Current Induced Heat Generation in Ferromagnet-Quantum Dot-Ferromagnet System.
ABSTRACT: We study the heat generation in ferromagnet-quantum dot-ferromagnet system by the non-equilibrium Green's functions method. Heat generation under the influence of ferromagnet leads is very different compared with a system with normal metal leads. The significant effects in heat generation are caused by the polarization angle θ associated with the orientation of polarized magnetic moment of electron in the ferromagnetic terminals. From the study of heat generation versus source drain bias (Q-eV) curves, we find that the heat generation decreases as θ increases from 0 to 0.7π. The heat generation versus gate voltage (Q-eVg) curves also display interesting behavior with increasing polarization angle θ. Meanwhile, heat generation is influenced by the relative angle θ of magnetic moment in the ferromagnetic leads. These results will provide theories to this quantum dot system as a new material of spintronics.
Project description:Combining different physical systems in hybrid quantum circuits opens up novel possibilities for quantum technologies. In quantum magnonics, quanta of collective excitation modes in a ferromagnet, called magnons, interact coherently with qubits to access quantum phenomena of magnonics. We use this architecture to probe the quanta of collective spin excitations in a millimeter-sized ferromagnetic crystal. More specifically, we resolve magnon number states through spectroscopic measurements of a superconducting qubit with the hybrid system in the strong dispersive regime. This enables us to detect a change in the magnetic moment of the ferromagnet equivalent to a single spin flipped among more than 1019 spins. Our demonstration highlights the strength of hybrid quantum systems to provide powerful tools for quantum sensing and quantum information processing.
Project description:When a topological insulator (TI) is in contact with a ferromagnet, both time-reversal and inversion symmetries are broken at the interface. An energy gap is formed at the TI surface, and its electrons gain a net magnetic moment through short-range exchange interactions. Magnetic TIs can host various exotic quantum phenomena, such as massive Dirac fermions, Majorana fermions, the quantum anomalous Hall effect and chiral edge currents along the domain boundaries. However, selective measurement of induced magnetism at the buried interface has remained a challenge. Using magnetic second-harmonic generation, we directly probe both the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetizations induced at the interface between the ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) EuS and the three-dimensional TI Bi2Se3. Our findings not only allow characterizing magnetism at the TI-FMI interface but also lay the groundwork for imaging magnetic domains and domain boundaries at the magnetic TI surfaces.
Project description:Magnetoresistance is a multifaceted effect reflecting the diverse transport mechanisms exhibited by different kinds of plain materials and hybrid nanostructures; among other, giant, colossal, and extraordinary magnetoresistance versions exist, with the notation indicative of the intensity. Here we report on the superconducting magnetoresistance observed in ferromagnet/superconductor/ferromagnet trilayers, namely Co/Nb/Co trilayers, subjected to a parallel external magnetic field equal to the coercive field. By manipulating the transverse stray dipolar fields that originate from the out-of-plane magnetic domains of the outer layers that develop at coercivity, we can suppress the supercurrent of the interlayer. We experimentally demonstrate a scaling of the magnetoresistance magnitude that we reproduce with a closed-form phenomenological formula that incorporates relevant macroscopic parameters and microscopic length scales of the superconducting and ferromagnetic structural units. The generic approach introduced here can be used to design novel cryogenic devices that completely switch the supercurrent 'on' and 'off', thus exhibiting the ultimate magnetoresistance magnitude 100% on a regular basis.
Project description:We develop a theoretical model to describe the transport properties of normal-metal/thin-ferromagnet/superconductor device. We perform experimental test of the model using a gold tip on PdNi/Nb bilayer. The resonant proximity effect causes conductance features very sensitive to the local ferromagnetic properties, enabling accurate measurement of polarization and thickness of the ferromagnet by point contact spectroscopy.
Project description:Searching for heavy fermion (HF) states in non-f-electron systems becomes an interesting issue, especially in the presence of magnetism, and can help explain the physics of complex compounds. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, physical properties measurements, and the first-principles calculations, we observe the HF state in a 3d-electron van der Waals ferromagnet, Fe3GeTe2. Upon entering the ferromagnetic state, a massive spectral weight transfer occurs, which results from the exchange splitting. Meanwhile, the Fermi surface volume and effective electron mass are both enhanced. When the temperature drops below a characteristic temperature T*, heavy electrons gradually emerge with further enhanced effective electron mass. The coexistence of ferromagnetism and HF state can be well interpreted by the dual properties (itinerant and localized) of 3d electrons. This work expands the limit of ferromagnetic HF materials from f- to d-electron systems and illustrates the positive correlation between ferromagnetism and HF state in the 3d-electron material, which is quite different from the f-electron systems.
Project description:Topological insulators (TIs) are enticing prospects for the future of spintronics due to their large spin-orbit coupling and dissipationless, counter-propagating conduction channels in the surface state. However, a means to interact with and exploit the topological surface state remains elusive. Here, we report a study of spin pumping at the TI-ferromagnet interface, investigating spin transfer dynamics in a spin-valve like structure using element specific time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and ferromagnetic resonance. Gilbert damping increases approximately linearly with increasing TI thickness, indicating efficient behaviour as a spin sink. However, layer-resolved measurements suggest that a dynamic coupling is limited. These results shed new light on the spin dynamics of this novel material class, and suggest great potential for TIs in spintronic devices, through their novel magnetodynamics that persist even up to room temperature.
Project description:Voltage control of ferromagnetism on the nanometer scale is highly appealing for the development of novel electronic devices with low power consumption, high operation speed, reliable reversibility and compatibility with semiconductor technology. Hybrid structures based on the assembly of ferromagnetic and semiconducting building blocks are expected to show magnetic order as a ferromagnet and to be electrically tunable as a semiconductor. Here, we demonstrate the electrical control of the exchange coupling in a hybrid consisting of a ferromagnetic Co layer and a semiconductor CdTe quantum well, separated by a thin non-magnetic (Cd,Mg)Te barrier. The electric field controls the phononic ac Stark effect-the indirect exchange mechanism that is mediated by elliptically polarized phonons emitted from the ferromagnet. The effective magnetic field of the exchange interaction reaches up to 2.5 Tesla and can be turned on and off by application of 1V bias across the heterostructure.
Project description:Increasing demand for higher energy efficiency calls for waste heat recovery technology. Thus, facilitating practical thermoelectric generation systems is strongly desired. One option is enhancing the thermoelectric power factor, S 2/r, where S is the Seebeck coefficient and r is the electrical resistivity, although it is still challenging because of the trade-off between S and r. We demonstrate that enhanced S 2/r can be achieved by incorporating magnetic interaction in ferromagnetic metals via the spin fluctuation arising from itinerant electrons. We show that electron-doped Heusler alloys exhibit weak ferromagnetism at T C near room temperature with a small magnetic moment. A pronounced enhancement around T C was observed, with a 20% improvement in the power factor from the case where spin fluctuation is suppressed by applying magnetic field. This result supports the merit of using spin fluctuation to further enhance thermoelectric properties and the potential to further probe correlations and synergy between magnetic and thermoelectric fields.
Project description:Antiferromagnet/ferromagnet (AFM/FM) bilayers that display the exchange bias (EB) effect have been subjected to intensive material research, being the key elements of novel spintronics systems. In a commonly accepted picture, the antiferromagnet, considered as a rigid material due to its high anisotropy and magnetic hardness, controls the magnetic properties of the ferromagnet, such as a shift of the hysteresis loop or coercivity. We show that this AFM-FM master-slave hierarchy is not generally valid and that the influence of the ferromagnet on the magnetic anisotropy (MA) of the neighbouring antiferromagnet must be considered. Our computer simulation and experimental studies of EB in an epitaxial CoO/Fe(110) bilayer show that the ferromagnetic layer with strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy determines the interfacial spin orientations of the neighbouring AFM layer and rotates its easy axis. This effect has a strong feedback on the EB effect experienced by the FM layer. Our results show new physics behind the EB effect, providing a route for grafting a desired anisotropy onto the AFM and for precise tailoring of EB in AFM/FM systems.
Project description:Electrical manipulation of magnetization states has been the subject of intense focus as it is a long-standing goal in the emerging field of spintronics. In particular, torque generated by an in-plane current with a strong spin-orbit interaction shows promise for control of the adjacent ferromagnetic state in heavy-metal/ferromagnet/oxide frames. Thus, the ability to unlock precise spin orbit torque-driven effective fields represents one of the key approaches in this work. Here, we address an in-plane direct current measurement approach as a generic alternative tool to identify spin orbit torque-driven effective fields in a full polar angle range without adopting the commonly used harmonic analyses. Our experimental results exhibited a strongly polar angular dependency of the spin orbit torque-driven effective fields observed from Ta or W/CoFeM/MgO frames.