Timing of rehabilitation on length of stay and cost in patients with hip or knee joint arthroplasty: A systematic review with meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To investigate the role of early initiation of rehabilitation on length of stay (LOS) and cost following total hip arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty, or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. DATA SOURCES:Electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL, Pedro, Embase, AMED, and the Cochrane Library were searched in July 2016. Five additional trials were identified through reference list scanning. STUDY SELECTION:Eligible studies were published in English language peer-reviewed journals; included participants that had undergone total hip arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty, or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty reported clearly defined timing of rehabilitation onset for at least two groups; and reported at least one measure of LOS or cost. Inclusion criteria were applied by 2 independent authors, with disagreements being determined by a third author. Searching identified 1,029 potential articles, of which 17 studies with 26,614 participants met the inclusion criteria. DATA EXTRACTION:Data was extracted independently by 2 authors, with disagreements being determined by a third author. Methodological quality of each study was evaluated independently by 2 authors using the Downs and Black checklist. Pooled analyses were analyzed using a random-effects model with inverse variance methods to calculate standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals for LOS. DATA SYNTHESIS:When compared with standard care, early initiation of physical therapy demonstrated a decrease in length of stay for the 4 randomized clinical trials (SMD = -1.90; 95% CI -2.76 to -1.05; I2 = 93%) and for the quasi-experimental and 5 prospective studies (SMD = -1.47; 95% CI -1.85 to -1.10; I2 = 88%). CONCLUSION:Early initiation of rehabilitation following total hip arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty, or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty is associated with a shorter LOS, a lower overall cost, with no evidence of an increased number of adverse reactions. Additional high quality studies with standardized methodology are needed to further examine the impact of early initiation of physical therapy among patients with joint replacement procedures.
Project description:In Denmark, approximately 12,000 hip and knee arthroplasties were performed in 2006, and the hospital costs were close to US$ 110,000,000. In a randomized clinical trial, we have recently demonstrated the efficacy of accelerated perioperative care and rehabilitation intervention after hip and knee arthroplasty compared to current intervention under ideal circumstances. We do not, however, know whether these results could be reached under usual circumstances of healthcare practice. We therefore investigated whether length of stay after implementation of accelerated perioperative care and rehabilitation after hip and knee arthroplasty could be reduced in a normal healthcare setting, and how the achieved results matched those observed during the randomized clinical trial.An effectiveness study as a before-after trial was undertaken in which all elective primary total hip and total knee arthroplasty patients were divided into a before-implementation group receiving the current perioperative procedure, and an after-implementation group receiving the new accelerated perioperative care and rehabilitation procedures as provided by a new multi-disciplinary organization. We used the Breakthrough Series Collaborative Model for implementation. The primary outcome measure was in hospital length of stay (LOS), and the secondary outcome measure was adverse effects within 3 months postoperatively.We included a total of 247 patients. Mean LOS was significantly (P < 0.001) reduced by 4.4 (95% CI 3.8-5.0) days after implementation of the accelerated intervention, from 8.8 (SD 3.0) days before implementation to 4.3 (SD 1.8) days after implementation. No significant differences in adverse effects were observed. LOS in this effectiveness study was significantly lower than LOS reported in the efficacy study.Accelerated perioperative care and rehabilitation intervention after hip and knee arthroplasty was successfully and effectively implemented. Results obtained during usual hospital circumstances matched the results achieved under ideal circumstances in this group of patients.
Project description:Robotic arm-assisted arthroplasty was introduced in 2006 and has expanded its applications into unicompartmental knee, total knee, and total hip replacement. The first case of a revision surgery from conventional unicompartmental to total knee arthroplasty with the utilization of the robotic arm-assisted MAKO system is presented. An 87-year-old female presented with deteriorating left knee pain due to failure of medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty at the outpatient clinic. The patient was advised to undergo revision surgery. Through medial parapatellar arthrotomy, the joint was exposed. With the use of the MAKO system, the estimated depth of the medial plateau according to CT planning was found to be 10?mm more distal than the lateral. The resection line of the remaining plateau was placed deliberately 2?mm more distal in order to achieve satisfactory replacement of the bony gap of the medial tibial condyle by a 10?mm augment. The patient had an uneventful recovery. A plethora of additional applications in the future, such as total shoulder or reverse total shoulder arthroplasty, megaprosthesis placement in oncological patients, and total hip or knee revision surgeries, may improve patient-related outcomes.
Project description:Typical rehabilitation programs following total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty include joint range of motion and muscle-strengthening exercises. Balance and balance exercises following total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty have not received much attention. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an intervention of balance exercises added to a typical rehabilitation program positively affects patients' balance.A total of 63 patients were provided with outpatient physical therapy at their home. Patients were randomly assigned to either typical (n = 33) or balance (n = 30) exercise group. The typical group completed seven typical surgery-specific joint range of motion and muscle-strengthening exercises, while the balance group completed the typical exercises plus three balance exercises. After 5 weeks of administering the rehabilitation program, patients' balance was assessed on a force plate using 95% ellipse area of the center of pressure amplitude.Patients in the balance group demonstrated significant reduction in the 95% ellipse area for the anterior and posterior lean standing conditions (p < 0.01).Balance exercises added to the typical outpatient physical therapy program resulted in significantly greater improvements in balance for participants with total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty, compared to the typical exercise program alone. Physical therapists might consider the use of balance exercises to improve balance in individuals in the acute post-operative phase following total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty.
Project description:Background:Physical therapy (PT) is an accepted standard of care after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) and essential to maximizing joint functionality and minimizing complications that lead to readmission. However, evidence-based guidelines about appropriate post-discharge rehabilitative care are not well-defined in the orthopedic literature. Purposes:We sought to determine the average timing for receiving PT rehabilitation and to evaluate the association between PT rehabilitation timing and unplanned readmission within 90 days of a TJA patient being discharged home from acute care. Methods:This retrospective study examined 11,545 joint procedures using claims data for the years 2008 to 2013. Outcomes were assessed using a population-averaged approach to regression models. Results:The average time for initiating PT was 4 days for knee arthroplasty and 6 days for hip arthroplasty in patients discharged home from acute care. Most patients (89%) began PT consultation or supervised exercises during the first week after discharge. The type of joint surgery considerably modified the effect of rehabilitation timing on the likelihood of readmission. Later initiation of rehabilitation was associated with a higher probability of 90-day readmission in both knee and hip arthroplasty, with the effect of rehabilitation timing being more pronounced in hip rather than knee arthroplasty 2 weeks post-discharge from acute care. Conclusions:Timing for initiating PT may be an important modifiable factor that can affect readmission in patients discharged home from acute care after TJA. Further exploration of the role of PT timing along with other factors such as dosage and frequency among such patients is needed.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Reduced hip abductor strength may indirectly lead to changes in knee kinematics and functional impairment and has been reported in patients with patellofemoral pain and knee osteoarthritis (OA). Limited information is available regarding hip abductor strength following total or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (TKA/UKA). The aims of this systematic review are to synthesise the evidence of hip abductor muscle strength deficits in patients following TKA/UKA and to determine influencing factors for these deficits. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:Embase, Medline, SportDiscus, the Web of Science Core Collection and Scopus will be searched for human-based clinical studies investigating hip abductor muscle strength after TKA/UKA for knee OA or avascular necrosis (AVN). Articles studying hip abductor strength after knee arthroplasty for post-traumatic OA will not be considered. No restriction on study design, prosthesis design, surgical approach, patient characteristics or severity of OA/AVN will be applied. We will search articles published between 1 January 1990 and the date of our last search. Only articles in English or German language will be considered for inclusion. Studies reporting manually measured muscle strength or measurements performed at hip abduction angles other than 0° will be excluded. References will be screened by two reviewers independently. Where necessary, a third author will make the final decision. The assessment of quality and risk of bias will be performed with the modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Data will be extracted and presented in a tabular form. Depending on availability, comparable subgroup and meta-analyses will be conducted. Patient characteristics such as age, sex and surgical approach or rehabilitation programme will be analysed, if sufficient data are available. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:No ethics approval is required. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and as conference presentation.
Project description:With the increasing interest in fast recovery and outpatient joint arthroplasty, short-acting local anesthetic agents and minimal narcotic use are preferred. Lidocaine is a fast-onset, short-duration local anesthetic that has been used for many years in spinal anesthesia. However, lidocaine spinal anesthesia has been reported to have a risk of transient neurologic symptoms (TNSs). The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and efficacy of single-dose lidocaine spinal anesthesia in the setting of outpatient joint arthroplasty.We performed a prospective study on 50 patients who received lidocaine spinal anesthesia in the setting of outpatient hip and knee arthroplasty. All patients received a single-shot spinal injection, with 2% isobaric lidocaine along with titrated propofol sedation. We evaluated demographic data, length of motor blockage, time to ambulation, time to discharge readiness, patient-reported symptoms of TNS.Of the 50 patients studied, 11 had total hip arthroplasty, 33 total knee arthroplasty, 5 unicompartmental knee arthroplasty, and 1 underwent isolated polyethylene liner exchange in a total knee arthroplasty. The average total duration of motor blockade was 2.89 hours (range 1.73-5.17, standard deviation 0.65). Average time from postanesthesia care unit to return of motor function was 0.58 hours (range 0-1.5, standard deviation 0.48). None of the patients reported TNS.Isobaric lidocaine spinal anesthesia appears to be a safe and effective regimen for outpatient hip and knee arthroplasty. All patients were discharged on the day of surgery with isobaric lidocaine spinal injection. There were no reports of TNSs.
Project description:In an effort to improve quality and reduce costs, payments are being increasingly tied to value through alternative payment models, such as episode-based payments. The objective of this study was to better understand the pattern and variation in outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries receiving lower extremity joint arthroplasty over 90-day episodes of care.Observed rates of mortality, complications, and readmissions were calculated over 90-day episodes of care among Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries who received elective knee arthroplasty and elective or nonelective hip arthroplasty procedures in 2013-2014 (N = 640,021). Post-acute care utilization of skilled nursing and inpatient rehabilitation facilities was collected from Medicare files.Mortality rates over 90 days were 0.4% (knee arthroplasty), 0.5% (elective hip arthroplasty), and 13.4% (nonelective hip arthroplasty). Complication rates were 2.1% (knee arthroplasty), 3.0% (elective hip arthroplasty), and 8.5% (nonelective hip arthroplasty). Inpatient rehabilitation facility utilization rates were 6.0% (knee arthroplasty), 6.7% (elective hip arthroplasty), and 23.5% (nonelective hip arthroplasty). Skilled nursing facility utilization rates were 33.9% (knee arthroplasty), 33.4% (elective hip arthroplasty), and 72.1% (nonelective hip arthroplasty). Readmission rates were 6.3% (knee arthroplasty), 7.0% (elective hip arthroplasty), and 19.2% (nonelective hip arthroplasty). Patients' age and clinical characteristics yielded consistent patterns across all outcomes.Outcomes in our national cohort of Medicare beneficiaries receiving lower extremity joint arthroplasties varied across procedure types and patient characteristics. Future research examining trends in access to care, resource use, and care quality over bundled episodes will be important for addressing the challenges of value-based payment reform.
Project description:The validated Arthroplasty Risk Score (ARS) predicts the need for postoperative triage to an intensive care setting. We hypothesized that the ARS may also predict hospital length of stay (LOS), discharge disposition, and episode-of-care cost (EOCC).We retrospectively reviewed a series of 704 patients undergoing primary total hip and knee arthroplasty over 17 months. Patient characteristics, 90-day EOCC, LOS, and readmission rates were compared before and after ARS implementation.ARS implementation was associated with fewer patients going to a skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility after discharge (63% vs 74%, P = .002). There was no difference in LOS, EOCC, readmission rates, or complications. While the adoption of the ARS did not change the mean EOCC, ARS >3 was predictive of high EOCC outlier (odds ratio 2.65, 95% confidence interval 1.40-5.01, P = .003). Increased ARS correlated with increased EOCC (P = .003).Implementation of the ARS was associated with increased disposition to home. It was predictive of high EOCC and should be considered in risk adjustment variables in alternative payment models.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High-level evidence consistently indicates that resource-intensive facility-based rehabilitation does not provide better recovery compared to home programs for uncomplicated knee or hip arthroplasty patients and, therefore, could be reserved for those most impaired. This study aimed to determine if rehabilitation setting aligns with evidence regardless of insurance status. METHODS:Sub-study within a national, prospective study involving 19 Australian high-volume public and private arthroplasty centres. Individuals undergoing primary arthroplasty for osteoarthritis participated. The main outcome was the proportion participating in each rehabilitation setting, obtained via chart review and participant telephone follow-up at 35 and 90 days post-surgery, categorised as 'facility-based' (inpatient rehabilitation and/or???four outpatient-based sessions, including day-hospital) or 'home-based' (domiciliary, monitored or unmonitored home program only). We compared characteristics of the study cohort and rehabilitation setting by insurance status (public or private) using parametric and non-parametric tests, analysing the knee and hip cohorts separately. RESULTS:After excluding ineligible participants (bilateral surgeries, self-funded insurance, participation in a concurrent rehabilitation trial, experience of a major acute complication potentially affecting their rehabilitation pathway), 1334 eligible participants remained. Complete data were available for 1302 (97%) [Knee: n?=?610, mean age 68.7 (8.5) yr., 51.1% female; Hip: n?=?692, mean age 65.5 (10.4) yr., 48.9% female]; 26% (158/610) of knee and 61% (423/692) of hip participants participated predominantly in home-based programs. A greater proportion of public recipients were obese and had greater pre-operative joint impairment, but participated more commonly in home programs [(Knee: 32.9% (79/240) vs 21.4% (79/370) (P?=?0.001); Hip: 71.0% (176/248) vs 55.6% (247/444) (P?<? 0.001)], less commonly in inpatient rehabilitation [Knee: 7.5% (18/240) vs 56.0% (207/370) P (<?0.001); Hip: 4.4% (11/248) vs 33.1% (147/444) (P?<? 0.001], and had fewer outpatient treatments [Knee: median (IQR) 6 (3) vs 8 (6) (P?<?0.001); Hip: 6 (4) vs 8 (6) (P?<?0.001)]. CONCLUSIONS:Facility-based programs remain the norm for most knee and many hip arthroplasty recipients with insurance status being a major determinant of care. Development and implementation of evidence-based guidelines may help resolve the evidence-practice gap, addressing unwarranted practice variation across the insurance sectors.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to identify whether obesity or the regular practice of physical activity are predictors of clinical outcomes in patients undergoing elective hip and knee arthroplasty due to osteoarthritis. DESIGN:Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCE AND ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA:A systematic search was performed on the Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE and Web of Science electronic databases. Longitudinal cohort studies were included in the review. To be included, studies needed to have assessed the association between obesity or physical activity participation measured at baseline and clinical outcomes (ie, pain, disability and adverse events) following hip or knee arthroplasty. DATA EXTRACTION:Two independent reviewers extracted data on pain, disability, quality of life, obesity, physical activity and any postsurgical complications. RESULTS:62 full papers were included in this systematic review. From these, 31 were included in the meta-analyses. Our meta-analysis showed that compared to obese participants, non-obese participants report less pain at both short term (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.43; 95%?CI -0.67 to -0.19; P<0.001) and long term post-surgery (SMD -0.36; 95%?CI -0.47 to -0.24; P<0.001), as well as less disability at long term post-surgery (SMD -0.32; 95%?CI -0.36 to -0.28; P<0.001). They also report fewer postsurgical complications at short term (OR 0.48; 95%?CI 0.25 to 0.91; P<0.001) and long term (OR 0.55; 95%?CI 0.41 to 0.74; P<0.001) along with less postsurgical infections after hip arthroplasty (OR 0.33; 95%?CI 0.18 to 0.59; P<0.001), and knee arthroplasty (OR 0.42; 95%?CI 0.23 to 0.78; P=0.006). CONCLUSIONS:Presurgical obesity is associated with worse clinical outcomes of hip or knee arthroplasty in terms of pain, disability and complications in patients with osteoarthritis. No impact of physical activity participation has been observed. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42016032711.