6 nor TNF-α were affected by Ec-LPS. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that the gingiva expresses Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 mRNA. Immunohistochemical examination showed that TLR2 and TLR4 are expressed by gingival epithelial cells. The present study provides in vivo evidence that locally applied Pg-LPS, but not Ec-LPS, into the gingiva transiently increases gingival TNF-α without affecting IL-6. The present results suggest that TLR2 but not TLR4 expressed on gingival epithelial cells may mediate the Pg-LPS-induced increase in gingival TNF-α in rats.
Project description:Angiogenesis is critical for local tumor growth. This study aimed to develop a three-dimensional two-layer co-culture system to investigate effects of cancer cells on the growth of endothelial cells (ECs). Poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibrous membranes were generated via electrospinning of PCL in chloroform (C-PCL-M) and chloroform and dimethylformamide (C/DMF-PCL-M). We assembled a two-layer co-culture system using C-PCL-M and C/DMF-PCL-M for EC growth in the upper layer with co-cultured cancer cells in the lower layer. In the absence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), growth of bEND.3 ECs decreased on C/DMF-PCL-M but not on C-PCL-M with time. Growth of bEND.3 cells on C/DMF-PCL-M was enhanced through co-culturing of CT26 cancer cells and enhanced growth of bEND.3 cells was abrogated with anti-VEGF antibodies and sorafenib. However, EA.hy926 ECs displayed steady growth and proliferation on C/DMF-PCL-M, and their growth was not further increased through co-culturing of cancer cells. Moreover, chemical hypoxia in CT26 cancer cells upon treatment with CoCl2 enhanced the growth of co-cultured bEND.3 cells in the two-layer system. Thus, EC growth on the nanofibrous scaffold is dependent on the types of ECs and composition of nanofibers and this co-culture system can be used to analyze EC growth induced by cancer cells.
Project description:The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a powerful suppressor of inflammation mediated by macrophages, which express at least two receptors, melanocortin 1 and 3 receptors (MC1r and MC3r) that bind alpha-MSH. Albeit, the anti-inflammatory activity of alpha-MSH has been well documented in macrophages, the mechanisms of alpha-MSH activity in macrophages are not clearly understood. This study is to investigate which of the MCr expressed on macrophages is associated with the immunosuppressive activities of alpha-MSH on LPS-stimulated macrophages. To address this question, we transfected RAW264.7 macrophage cells with MC1r small interfering (si)RNA, which specifically targets mouse MC1r mRNA. The diminution of MC1r mRNA expression was 82% at 24 h and 67% at 48 h after transfection. There was a significant loss in alpha-MSH suppression of NO generation and TNF-alpha production by MC1r siRNA-transfected macrophages stimulated with LPS. There was an equally diminished alpha-MSH suppression of LPS-stimulated intracellular activation of NF-kappaB and p38 phosphorylation. In addition, the diminishment of MC1r expression by siRNA transfection had no influence on MC3r expression and function in the macrophages. These findings demonstrate that alpha-MSH suppression of LPS-induced inflammatory activity in macrophages requires expression of MC1r. The results imply that although all of the MCr are G-coupled proteins, they may not necessarily function through the same intracellular pathways in macrophages.
Project description:Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from <i>Porphyromonas gingivalis</i> (Pg-LPS) is a key bacterial structure involved in the maintenance of a chronic pro-inflammatory environment during periodontitis. Similar to other gram-negative LPS, Pg-LPS induces the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines through interaction with Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and is able to stimulate negative TLR4 regulatory pathways, such as those involving microRNA (miRNA). In this work, we employed CyP, an LPS with TLR4-MD2 antagonist activity obtained from the cyanobacterium <i>Oscillatoria planktothrix FP1</i>, to study the effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine production and miRNA expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells stimulated with Pg-LPS or <i>E. coli</i> LPS (Ec-LPS). Results showed that CyP inhibited TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-8 expression more efficiently when co-incubated with Pg-LPS rather than with Ec-LPS. The inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production was maintained even when CyP was added 2 h after LPS. The analysis of the effects of CyP on miRNA expression showed that, although being an antagonist, CyP did not inhibit miR-146a induced by Pg-LPS or Ec-LPS, whereas it significantly inhibited miR-155 only in the cultures stimulated with Ec-LPS. These results suggest that CyP may modulate the pro-inflammatory response induced by Pg-LPS, not only by blocking TLR4-MD2 complex, but also by preserving miR-146a expression.
Project description:Emerging evidences have reported that periodontitis can be a risk factor for the pathogenesis of various systemic diseases. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), one of the crucial pathogens in chronic periodontitis, has been spotlighted as a potential cause for the promotion and acceleration of periodontitis-associated systemic disorders. To investigate the association between Pg and intestinal disease or homeostasis, we treated Pg-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in murine colitis model or intestinal organoid, respectively. Pg-derived LPS (Pg LPS) was administrated into chemically induced murine colitis model and disease symptoms were monitored compared with the infusion of LPS derived from E. coli (Ec LPS). Organoids isolated and cultured from mouse small intestine were treated with Pg or Ec LPS and further analyzed for the generation and composition of organoids. In vivo observations demonstrated that both Pg and Ec LPS exerted slight protective effects against murine colitis. Pg LPS did not affect the generation and growth of intestinal epithelial organoids. Among subtypes of epithelial cells, markers for stem cells, goblet cells or Paneth cells were changed in response to Pg LPS. Taken together, these results indicate that Pg LPS leads to partial improvement in colitis and that its treatment does not significantly affect the self-organization of intestinal organoids but may regulate the epithelial composition.
Project description:Nanofibrous membranes based on polycaprolactone (PCL) have a large potential for use in biomedical applications but are limited by the hydrophobicity of PCL. Blend electrospinning of PCL with other biomedical suited materials, such as gelatin (Gt) allows for the design of better and new materials. This study investigates the possibility of blend electrospinning PCL/Gt nanofibrous membranes which can be used to design a range of novel materials better suited for biomedical applications. The electrospinnability and stability of PCL/Gt blend nanofibers from a non-toxic acid solvent system are investigated. The solvent system developed in this work allows good electrospinnable emulsions for the whole PCL/Gt composition range. Uniform bead-free nanofibers can easily be produced, and the resulting fiber diameter can be tuned by altering the total polymer concentration. Addition of small amounts of water stabilizes the electrospinning emulsions, allowing the electrospinning of large and homogeneous nanofibrous structures over a prolonged period. The resulting blend nanofibrous membranes are analyzed for their composition, morphology, and homogeneity. Cold-gelling experiments on these novel membranes show the possibility of obtaining water-stable PCL/Gt nanofibrous membranes, as well as nanostructured hydrogels reinforced with nanofibers. Both material classes provide a high potential for designing new material applications.
Project description:Adhesion and scarring after neural surgery are detrimental to nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Amniotic membranes have been used in tissue repair due to their immunogenicity and richness in cytokines. In this study, an electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)-amnion nanofibrous membrane was prepared for the treatment of sciatic nerve compression in a rat model. The effects of the PCL-amnion nanofibrous membrane on the prevention of adhesion formation and nerve regeneration were evaluated using electrophysiology and histological analyses. Compared with the medical chitosan hydrogel dressing, the PCL-amnion nanofibrous membrane significantly reduced peripheral nerve adhesion and promoted the rapid recovery of nerve conduction. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis identified more Schwann cells and less pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages in the PCL-amnion group. Western blot and RT-PCR results showed that the expression levels of type-? and ? collagen in the PCL-treated rats were half of those in the control group after 12 weeks, while the expression level of nerve growth factor was approximately 3.5 times that found in the rats treated with medical chitosan hydrogel. In summary, electrospun PCL-amnion nanofibrous membranes can effectively reduce adhesion after neural surgery and promote nerve repair and regeneration. The long-term retention in vivo and sustained release of cytokines make PCL-amnion a promising biomaterial for clinical application.
Project description:BackgroundThe circumventricular organs (CVOs) are blood-brain-barrier missing structures whose activation through lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a starting point for TLR-driven (Toll-like receptors) neuroinflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate in the CVO area postrema (AP), subfornical organ (SFO), and median eminence (ME), the inflammatory response to two TLR4 agonists: LPS from Escherichia coli (EC-LPS), the strongest endotoxin molecule described, and LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG-LPS), a pathogenic bacteria present in the periodontium related to neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative/psychiatric diseases. The response to LPS from the cyanobacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RS-LPS), a TLR4 antagonist with an interesting anti-inflammatory potential, was also assessed.MethodsLPSs were intraperitoneally administered to Wistar rats and, as indicatives of neuroinflammation in CVOs, the cellular localization of the nuclear factor NF-?B was studied by immunofluorescence, and microglia morphology was quantified by fractal and skeleton analysis.ResultsData showed that EC-LPS increased NF-?B nuclear translocation in the three CVOs studied and PG-LPS only induced NF-?B nuclear translocation in the ME. RS-LPS showed no difference in NF-?B nuclear translocation compared to control. Microglia in the three CVOs showed an ameboid-shape after EC-LPS exposure, whereas PG-LPS only elicited a mild tendency to induce an ameboid shape. On the other hand, RS-LPS produced a markedly elongated morphology described as “rod” microglia in the three CVOs.ConclusionsIn conclusion, at the doses tested, EC-LPS induces a stronger neuroinflammatory response than PG-LPS in CVOs, which might be related to their different potency as TLR4 agonists. The non-reduction of basal NF-?B activation and induction of rod microglia by RS-LPS, a cell morphology only present in severe brain injury and infections, suggests that this molecule must be carefully studied before being proposed as an anti-inflammatory treatment for neuroinflammation related to neurodegenerative/psychiatric diseases.
Project description:Nanofibrous scaffolds that are morphologically/structurally similar to natural ECM are highly interested for tissue engineering; however, the electrospinning technique has the difficulty in directly producing clinically relevant 3D nanofibrous scaffolds with desired structural properties. To address this challenge, we have developed an innovative technique of thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration (TISA) recently. The aim of this work was to prepare (via the TISA technique) and evaluate 3D electrospun PCL/PLA blend (mass ratio: 4/1) nanofibrous scaffolds having high porosity of ?95.8% as well as interconnected and hierarchically structured pores with sizes from sub-micrometers to ?300 ?m for bone tissue engineering. The hypothesis was that the incorporation of PLA (with higher mechanical stiffness/modulus and bioactivity) into PCL nanofibers would significantly improve human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone formation in vivo. Compared to neat PCL-3D scaffolds, PCL/PLA-3D blend scaffolds had higher mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity; as a result, they not only enhanced the cell viability of hMSCs but also promoted the osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, our in vivo studies revealed that PCL/PLA-3D scaffolds considerably facilitated new bone formation in a critical-sized cranial bone defect mouse model. In summary, both in vitro and in vivo results indicated that novel 3D electrospun PCL/PLA blend nanofibrous scaffolds would be strongly favorable/desired for hMSCs osteogenic differentiation and cranial bone formation.