Hierarchical Composites to Reduce N-Nitrosamines in Cigarette Smoke.
ABSTRACT: In order to reduce the harmful constituents in cigarette smoke, two hierarchical composites were synthesized. Based on, zeolites HZSM-5 or NaY fragments were introduced into the synthetic system of mesoporous silica SBA-15 or MCM-41 and assembled with the mesoporous materials. These porous composites combine the advantages of micro- and mesoporous materials, and exhibit higher effects than activated carbon on reducing tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and some vapor phase compounds in smoke.
Project description:Clofazimine (CLZ) is an effective antibiotic used against a wide spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria and leprosy. One of its main drawbacks is its poor solubility in water. Silica based materials are used as drug delivery carriers that can increase the solubility of different hydrophobic drugs. Here, we studied how the properties of the silica framework of the mesoporous materials SBA-15, MCM-41, Al-MCM-41, and zeolites NaX, NaY, and HY affect the loading, stability, and distribution of encapsulated CLZ. Time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) experiments show the presence of neutral and protonated CLZ (1.3-3.8 ns) and weakly interacting aggregates (0.4-0.9 ns), along with H- and J-type aggregates (<0.1 ns). For the mesoporous and HY zeolite composites, the relative contribution to the overall emission spectra from H-type aggregates is low (<10%), while for the J-type aggregates it becomes higher (~30%). For NaX and NaY the former increased whereas the latter decreased. Although the CLZ@mesoporous composites show higher loading compared to the CLZ@zeolites ones, the behavior of CLZ is not uniform and its dynamics are more heterogeneous across different single mesoporous particles. These results may have implication in the design of silica-based drug carriers for better loading and release mechanisms of hydrophobic drugs.
Project description:Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are N-nitroso-derivatives of pyridine-alkaloids (e.g., nicotine) present in tobacco and cigarette smoke. Two TSNAs, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are included on the Food and Drug Administration's list of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products and tobacco. The amounts of four TSNAs (NNK, NNN, N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), and N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT)) in the tobacco and mainstream smoke from 50 U.S. commercial cigarette brands were measured from November 15, 2011 to January 4, 2012 using a validated HPLC/MS/MS method. Smoke samples were generated using the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Canadian Intense (CI) machine-smoking regimens. NNN and NAT were the most abundant TSNAs in tobacco filler and smoke across all cigarette brands, whereas NNK and NAB were present in lesser amounts. The average ratios for each TSNA in mainstream smoke to filler content is 29% by the CI smoking regimen and 13% for the ISO machine-smoking regimen. The reliability of individual TSNAs to predict total TSNA amounts in the filler and smoke was examined. NNN, NAT, and NAB have a moderate to high correlation (R2 = 0.61-0.98, p < 0.0001), and all three TSNAs individually predict total TSNAs with minimal difference between measured and predicted total TSNA amounts (error < 7.4%). NNK has weaker correlation (R2 = 0.56-0.82; p < 0.0001) and is a less reliable predictor of total TSNA quantities. Tobacco weight and levels of TSNAs in filler influence TSNA levels in smoke from the CI machine-smoking regimen. In contrast, filter ventilation is a major determinant of levels of TSNAs in smoke by the ISO machine-smoking regimen. Comparative analysis demonstrates substantial variability in TSNA amounts in tobacco filler and mainstream smoke yields under ISO and CI machine-smoking regimens among U.S. commercial cigarette brands.
Project description:Our recent studies on tobacco smoke carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers and cancer risk among male smokers in the Shanghai Cohort Study showed that exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is prospectively associated with the risk of cancer. These findings support the hypothesis that the smokers' cancer risk is a function of the dose of select tobacco carcinogens and highlight the importance of understanding the factors that affect the intake of these carcinogens by smokers. Given that tobacco constituent exposures are driven, at least in part, by the levels of these constituents in cigarette smoke, we measured mainstream smoke TSNA and PAH levels in 43 Chinese cigarette brands that participants of the Shanghai Cohort Study reported to smoke. In all brands analyzed here, mainstream smoke levels of NNN and NNK, the two carcinogenic TSNA, were generally relatively low, averaging (±SD) 16.8(±25.1) and 14.2(±9.5) ng/cigarette, respectively. The levels of PAH were comparable to those found in U.S. cigarettes, averaging 15(±9) ng/cigarette for benzo[a]pyrene, 119(±66) ng/cigarette for phenanthrene and 37(±19) ng/cigarette for pyrene. Our findings indicate that the generally low levels of NNN and NNK are most likely responsible for the relatively low levels of the corresponding biomarkers in the urine of the Shanghai Cohort Study participants as compared to those found in the U.S. smokers, supporting the role of the levels of these constituents in cigarette smoke in smokers' exposures. Our findings also suggest that, in addition to smoking, other sources contribute to Chinese smokers' exposure to PAH.
Project description:Introduction:Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are potent carcinogens. Levels of TSNAs can be modified through manufacturing practices. In the 2000s, TSNA levels in cigarettes sold in Canada were reduced by changes in tobacco curing processes. The current study examined TSNA levels over the following decade to examine trends over time. Methods:Data submitted to Health Canada under the Tobacco Reporting Regulations were used to examine whole tobacco constituents for 1809 brands and mainstream smoke emissions for 191 brands manufactured by Canada's three leading cigarette companies from 2005 through 2011/12 using one-way analysis of variances (ANOVAs) and linear regression models. Results:Levels of N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT) (p < .001) and 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) (p < .001) in whole tobacco showed significant differences over time, decreasing between 2005 and 2007, and generally increasing from 2007 through 2012. Levels of all TSNAs in mainstream smoke emissions reflected a similar pattern: N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB) (p < .001), NAT (p < .001), NNK (p < .001), and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) (p = .021). Linear regression analyses showed that TSNA levels varied by manufacturer over time in whole tobacco for NAT, NNK, and NNN (p < .001 for all), and in smoke emissions for NAB, NAT, NNK, and NNN (p < .001 for all). Conclusions:The findings indicate that levels of TSNAs in whole tobacco and smoke emissions of cigarettes sold in Canada increased from 2007 through 2011/12, following initial reductions over the previous 2 years. Differences in TSNA levels between companies raise questions about manufacturing practices that may be responsible for these changes. Although increased levels of carcinogenic TSNAs may be alarming, it remains unclear whether these differences translate into differences in health risk. Implications:The wide variation of TSNAs within the Canadian market across time and across cigarette companies demonstrates the feasibility of reducing the levels of these potent carcinogens. Although it is unclear whether changes made to levels of TSNAs will result in less tobacco-related disease, the tobacco industry bears a responsibility to minimize the harm from smoking to the fullest extent possible.
Project description:Catalytic ozonation process (COP) is considered as a cost-efficient technology for the treatment of refractory chemical wastewaters. The catalyst performance plays an important role for the treatment efficiency. The present study investigated efficiencies and mechanisms of manganese (Mn)-based Y zeolites in COPs for removing nitrobenzene from water. The catalysts of Mn/NaY and Mn/USY were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation, while Mn-USY was obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. Mn-USY contained a greater ratio of Mn2+ than Mn/NaY, and Mn/USY. Mn oxides loaded on Y zeolites promoted the COP efficiencies. Mn/NaY increased total organic carbon removal in COP by 7.3% compared to NaY, while Mn/USY and Mn-USY increased 11.5 and 15.8%, respectively, relative to USY in COP. Multivalent Mn oxides (Mn2+, Mn3+, and Mn4+) were highly dispersed on the surface of NaY or USY, and function as catalytic active sites, increasing mineralization. Mn-USY showed the highest total organic carbon removal (44.3%) in COP among the three catalysts, because Mn-USY had a higher ratio of Mn2+ to the total Mn oxides on the surface than Mn/NaY and Mn/USY and the catalytic effects from intercorrelations between Mn oxides and mesoporous surface structures. The hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals governed oxidations in COP using Mn-USY. Nitrobenzene was oxidized to polyhydroxy phenol, polyhydroxy nitrophenol, and p-benzoquinone. The intermediates were then oxidized to small organic acids and ultimately carbon dioxide and water. This study demonstrates the potential of Y zeolites used in COP for the treatment of refractory chemical wastewaters.
Project description:This work presents two easy ways for preparing nanostructured mesoporous composites by interconnecting and combining SBA-15 with mixed oxides derived from a calcined Mg-Al hydrotalcite. Two different Mg-Al hydrotalcite addition procedures were implemented, either after or during the SBA-15 synthesis (in situ method). The first procedure, i.e., the post-synthesis method, produces a composite material with Mg-Al mixed oxides homogeneously dispersed on the SBA-15 nanoporous surface. The resulting composites present textural properties similar to the SBA-15. On the other hand, with the second procedure (in situ method), Mg and Al mixed oxides occur on the porous composite, which displays a cauliflower morphology. This is an important microporosity contribution and micro and mesoporous surfaces coexist in almost the same proportion. Furthermore, the nanostructured mesoporous composites present an extraordinary water vapor sorption capacity. Such composites might be utilized as as acid-base catalysts, adsorbents, sensors or storage nanomaterials.
Project description:This study shows that residual nicotine from tobacco smoke sorbed to indoor surfaces reacts with ambient nitrous acid (HONO) to form carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). Substantial levels of TSNAs were measured on surfaces inside a smoker's vehicle. Laboratory experiments using cellulose as a model indoor material yielded a > 10-fold increase of surface-bound TSNAs when sorbed secondhand smoke was exposed to 60 ppbv HONO for 3 hours. In both cases we identified 1-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridinyl)-4-butanal, a TSNA absent in freshly emitted tobacco smoke, as the major product. The potent carcinogens 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridinyl)-1-butanone and N-nitroso nornicotine were also detected. Time-course measurements revealed fast TSNA formation, with up to 0.4% conversion of nicotine. Given the rapid sorption and persistence of high levels of nicotine on indoor surfaces-including clothing and human skin-this recently identified process represents an unappreciated health hazard through dermal exposure, dust inhalation, and ingestion. These findings raise concerns about exposures to the tobacco smoke residue that has been recently dubbed "thirdhand smoke." Our work highlights the importance of reactions at indoor interfaces, particularly those involving amines and NO(x)/HONO cycling, with potential health impacts.
Project description:The effect of two zeolites, HUSY, NaY and a mesoporous synthesized Al-MCM-41 material on the smoke composition of ten commercial cigarettes brands has been studied. Cigarettes were prepared by mixing the tobacco with the three powdered materials, and the smoke obtained under the ISO conditions was analyzed. Up to 32 compounds were identified and quantified in the gas fraction and 80 in the total particulate matter (TPM) condensed in the cigarettes filters and in the traps located after the mouth end of the cigarettes. Al-MCM-41 is by far the best additive, providing the highest reductions of the yield for most compounds and brands analyzed. A positive correlation was observed among the TPM and nicotine yields with the reduction obtained in nicotine, CO, and most compounds with the three additives. The amount of ashes in additive free basis increases due to the coke deposited on the solids, especially with Al-MCM-41. Nicotine is reduced with Al-MCM-41 by an average of 34.4% for the brands studied (49.5% for the brand where the major reduction was obtained and 18.5 for the brand behaving the worst). CO is reduced by an average of 18.6% (ranging from 10.3 to 35.2% in the different brands).
Project description:A series of mesoporous materials of SBA-16 were in situ incorporated into ZSM-5 crystallites via a two-step self-assemble method, and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts were prepared on the corresponding ZSM-5/SBA-16 (ZS) composites. The characterization results indicated that ZSM-5 nanoseeds were fabricated into the silica framework of the ZS composites, and the three-dimensional Im3m cubic structure of SBA-16 was retained simultaneously. In addition, the ZS series materials possessed open pores and large surfaces, which would facilitate the diffusion of reactants in the mesoporous channels. Moreover, the introduction of ZSM-5 seeds into composites could enhance the acidities of supports. As a result, the NiMo/ZS series catalysts exhibited high activities for DBT HDS processes. The NiMo/ZS-160 catalyst exhibited the highest catalytic efficiency (96.5%), which was apparently attributed to the synergistic contributions of the physicochemical properties of ZS supports and the dispersion states of active metals. Correspondingly, DBT HDS reactions over the NiMo/ZS series catalysts mainly proceeded via a hydrogenation desulfurization route that benefitted from the enhanced acidities especially the total Brønsted acid.
Project description:Hierarchically porous ZSM-5 was prepared by utilizing a two-step crystallization procedure with carbon-silica composites as precursors. The hierarchically porous zeolites obtained a regular mesoporous structure with aluminum incorporated into the carbon-silica composite frameworks. The carbon-silica composite zeolites were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption. As-prepared hierarchical zeolites were used in the 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene (TIPB) cracking reaction and exhibited significantly high TIPB conversion, while the accessibility factors were also determined.