Transformation and Precipitation Reactions by Metal Active Gas Pulsed Welded Joints from X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 Duplex Stainless Steels.
ABSTRACT: The high alloying degree of Duplex stainless steels makes them susceptible to the formation of intermetallic phases during their exposure to high temperatures. Precipitation of these phases can lead to a decreasing of the corrosion resistance and sometimes of the toughness. Starting from the advantages of the synergic Metal Active Gas (MAG) pulsed welding process, this paper analyses the structure formation particularities of homogeneous welded joints from Duplex stainless steel. The effect of linear welding energy on the structure morphology of the welded joints was revealed by macro- and micrographic examinations, X-ray energy dispersion analyses, measurements of ferrite proportion and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results obtained showed that the transformation of ferrite into austenite is associated with the chromium, nickel, molybdenum and nitrogen distribution between these two phases and their redistribution degree is closely linked to the overall heat cycle of the welding process. The adequate control of the energy inserted in the welded components provides an optimal balance between the two microstructural constituents (Austenite and Ferrite) and avoids the formation of undesirable intermetallic phases.
Project description:Local electron work function, adhesive force, modulus and deformation of ferrite and austenite phases in a duplex stainless steel were analyzed by scanning force microscopy. It is demonstrated that the austenite has a higher electron work function than the ferrite, corresponding to higher modulus, smaller deformation and larger adhesive force. Relevant first-principles calculations were conducted to elucidate the mechanism behind. It is demonstrated that the difference in the properties between austenite and ferrite is intrinsically related to their electron work functions.
Project description:Cyclic elastoplastic deformation behaviors of austenite phase and ferrite phase in a duplex stainless steel were investigate by load-controlled cyclic nanoindentation with a Berkovich indenter. During the tests, the maximum penetration depth per cycle increased rapidly with cycle number at transient state, and reached stable at quasi-steady state. Plastic dissipated energy was quantitatively proved to be the driving force for the propagation of deformation zones during cyclic nanoindentation tests. Transmission electron microscopy combined with FIB was used to reveal the deformation mechanisms of both phases underneath indents with cycles. After quasi-static single loading, nucleation and concentration of dislocations were observed in both austenite phase and ferrite phase under the indenter. After cyclic loading, dislocations propagated to further regions in both phases. Besides, slip bands were generated within single nanoindentation and propagated during the subsequent cyclic nanoindentation. The sizes of the deformation regions for both phases under the indents after cyclic indentation observed by TEM were consistent with those calculated by the expansion model of spherical cavity.
Project description:The paper describes an investigation of an explosively welded Mg/Al/Ti multilayer composite. Following the welding, the composite was subjected to hot-rolling in three different temperatures: 300 °C, 350 °C and 400 °C, with a total relative strain of 30%. The rolling speed was 0.2 m/s. The investigation of the composite properties involves microhardness analysis and mini-specimen tensile tests of the joints. The composite Mg/Al and Al/Ti bonds in the as-welded state and after rolling in 400 °C were subjected to microstructure analysis using scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the Al/Ti interface, the presence of melted zones with localized intermetallic precipitates has been reported in the as-welded state, and it has been stated that hot-rolling results in precipitation of intermetallic particles from the melted zone. The application of the hot-rolling process causes the formation of a continuous layer in the Mg/Al joint, consisting of two intermetallic phases, Mg2Al3 (?) and Mg17Al12 (?).
Project description:Recently, amorphous alloys have attracted many researchers' attention for amorphous structures and excellent properties. However, the welding of amorphous alloys to traditional metals in the microscale is not easy to realize in the process with amorphous structures unchanged, which restrains the application in industry. In this paper, a new method of welding Fe-based amorphous alloys (GB1K101) to crystalline copper by laser impact welding (LIW) is investigated. A series of experiments was conducted under different laser energies, during which Fe-based amorphous alloys and crystalline copper were welded successfully by LIW. In addition, the microstructure and mechanical properties of welding joints were observed and measured, respectively. The results showed that the surface wave and springback were observed on the flyer plate after LIW. The welding interface was straight or wavy due to different plastic deformation under different laser energies. The welding interface was directly bonded tightly without visible defects. No visible element diffusion and intermetallic phases were found in the welding interface. The Fe-based amorphous alloys retained amorphous structures after LIW under the laser energy of 835 mJ. The nanoindentation hardness across the welding interface showed an increase on both sides of the welding interface. The results of the lap shearing test showed that the fracture position was on the side of copper coil.
Project description:Cr-segregation by spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation were observed in ?-ferrite of austenitic stainless steel welds thermally aged at 400 °C for up to 20,000?h. A reversion heat treatment (R-HT) at 550 °C for 1?h dissolved the Cr-segregation in the aged welds while some intermetallic precipitates were present. The double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) analysis showed no significant differences among them. However, after selective etching of the austenite phase, the DL-EPR values of ?-ferrite phase steadily increased with aging time due to the growth of Cr-depleted regions by spinodal decomposition. The electrochemical behavior of ?-ferrite after R-HT condition was similar to that of unaged welds, indicating the intermetallic precipitates did not affect the corrosion resistance in this case. Overall, DL-EPR analysis of ?-ferrite phase provided better correlation with spinodal decomposition.
Project description:The effect of annealing temperature (1000-1150 °C) on the microstructure evolution, mechanical properties, and pitting corrosion behavior of a newly developed novel lean duplex stainless steel with 20.53Cr-3.45Mn-2.08Ni-0.17N-0.31Mo was studied by means of optical metallographic microscopy (OMM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), magnetic force microscopy (MFM), scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), uniaxial tensile tests (UTT), and potentiostatic critical pitting temperature (CPT). The results showed that tensile and yield strength, as well as the pitting corrosion resistance, could be degraded with annealing temperature increasing from 1000 up to 1150 °C. Meanwhile, the elongation at break reached the maximum of 52.7% after annealing at 1050 °C due to the effect of martensite transformation induced plasticity (TRIP). The localized pitting attack preferentially occurred at ferrite phase, indicating that the ferrite phase had inferior pitting corrosion resistance as compared to the austenite phase. With increasing annealing temperature, the pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) of ferrite phase dropped, while that of the austenite phase rose. Additionally, it was found that ferrite possessed a lower Volta potential than austenite phase. Moreover, the Volta potential difference between ferrite and austenite increased with the annealing temperature, which was well consistent with the difference of PREN.
Project description:The aim of this study is to evaluate the microstructures, tensile lap shear strength, and fatigue resistance of 6022-T43 aluminum alloy joints welded via a solid-state welding technique-ultrasonic spot welding (USW)-at different energy levels. An ultra-fine necklace-like equiaxed grain structure is observed along the weld line due to the occurrence of dynamic crystallization, with smaller grain sizes at lower levels of welding energy. The tensile lap shear strength, failure energy, and critical stress intensity of the welded joints first increase, reach their maximum values, and then decrease with increasing welding energy. The tensile lap shear failure mode changes from interfacial fracture at lower energy levels, to nugget pull-out at intermediate optimal energy levels, and to transverse through-thickness (TTT) crack growth at higher energy levels. The fatigue life is longer for the joints welded at an energy of 1400 J than 2000 J at higher cyclic loading levels. The fatigue failure mode changes from nugget pull-out to TTT crack growth with decreasing cyclic loading for the joints welded at 1400 J, while TTT crack growth mode remains at all cyclic loading levels for the joints welded at 2000 J. Fatigue crack basically initiates from the nugget edge, and propagates with "river-flow" patterns and characteristic fatigue striations.
Project description:Butt joints of A5052 aluminum alloy and SS400 steel, with a new type of chamfered edge, are welded by means of metal inert gas welding and ER4043 Al-Si filler metal. The microhardness and microstructure of the joint are investigated. An intermetallic layer is found on the surface of the welding seam and SS400 steel sheet. The hardness of the intermetallic layer is examined using the Vickers hardness test. The average hardness values at the Intermetallic (IMC) layer zone and without the IMC layer zone were higher than that of the welding wire ER4043. The tensile strength test showed a fracture at the intermetallic layer when the tensile strength is 225.9 MPa. The tensile value test indicated the average of welds was equivalent to the 85% tensile strength of the A5052 aluminum alloy. The thickness of the intermetallic layers is non-uniform at different positions with the ranges from 1.95 to 5 μm. The quality of the butt joint is better if the intermetallic layer is minimized. The Si crystals which appeared at the welding seam, indicating that this element participated actively during the welding process, also contributed to the IMC layer's formation.
Project description:Ternary Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steel alloys often exhibit a multi-step transformation known as double recalescence where primary ferrite converts to austenite during rapid solidification processes such as casting and welding. In addition to the volume free energy associated with undercooling between the phases, the free energy driving the transformation comes from two additional sources that are retained within the metastable solid-one from the primary phase undercooling and one from melt shear. A new physical model is proposed based on accumulation of defects, such as dislocations or tilt boundaries, and lattice strain. A dimensionless analysis technique shows that the free energy associated with metastable solidification is conserved and the contribution from melt shear can be predicted based on a modification of the Read-Shockley dislocation energy equation. With these additional terms the incubation time between nucleation events becomes inversely proportional to the total free energy squared for bulk diffusion and cubed for grain boundary diffusion mechanisms. In the case of the ferrous alloys studied, the grain boundary mechanism provides a better fit and when the model is applied the delay time behavior collapses to a single master-curve for the entire alloy family.
Project description:Susceptibility of three lean-alloyed ferritic-austenitic stainless steels to hydrogen-induced delayed cracking was examined, concentrating on internal hydrogen contained in the materials after production operations. The aim was to study the role of strain-induced austenite to martensite transformation in the delayed cracking susceptibility. According to the conducted deep drawing tests and constant load tensile testing, the studied materials seem not to be particularly susceptible to delayed cracking. Delayed cracks were only occasionally initiated in two of the materials at high local stress levels. However, if a delayed crack initiated in a highly stressed location, strain-induced martensite transformation decreased the crack arrest tendency of the austenite phase in a duplex microstructure. According to electron microscopy examination and electron backscattering diffraction analysis, the fracture mode was predominantly cleavage, and cracks propagated along the body-centered cubic (BCC) phases ferrite and α'-martensite. The BCC crystal structure enables fast diffusion of hydrogen to the crack tip area. No delayed cracking was observed in the stainless steel that had high austenite stability. Thus, it can be concluded that the presence of α'-martensite increases the hydrogen-induced cracking susceptibility.