In vitro characterization of IroB, a pathogen-associated C-glycosyltransferase.
ABSTRACT: Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica modify the tricatecholic siderophore enterobactin (Ent) by glucosylation of three aryl carbon atoms, a process controlled by the iroA locus [Hantke, K., Nicholson, G., Rabsch, W. & Winkelmann, G. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 3677-3682]. Here, we report the purification of the IroB protein and its characterization as the Ent C-glucosyltransferase. IroB transfers glucosyl groups from uridine-5'-diphosphoglucose to C5 of one, two, or three of the 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl units of Ent to yield monoglucosyl-C-Ent (MGE), diglucosyl-C-Ent (DGE), and triglucosyl-C-Ent (TGE). DGE, also known as salmochelin S4, and macrolactone-opened derivatives have been isolated from the culture broths of S. enterica and uropathogenic E. coli [Bister, B., Bischoff, D., Nicholson, G. J., Valdebenito, M., Schneider, K., Winkelmann, G., Hantke, K. & Sussmuth, R. D. (2004) Biometals 17, 471-481], but MGE and TGE have not been reported previously. IroB has a k(cat) of approximately 10 min(-1) for the first C-glucosylation and is distributive, with sequential conversion and buildup of MGE and then DGE. The C5 to C1' regio-selectivity of the 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-glucose linkage at all three rings of TGE suggests a C5 carbanion, para to the C2 phenolate oxygen, as the carbon nucleophile in this novel enzymatic C-glucosylation.
Project description:The iroA locus encodes five genes (iroB, iroC, iroD, iroE, iroN) that are found in pathogenic Salmonella and Escherichia coli strains. We recently reported that IroB is an enterobactin (Ent) C-glucosyltransferase, converting the siderophore into mono-, di-, and triglucosyl enterobactins (MGE, DGE, and TGE, respectively). Here, we report the characterization of IroD and IroE as esterases for the apo and Fe(3+)-bound forms of Ent, MGE, DGE, and TGE, and we compare their activities with those of Fes, the previously characterized enterobactin esterase. IroD hydrolyzes both apo and Fe(3+)-bound siderophores distributively to generate DHB-Ser and/or Glc-DHB-Ser, with higher catalytic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)) on Fe(3+)-bound forms, suggesting that IroD is the ferric MGE/DGE esterase responsible for cytoplasmic iron release. Similarly, Fes hydrolyzes ferric Ent more efficiently than apo Ent, confirming Fes is the ferric Ent esterase responsible for Fe(3+) release from ferric Ent. Although each enzyme exhibits lower k(cat)'s processing ferric siderophores, dramatic decreases in K(m)'s for ferric siderophores result in increased catalytic efficiencies. The inability of Fes to efficiently hydrolyze ferric MGE, ferric DGE, or ferric TGE explains the requirement for IroD in the iroA cluster. IroE, in contrast, prefers apo siderophores as substrates and tends to hydrolyze the trilactone just once to produce linearized trimers. These data and the periplasmic location of IroE suggest that it hydrolyzes apo enterobactins while they are being exported. IroD hydrolyzes apo MGE (and DGE) regioselectively to give a single linear trimer product and a single linear dimer product as determined by NMR.
Project description:Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains are a subset of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains associated with respiratory infections and septicemia in poultry. The iroBCDEN genes encode the salmochelin siderophore system present in Salmonella enterica and some ExPEC strains. Roles of the iro genes for virulence in chickens and production of salmochelins were assessed by introducing plasmids carrying different combinations of iro genes into an attenuated salmochelin- and aerobactin-negative mutant of O78 strain chi7122. Complementation with the iroBCDEN genes resulted in a regaining of virulence, whereas the absence of iroC, iroDE, or iroN abrogated restoration of virulence. The iroE gene was not required for virulence, since introduction of iroBCDN restored the capacity to cause lesions and colonize extraintestinal tissues. Prevalence studies indicated that iro sequences were associated with virulent APEC strains. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of supernatants of APEC chi7122 and the complemented mutants indicated that (i) for chi7122, salmochelins comprised 14 to 27% of the siderophores present in iron-limited medium or infected tissues; (ii) complementation of the mutant with the iro locus increased levels of glucosylated dimers (S1 and S5) and monomer (SX) compared to APEC strain chi7122; (iii) the iroDE genes were important for generation of S1, S5, and SX; (iv) iroC was required for export of salmochelin trimers and dimers; and (v) iroB was required for generation of salmochelins. Overall, efficient glucosylation (IroB), transport (IroC and IroN), and processing (IroD and IroE) of salmochelins are required for APEC virulence, although IroE appears to serve an ancillary role.
Project description:The design and synthesis of narrow-spectrum antibiotics that target a specific bacterial strain, species, or group of species is a promising strategy for treating bacterial infections when the causative agent is known. In this work, we report the synthesis and evaluation of four new siderophore-β-lactam conjugates where the broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics cephalexin (Lex) and meropenem (Mem) are covalently attached to either enterobactin (Ent) or diglucosylated Ent (DGE) <i>via</i> a stable polyethylene glycol (PEG<sub>3</sub>) linker. These siderophore-β-lactam conjugates showed enhanced minimum inhibitory concentrations against <i>Escherichia coli</i> compared to the parent antibiotics. Uptake studies with uropathogenic <i>E. coli</i> CFT073 demonstrated that the DGE-β-lactams target the pathogen-associated catecholate siderophore receptor IroN. A comparative analysis of siderophore-β-lactams harboring ampicillin (Amp), Lex and Mem indicated that the DGE-Mem conjugate is advantageous because it targets IroN and exhibits low minimum inhibitory concentrations, fast time-kill kinetics, and enhanced stability to serine β-lactamases. Phase-contrast and fluorescence imaging of <i>E. coli</i> treated with the siderophore-β-lactam conjugates revealed cellular morphologies consistent with the inhibition of penicillin-binding proteins PBP3 (Ent/DGE-Amp/Lex) and PBP2 (Ent/DGE-Mem). Overall, this work illuminates the uptake and cell-killing activity of Ent- and DGE-β-lactam conjugates against <i>E. coli</i> and supports that native siderophore scaffolds provide the opportunity for narrowing the activity spectrum of antibiotics in clinical use and targeting pathogenicity.
Project description:Speciation in enterobacteria involved horizontal gene transfer. Therefore, analysis of genes acquired by horizontal transfer that are present in one species but not its close relatives is expected to give insights into how new bacterial species were formed. In this study we characterize iroN, a gene located downstream of the iroBC operon in the iroA locus of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. Like iroBC, the iroN gene is present in all phylogenetic lineages of S. enterica but is absent from closely related species such as Salmonella bongori or Escherichia coli. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of iroN with other proteins suggested that this gene encodes an outer membrane siderophore receptor protein. Mutational analysis in S. enterica and expression in E. coli identified a 78-kDa outer membrane protein as the iroN gene product. When introduced into an E. coli fepA cir fiu aroB mutant on a cosmid, iroN mediated utilization of structurally related catecholate siderophores, including N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine, myxochelin A, benzaldehyde-2,3-dihydroxybenzhydrazone, 2-N,6-N-bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-lysine, 2-N,6-N-bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-lysine amide, and enterochelin. These results suggest that the iroA locus functions in iron acquisition in S. enterica.
Project description:The chromosomal iroBCDEN gene cluster first described for Salmonella enterica is involved in the uptake of catecholate-type siderophore compounds. An orthologous gene cluster has recently been detected in Escherichia coli strains which cause extraintestinal disease. This E. coli iroBCDEN gene cluster has an impact on virulence and has been reported to be located in a pathogenicity island on the chromosome. In this study we characterized an iro gene cluster of a uropathogenic E. coli isolate which is located on a transmissible plasmid related to the R64 plasmid of S. enterica. This cluster is highly homologous to the chromosomal iro cluster of E. coli. When introduced into an E. coli fepA cir fiu aroB mutant, IroN, but not IroBCDE, mediated the utilization of structurally related catecholate siderophores, including 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-L-serine, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-D-ornithine, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and enterochelin. This study supports the idea of an ongoing horizontal transfer of putative virulence factors and the mobilization of single virulence gene clusters, which lead to a modular assembly of virulence determinants such as pathogenicity islands.
Project description:Diterpenoids play important roles in rice microbial disease resistance as phytoalexins, as well as acting in allelopathy and abiotic stress responses. Recently, the casbane-type phytoalexin ent-10-oxodepressin was identified in rice, but its biosynthesis has not yet been elucidated. Here ent-10-oxodepressin biosynthesis was investigated via co-expression analysis and biochemical characterisation, with use of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology for genetic analysis. The results identified a biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) on rice chromosome 7 (c7BGC), containing the relevant ent-casbene synthase (OsECBS), and four cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes from the CYP71Z subfamily. Three of these CYPs were shown to act on ent-casbene, with CYP71Z2 able to produce a keto group at carbon-5 (C5), while the closely related paralogues CYP71Z21 and CYP71Z22 both readily produce a keto group at C10. Together these C5 and C10 oxidases can elaborate ent-casbene to ent-10-oxodepressin (5,10-diketo-ent-casbene). OsECBS knockout lines no longer produce casbane-type diterpenoids and exhibit impaired resistance to the rice fungal blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Elucidation of ent-10-oxodepressin biosynthesis and the associated c7BGC provides not only a potential target for molecular breeding, but also, gives the intriguing parallels to the independently assembled BGCs for casbene-derived diterpenoids in the Euphorbiaceae, further insight into plant BGC evolution, as discussed here.
Project description:New antibiotics are required to treat bacterial infections and counteract the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Pathogen-specific antibiotics have several advantages over broad-spectrum drugs, which include minimal perturbation to the commensal microbiota. We present a strategy for targeting antibiotics to bacterial pathogens that utilises the salmochelin-mediated iron uptake machinery of Gram-negative <i>Escherichia coli</i>. Salmochelins are C-glucosylated derivatives of the siderophore enterobactin. The biosynthesis and utilisation of salmochelins are important for virulence because these siderophores allow pathogens to acquire iron and evade the enterobactin-scavenging host-defense protein lipocalin-2. Inspired by the salmochelins, we report the design and chemoenzymatic preparation of glucosylated enterobactin-?-lactam conjugates that harbour the antibiotics ampicillin (Amp) and amoxicillin (Amx), hereafter GlcEnt-Amp/Amx. The GlcEnt scaffolds are based on mono- and diglucosylated Ent where one catechol moiety is functionalized at the C5 position for antibiotic attachment. We demonstrate that GlcEnt-Amp/Amx provide up to 1000-fold enhanced antimicrobial activity against uropathogenic <i>E. coli</i> relative to the parent ?-lactams. Moreover, GlcEnt-Amp/Amx based on a diglucosylated Ent (DGE) platform selectively kill uropathogenic <i>E. coli</i> that express the salmochelin receptor IroN in the presence of non-pathogenic <i>E. coli</i> and other bacterial strains that include the commensal microbe <i>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</i> GG. Moreover, GlcEnt-Amp/Amx evade the host-defense protein lipocalin-2, and exhibit low toxicity to mammalian cells. Our work establishes that siderophore-antibiotic conjugates provide a strategy for targeting virulence, narrowing the activity spectrum of antibiotics in clinical use, and achieving selective delivery of antibacterial cargos to pathogenic bacteria on the basis of siderophore receptor expression.
Project description:Members of a family of catecholate siderophores, called salmochelins, were isolated by reversed-phase HPLC from Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and structurally characterized by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-MSMS and GC-MS. The tentative structure of salmochelin 1 contained two 2,3- dihydroxybenzoylserine moieties bridged by a glucose residue, bound to the serine hydroxyl group of one moiety and the carboxylate of the second moiety. Salmochelin 2 contained in addition a second glucose residue linked to a third 2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine moiety. Salmochelins were not produced by an iroBC mutant, which indicated that the IroB protein might be responsible for the glucosyl transfer predicted by sequence similarities to known glycosyltransferases. Uptake experiments with radiolabeled (55)Fe-salmochelin and growth promotion tests with salmochelins showed that the IroN outer membrane receptor, encoded in the iroA locus of S. enterica and uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains, was the main receptor for ferric salmochelin transport.
Project description:Livestock are an important source of protein and food for humans, however opportunistic pathogens such as <i>Salmonella</i> spp. turn livestock into vehicles of foodborne diseases. This study investigated the prevalence of virulence genes in <i>Salmonella</i> spp. isolated from livestock production systems in two provinces of South Africa. During the period from May to August, 2018, a total of 361 faecal (189), oral (100), environmental (soil (36) and water (27)) and feed (9) samples were randomly collected from different animals (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, ducks and chickens) that were housed in small-scale livestock production systems from Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal Provinces in South Africa. <i>Salmonella</i> spp. were isolated and identified using microbiological and DNA molecular methods. <i>Salmonella</i> spp. were present in 29.0% of the samples of which 30.2% belonged to the <i>Salmonella enterica</i> species as confirmed by the positive amplification of the species specific <i>iroB</i> gene. Virulence genes that were screened from livestock-associated <i>Salmonella</i> were <i>invA</i>, <i>iroB</i>, <i>s</i><i>piC</i>, <i>pipD</i> and <i>int1</i>. Statistically significant associations (<i>p</i> < 0.05) were established between the virulence genes, sampling location, animal host as well as the season when samples were collected. Furthermore, statistically significant (<i>p</i> < 0.05) positive correlations were observed between most of the virulence genes investigated. This is one of the recent studies to detect and investigate livestock-associated <i>Salmonella</i> spp. in South Africa. This study highlights the importance of continuous monitoring and surveillance for pathogenic salmonellae. It also demonstrated the detection and prevalence of virulent <i>Salmonella</i> spp. harbored by livestock in South Africa. This study demonstrated the potential risks of pathogenic <i>Salmonella enterica</i> to cause foodborne diseases and zoonotic infections from farm-to-fork continuum using the global one-health approach.
Project description:Enterobactin (Ent), a prototypical bacterial siderophore known for its unparalleled affinity for iron, is widely conserved among members of the <i>Enterobacteriaceae</i> family of Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we demonstrated that, aside from mediating iron acquisition, Ent also dampened the macrophages (M?s) antimicrobial responses against intracellular infection by <i>Salmonella enterica</i> serovar Typhimurium. Accordingly, the loss of Ent expression (<i>?entB</i>) in <i>Salmonella</i> demoted their survivability against M?s. Addition of exogenous Ent not only rescued the survival of <i>?entB Salmonella</i>, but also augmented WT <i>Salmonella</i> to better withstand the microbicidal activity of M?s. The protection conferred to WT <i>Salmonella</i> was observed only when Ent was administered as iron-free, thus indicating the requirement of iron chelation in this context. In contrast, the exogenous iron-bound Ent retained its ability to promote the survival of <i>?entB Salmonella</i>, albeit modestly. Assessment on M?s labile iron pool (LIP) revealed that iron-free Ent is able to permeate into M?s, chelate the intracellular LIP, and regulate the expression of several key iron-regulatory proteins, <i>i.e</i>., divalent metal transporter 1, ferroportin, and hepcidin. Chelation of iron by Ent was also observed to promote the M?s towards M2 polarization. Collectively, our findings demonstrated that Ent not only facilitates bacterial iron uptake but also disrupts M?s iron homeostasis and M1/M2 polarization to safeguard intracellular bacteria against the anti-bacterial effects of their host.