Nanomechanical Behavior of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Particulate Reinforced Aluminum Nanocomposites Prepared by Ball Milling.
ABSTRACT: The nanomechanical properties of carbon nanotubes particulate-reinforced aluminum matrix nanocomposites (Al-CNTs) have been characterized using nanoindentation. Bulk nanocomposite specimens containing 2 wt % multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) were synthesized by a combination of ball milling and powder metallurgy route. It has been tried to understand the correlation between microstructural evolution particularly carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dispersion during milling and mechanical properties of Al-2 wt % nanocomposites. Maximum enhancement of +23% and +44% has been found in Young's modulus and hardness respectively, owing to well homogenous dispersion of CNTs within the aluminum matrix at longer milling time.
Project description:Damage to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during the fabrication process of CNT reinforced composites has great influence on their mechanical properties. In this study, the 2014 Al with powder sizes of 20, 9 and 5 μm was selected to study the effect of initial particle size on the damage to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during ball milling. The result shows that for CNTs in the ball milled CNT/Al (with powder size of 20 and 9 μm) mixtures, the intensity ratio of the D band and the G band (ID/IG) first increased and then reached a plateau, mainly because most of the CNTs are embedded, to a certain extent, in the aluminum powder after milling, which could protect the CNTs from damage during further milling. While for CNTs in the ball milled CNT/Al (with powder size of 5 μm) mixture, the ID/IG ratio continues to climb from 1.31 to 2.33 with time, indicating continuous damage to the CNTs occurs during the milling. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis demonstrates that the chemical instability increased with an increase in the damage level of CNTs, resulting in the formation of aluminum carbide (Al₄C₃) at a lower temperature before the melting of aluminum, which is detrimental to their mechanical properties.
Project description:The room-temperature tensile strength, toughness, and high-temperature creep strength of 2000, 6000, and 7000 series aluminum alloys can be improved significantly by dispersing up to 1 wt% carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the alloys without sacrificing tensile ductility, electrical conductivity, or thermal conductivity. CNTs act like forest dislocations, except mobile dislocations cannot annihilate with them. Dislocations cannot climb over 1D CNTs unlike 0D dispersoids/precipitates. Also, unlike 2D grain boundaries, even if some debonding happens along 1D CNT/alloy interface, it will be less damaging because fracture intrinsically favors 2D percolating flaws. Good intragranular dispersion of these 1D strengtheners is critical for comprehensive enhancement of composite properties, which entails change of wetting properties and encapsulation of CNTs inside Al grains via surface diffusion-driven cold welding. In situ transmission electron microscopy demonstrates liquid-like envelopment of CNTs into Al nanoparticles by cold welding.
Project description:The influence of carbon multi-walled nanotubes (MWCNTs) and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) on the physical, thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties of EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) copolymer was investigated. EVA-based nanocomposites containing MWCNTs or HNTs, as well as hybrid nanocomposites containing both nanofillers were prepared by melt blending. Scanning electron microcopy (SEM) images revealed the presence of good dispersion of both kinds of nanotubes throughout the EVA matrix. The incorporation of nanotubes into the EVA copolymer matrix did not significantly affect the crystallization behavior of the polymer. The tensile strength of EVA-based nanocomposites increased along with the increasing CNTs (carbon nanotubes) content (increased up to approximately 40% at the loading of 8 wt.%). In turn, HNTs increased to a great extent the strain at break. Mechanical cyclic tensile tests demonstrated that nanocomposites with hybrid reinforcement exhibit interesting strengthening behavior. The synergistic effect of hybrid nanofillers on the modulus at 100% and 200% elongation was visible. Moreover, along with the increase of MWCNTs content in EVA/CNTs nanocomposites, an enhancement in electrical conductivity was observed.
Project description:Shape memory polymer (SMP) nanocomposites with a fast electro-actuation speed were prepared by dispersing Cu-decorated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (Cu-CNTs, 1 wt %, 2 wt %, and 3 wt %) in a polylactic acid (PLA)/epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) blend matrix. The shape memory effect (SME) induced by an electrical current was investigated by a fold-deploy "U"-shape bending test. In addition, the Cu-CNT dispersed PLA/ESO nanocomposite was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and tensile and electrical measurements. The results demonstrated that the SME was dependent on the Cu-CNT content in the nanocomposites. When comparing the SMEs of the nanocomposite specimens with different Cu-CNT contents, the 2 wt % Cu-CNT dispersed system exhibited a shape recovery as high as 98% within 35 s due to its higher electrical conductivity that results from uniform Cu-CNT dispersion. However, the nanocomposites that contained 1 wt % and 3 wt % Cu-CNTs required 75 s and 63 s, respectively, to reach a maximum recovery level. In addition, the specimens exhibited better mechanical properties after the addition of Cu-CNTs.
Project description:Development of homogenous metal matrix nanocomposites with uniform distribution of nanoreinforcement, preserved matrix nanostructure features, and improved properties, was possible by means of innovative processing techniques. In this work, Al-SiC nanocomposites were synthesized by mechanical milling and consolidated through spark plasma sintering. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) facility was used for the characterization of the extent of SiC particles' distribution in the mechanically milled powders and spark plasma sintered samples. The change of the matrix crystallite size and lattice strain during milling and sintering was followed through X-ray diffraction (XRD). The density and hardness of the developed materials were evaluated as function of SiC content at fixed sintering conditions using a densimeter and a digital microhardness tester, respectively. It was found that milling for 24 h led to uniform distribution of SiC nanoreinforcement, reduced particle size and crystallite size of the aluminum matrix, and increased lattice strain. The presence and amount of SiC reinforcement enhanced the milling effect. The uniform distribution of SiC achieved by mechanical milling was maintained in sintered samples. Sintering led to the increase in the crystallite size of the aluminum matrix; however, it remained less than 100 nm in the composite containing 10 wt.% SiC. Density and hardness of sintered nanocomposites were reported and compared with those published in the literature.
Project description:This study investigated differences in the thermo-mechanical properties of thermosetting polymer EPON 826 nanocomposites reinforced by modified nanofillers. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were modified by environmentally friendly plasma treatments. Composites containing various nitrogen doped CNTs were investigated by morphological and structural analysis, which confirmed that they provided better dispersion and stronger interfacial interaction with the epoxy matrix. In addition, the dynamic mechanical behavior and thermal conductivity were analyzed to understand the energy transfer mechanism in the nanocomposites. The thermal and mechanical properties of the Inductively coupled plasma treated CNTs (ICP-CNT) reinforced nanocomposites containing a high concentration of quaternary and pyridinic types were higher than that of mechanical shear force plasma treated CNTs (MSF-CNT). A molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to support the experimental results and confirmed that controlling the type of nitrogen doping groups was important for improving the thermo-mechanical characteristics of CNT/epoxy nanocomposites.
Project description:A solid epoxy resin formulation containing 2.5 wt % carbon nanotubes is 3D printed into self-standing parts, which after thermal curing result in CNTs/epoxy nanocomposites with mechanical properties attractive for heavy-duty applications.
Project description:Design of a smart drug delivery system is a topic of current interest. Under this perspective, polymer nanocomposites (PNs) of butyl acrylate (BA), methacrylic acid (MAA), and functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs<sub>f</sub>) were synthesized by in situ emulsion polymerization (IEP). Carbon nanotubes were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and purified with steam. Purified CNTs were analyzed by FE-SEM and HR-TEM. CNTs<sub>f</sub> contain acyl chloride groups attached to their surface. Purified and functionalized CNTs were studied by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies. The synthesized nanocomposites were studied by XPS, <sup>13</sup>C-NMR, and DSC. Anhydride groups link CNTs<sub>f</sub> to MAA-BA polymeric chains. The potentiality of the prepared nanocomposites, and of their pure polymer matrices to deliver hydrocortisone, was evaluated in vitro by UV-VIS spectroscopy. The relationship between the chemical structure of the synthesized nanocomposites, or their pure polymeric matrices, and their ability to release hydrocortisone was studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The hydrocortisone release profile of some of the studied nanocomposites is driven by a change in the inter-associated to self-associated hydrogen bonds balance. The CNTs<sub>f</sub> used to prepare the studied nanocomposites act as hydrocortisone reservoirs.
Project description:Hydroxyapatite (HA), as a bone mineral component, has been an attractive bioceramic for the reconstruction of hard tissues. However, its poor mechanical properties, including low fracture toughness and tensile strength, have been a significant challenge to the application of HA for the replacement of load-bearing and/or large bone defects. Among materials studied to reinforce HA, carbon nanotubes (CNTs: single-walled or multiwalled) have recently gained significant attention because of their unprecedented mechanical properties (high strength and toughness) and physicochemical properties (high surface area, electrical and thermal conductivity, and low weight). Here, we review recent studies of the organization of HA-CNTs at the nanoscale, with a particular emphasis on the functionalization of CNTs and their dispersion within an HA matrix and induction of HA mineralization. The organization of CNTs and HA implemented at the nanoscale can further be developed in the form of coatings, nanocomposites, and hybrid powders to enable potential applications in hard tissue reconstruction.
Project description:Aminopropyltriethoxysilane and aminopropyl-phosphonic ester modified carbon nanotubes were prepared by reacting fluorinated carbon nanotubes (F-CNTs) with the 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane or 3-aminopropyl-phosphonic acid reagents at 120 °C temperature, using pyridine as the base catalyst. These functionalized carbon nanotubes, APTES-CNTs, 1, and APPA-CNTs, 2, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The homogeneous dispersion of these functionalized CNTs (0.1%) in silica were also accomplished by sol-gel processing. The TEM confirmed uniform dispersion of the functionalized CNT in silica.