Sintering Behaviour of Waste Olivine and Olivine/Alumina Blends.
ABSTRACT: The sintering behaviour of several green compacts made with olivine or olivine/alumina powder blends has been examined. To this goal, powders were attrition milled, uniaxially pressed into specimens and air sintered at temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1300 °C. The resulting samples were characterized by water absorption, shrinkage, phase composition and density. Compositions containing 5%, 10% and 20% Al₂O₃ have a sintering behaviour similar to that of olivine alone, reaching low residual porosity when fired at 1300 °C. Conversely, the composition containing 40% Al₂O₃ displays an almost flat shrinkage profile and maintains high residual porosity in the examined temperature range.
Project description:The densification behavior, microstructure and mechanical properties of bulk TiB₂-based ceramic composites, fabricated using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique with elements of (Fe-Ni-Ti-Al) sinter-aid were investigated. Comparing the change of shrinkage displacement of pure TiB₂ and TiB₂-5 wt% (Fe-Ni-Ti-Al), the addition of elements Fe-Ni-Ti-Al into TiB₂ can facilitate sintering of the TiB₂ ceramics. As the sintering temperature exceeds 1300 °C, the relative density does not significantly change. Alumina particles and austenite (Fe-Ni-Ti) metallic binder distributed homogeneously in the grain boundary of TiB₂ can inhibit the growth of the TiB₂ grains when the sintering temperature is below 1300 °C. The density and particle size of TiB₂ greatly influence the mechanical behavior of TiB₂-5 wt% (Fe-Ni-Ti-Al) composites. The specimen sintered at 1300 has the highest microhardness of 21.1 ± 0.1 GPa with an elastic modulus of 461.4 GPa. The content of secondary borides (M₂B, being M = Fe, Ni), which are more brittle than TiB₂ particles, can also influence the fracture toughness. The specimen sintered at 1500 °C has the highest fracture toughness of 6.16 ± 0.30 MPa·m1/2 with the smallest M₂B phase. The results obtained provide insight into fabrication of ceramic composites with improved mechanical property.
Project description:Biocompatible titanium scaffolds with up to 40% interconnected porosity were manufactured through the metal injection moulding process and the space holder technique. The mechanical properties of the manufactured scaffold showed a high level of compatibility with those of the cortical human bone. Sintering at 1250 °C produced scaffolds with 36% porosity and more than 90% interconnected pores, a compressive yield stress of 220 MPa and a Young's modulus of 7.80 GPa, all suitable for bone tissue engineering. Increasing the sintering temperature to 1300 °C increased the Young's modulus to 22.0 GPa due to reduced porosity, while reducing the sintering temperature to 1150 °C lowered the yield stress to 120 MPa, indicative of insufficient sintering. Electrochemical studies revealed that samples sintered at 1150 °C have a higher corrosion rate compared with those at a sintering temperature of 1250 °C. Overall, it was concluded that sintering at 1250 °C yielded the most desirable results.
Project description:Stereolithography (SL) is a technique allowing additive manufacturing of complex ceramic parts by selective photopolymerization of a photocurable suspension containing photocurable monomer, photoinitiator, and a ceramic powder. The manufactured three-dimensional object is cleaned and converted into a dense ceramic part by thermal debinding of the polymer network and subsequent sintering. The debinding is the most critical and time-consuming step, and often the source of cracks. In this study, photocurable alumina suspensions have been developed, and the influence of resin composition on defect formation has been investigated. The suspensions were characterized in terms of rheology and curing behaviour, and cross-sections of sintered specimens manufactured by SL were evaluated by SEM. It was found that the addition of a non-reactive component to the photocurable resin reduced polymerization shrinkage and altered the thermal decomposition of the polymer matrix, which led to a reduction in both delamination and intra-laminar cracks. Using a non-reactive component that decomposed rather than evaporated led to less residual porosity.
Project description:Coal fly ash with the addition of Al₂O₃ was recycled to produce mullite/alumina composites and the camphene-based freeze casting technique was processed to develop a controlled porous structure with improved mechanical strength. Many rod-shaped mullite crystals, formed by the mullitization of coal fly ash in the presence of enough silicate, melt. After sintering at 1300-1500 °C with the initial solid loadings of 30-50 wt.%, interconnected macro-sized pore channels with nearly circular-shaped cross-sections developed along the macroscopic solidification direction of camphene solvent used in freeze casting and a few micron-sized pores formed in the walls of the pore channels. The macro-pore size of the mullite/alumina composites was in the range 20-25 μm, 18-20 μm and 15-17 μm with reverse dependence on the sintering temperature at 30, 40 and 50 wt.% solid loading, respectively. By increasing initial solid loading and the sintering temperature, the sintered porosity was reduced from 79.8% to 31.2%, resulting in an increase in the compressive strength from 8.2 to 80.4 MPa.
Project description:Electron probe microanalyzer measurements of trace elements with high accuracy are challenging. Accurate Al measurements in olivine are required to calibrate SIMS implant reference materials for measurement of Al in the solar wind. We adopt a combined EPMA/SIMS approach that is useful for producing SIMS reference materials as well as for EPMA at the ~100 μg g<sup>-1</sup> level. Even for mounts not polished with alumina photoelectron spectroscopy shows high levels of Al surface contamination. In order to minimize electron beam current density, a rastered 50 × 100 μm electron beam was adequate and minimized sensitivity to small Al-rich contaminants. Reproducible analyses of eleven SIMS-cleaned spots on San Carlos olivine agreed at 69.3 ± 1.0 μg g<sup>-1</sup>• The known Al mass fraction was used to calibrate an Al implant into San Carlos. Accurate measurements of Al were made for olivines in the pallasites: lmilac, Eagle Station and Springwater. Our focus was on Al in olivine, but our technique could be refined to give accurate electron probe measurements for other contamination-sensitive trace elements. For solar wind, it is projected that the Al/Mg abundance ratio can be determined to 6%, a factor of 2 more precise than the solar spectroscopic ratio.
Project description:We report the results of experiments designed to separate the effects of temperature and pressure from liquid composition on the partitioning of Ni between olivine and liquid, [Formula: see text]. Experiments were performed from 1300 to 1600 °C and 1 atm to 3.0 GPa, using mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glass surrounded by powdered olivine in graphite-Pt double capsules at high pressure and powdered MORB in crucibles fabricated from single crystals of San Carlos olivine at one atmosphere. In these experiments, pressure and temperature were varied in such a way that we produced a series of liquids, each with an approximately constant composition (~12, ~15, and ~21 wt% MgO). Previously, we used a similar approach to show that [Formula: see text] for a liquid with ~18 wt% MgO is a strong function of temperature. Combining the new data presented here with our previous results allows us to separate the effects of temperature from composition. We fit our data based on a Ni-Mg exchange reaction, which yields [Formula: see text] Each subset of constant composition experiments displays roughly the same temperature dependence of [Formula: see text] (i.e.,[Formula: see text]) as previously reported for liquids with ~18 wt% MgO. Fitting new data presented here (15 experiments) in conjunction with our 13 previously published experiments (those with ~18 wt% MgO in the silicate liquid) to the above expression gives [Formula: see text] = 3641 ± 396 (K) and [Formula: see text] = - 1.597 ± 0.229. Adding data from the literature yields [Formula: see text] = 4505 ± 196 (K) and [Formula: see text] = - 2.075 ± 0.120, a set of coefficients that leads to a predictive equation for [Formula: see text] applicable to a wide range of melt compositions. We use the results of our work to model the melting of peridotite beneath lithosphere of varying thickness and show that: (1) a positive correlation between NiO in magnesian olivine phenocrysts and lithospheric thickness is expected given a temperature-dependent [Formula: see text] and (2) the magnitude of the slope for natural samples is consistent with our experimentally determined temperature dependence. Alternative processes to generate the positive correlation between NiO in magnesian olivines and lithospheric thickness, such as the melting of olivine-free pyroxenite, are possible, but they are not required to explain the observed correlation of NiO concentration in initially crystallizing olivine with lithospheric thickness.
Project description:Complex core-rim zoning of Mg-Fe-Ni-Ca-Cr-Al-P in high-Mg olivine crystals from a tuff ring of Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka, enables reconstruction of the entire olivine crystallization history from mantle conditions to eruption. Bell-shaped Fo86-92 and Ni profiles in crystal cores were formed by diffusion after mixing with evolved magma. Diffusion proceeded to the centres of crystals and completely equilibrated Fo and Ni in some crystals. Diffusion times extracted from Fo and Ni core profiles range from 100 to 2000 days. During subsequent mixing with mafic mantle-equilibrated melt, the cores were partially dissolved and overgrown by Fo90 olivine. Times extracted from Fo and Ni diffusion profiles across the resorption interface between the core and its overgrowth range within 1-10 days, which corresponds to the time of magma ascent to the surface. The overgrowth shows identical smooth Fo-Ni decreasing zoning patterns for all crystals towards the margin, indicating that all crystals shared the same growth history after last mixing event prior to eruption. At the same time, Ca, and to an even greater extent Cr, Al, and P have oscillatory growth patterns in the crystals overgrowth. Our data show that magma ascent can be extremely short during maar/tuff ring eruption.
Project description:The conventional soft solder used in soldering electronic joints is made up of 63% Sn and 37% Pb. It has been established that Pb is harmful to the body. Therefore, there is an on-going research to find a replacement for Pb. Al-Zn-Sn alloy is considered here as a possible replacement for soft solder of Sn and Pb. Three compositions of the alloy (Al-7Zn-3Sn, Al-10Zn-5Sn, and Al-13Zn-7Sn) were sintered at the sintering temperatures of 300 °C and 350 °C (and the constant pressure of 40 MPa, time of 5 mins, a heating rate of 20 °C/mins). Temperature/displacement/time variation data during the sintering were collected. The three alloys were compared after sintering by checking their microstructure, their densities, their hardness, their porosity, and their tensile strengths. Results showed that Al-13Zn-7Sn sintered at 350 °C, 40 MPa, 5 mins, 20 °C/mins had the highest densification of 99.7%, the lowest porosity of 0.3%, least hardness and strength of 450.34 MPa and 147.84 MPa respectively.
Project description:A well-preserved, ancient delta deposit, in combination with ample exposures of carbonate outcrops, makes Jezero Crater in Nili Fossae a compelling astrobiological site. We use Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) observations to characterize the surface mineralogy of the crater and surrounding watershed. Previous studies have documented the occurrence of olivine and carbonates in the Nili Fossae region. We focus on correlations between these two well-studied lithologies in the Jezero crater watershed. We map the position and shape of the olivine 1 ?m absorption band and find that carbonates are found in association with olivine which displays a 1 ?m band shifted to long wavelengths. We then use Thermal Emission Imaging Spectrometer (THEMIS) coverage of Nili Fossae and perform tests to investigate whether the long wavelength shifted (redshifted) olivine signature is correlated with high thermal inertia outcrops. We find that there is no consistent correlation between thermal inertia and the unique olivine signature. We discuss a range of formation scenarios for the olivine and carbonate associations, including the possibility that these lithologies are products of serpentinization reactions on early Mars. These lithologies provide an opportunity for deepening our understanding of early Mars and, given their antiquity, may provide a framework to study the timing of valley networks and the thermal history of the Martian crust and interior from the early Noachian to today.
Project description:Pallasite meteorites, which consist primarily of olivine and metal, may be remnants of disrupted core-mantle boundaries of differentiated asteroids or planetesimals. The early thermal histories of pallasites are potentially recorded by minor- and trace-element zonation in olivine. However, constraining this history requires knowledge of element behavior under the conditions of pallasite formation, which is lacking for many of the main elements of interest (e.g., Co, Cr, Mn). In this study, we experimentally determined metal/olivine partition coefficients for Fe, Ni, Co, Cr, and Mn in a pallasite analogue at subsolidus temperatures. Metal/olivine partition coefficients (KM ) increase in the order KMn < KCr < 1 < KFe < KCo < KNi , with five orders of magnitude separating KMn from KNi . Transition metals also become more siderophile with increasing experimental temperature (900 to 1550°C). The experiments incidentally produced diffusion profiles in olivine for these elements; Our results suggest they diffuse through olivine at similar rates. Core compositions of pallasite olivines are consistent with high-temperature equilibration with FeNi-metal. Olivine zonation toward crystal rims varies significantly for the investigated transition metals. We suggest rim zonation results from partial re-equilibration during late stage crystallization of minor phases (e.g., chromite, phosphates). This re- equilibration occurred over short timescales relative to overall pallasite cooling, likely tied to initial cooling rates on the order of 100-300°C/Myr.