Secondary Electron Emission Materials for Transmission Dynodes in Novel Photomultipliers: A Review.
ABSTRACT: Secondary electron emission materials are reviewed with the aim of providing guidelines for the future development of novel transmission dynodes. Materials with reflection secondary electron yield higher than three and transmission secondary electron yield higher than one are tabulated for easy reference. Generations of transmission dynodes are listed in the order of the invention time with a special focus on the most recent atomic-layer-deposition synthesized transmission dynodes. Based on the knowledge gained from the survey of secondary election emission materials with high secondary electron yield, an outlook of possible improvements upon the state-of-the-art transmission dynodes is provided.
Project description:The interaction of ionizing radiation with matter is of critical importance in numerous areas of science and technology like space and vacuum technology and even medicine and biotechnology. Secondary electron emission is a consequence of electron irradiation on materials. We achieve extremely low secondary electron emission yield values smaller than 0.2, even up to incident electron energies ~1 keV, due to an undocumented synergy between neighbouring metal and dielectric domains in composite samples. To investigate this experimental discovery, we propose a simple 3D model where the dielectric and metallic domains are arranged in parallel and interleaved. The proposed surface profile has a triangular shape to model the surface roughness. We obtain a continuous equation to describe the electric field that arises between grounded conductors and charged dielectrics domains. The calculated trajectories of secondary electrons in this 3D geometry are used to predict dynamic secondary emission yield, which strongly depends on the charge accumulated in the dielectric domains. This research paves the way to design new materials of low secondary emission yield, addressing the technological problem not yet resolved to inhibit the electron avalanche in RF equipment that limit their maximum working power.
Project description:The tunnelling of electrons through barriers is important in field emission sources and in interconnects within electronic devices. Here we use the analogy between the electromagnetic wave equation and the Schrodinger equation to find potential barriers that, when added before an existing barrier, increase the transmission probability. A single pre-barrier of negative potential behaves as a dielectric "antireflection coating", as previously reported. However, we obtain an unexpected and much greater enhancement of transmission when the pre-barrier has a positive potential of height smaller than the energy of the incident electron, an unfamiliar optical case, corresponding to media with superluminal phase velocities as in dilute free electron media and anomalous dispersion at X-ray frequencies. We use a finite difference time domain algorithm to evaluate the transmission through a triangular field emission barrier with a pre-barrier that meets the new condition. We show that the transmission is enhanced for an incident wavepacket, producing a larger field emission current than for an uncoated barrier. Examples are given of available materials to enhance transmission in practical applications. The results are significant for showing how to increase electron transmission in field emission and at interconnects between dissimilar materials in all types of electronic devices.
Project description:A dual-emission pyrene-based new fluorescent probe (N-(4-nitro-phenyl)-N'-pyren-1-ylmethyl-ene-ethane-1,2-diamine (PyDA-NP)) displays green fluorescence for nitric oxide (NO) sensing, whereas it exhibits blue emission in the aggregated state. The mechanism of nitric oxide (NO/NO+) sensing is based on N-nitrosation of aromatic secondary amine, which was not interfered by reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. The aggregation-induced enhancement of emission (AIEE) behaviors of the PyDA-NP could be attributed to the restriction of intramolecular rotation and vibration, resulting in rigidity enhancement of the molecules. The AIEE behavior of the probe was well established from fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical fluorescence microscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence studies. In a H2O/CH3CN binary mixture (8:2 v/v), the probe showed maximum aggregation with extensive (833-fold) increases in fluorescence intensity and high quantum yield (0.79). The aggregated state of the probe was further applied for the detection of nitroexplosives. It displayed efficient sensing of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP), corroborating mainly the charge-transfer process from pyrene to a highly electron-deficient TNP moiety. Furthermore, for the on-site practical application of the proposed analytical system, a contact-mode analysis was performed.
Project description:Different metalorganic lamellar hybrid materials based on associated nanoribbons were synthesized by the use of alkyl-benzyl monocarboxylate spacers, containing alkyl tails with variable lengths, which acted like structural growing inhibitors. These molecular agents were perpendicularly located and coordinated to aluminium nodes in the interlayer space, controlling the separation between individual structure sub-units. The hybrid materials were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical and thermogravimetrical analysis (TGA), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared spectroscopy (IR), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)/transmission electron microscopy (TEM), showing their physicochemical properties. The specific capacity of the metalorganic materials to be exfoliated through post-synthesis treatments, using several solvents due to the presence of 1D structure sub-units and a marked hydrophobic nature, was also evidenced.
Project description:Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are fabricated with freestanding TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) which are incorporated with Au nanoparticles (NPs) and carbon materials via electrodeposition and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to create a plasmonic effect and better electron transport that will enhance their energy conversion efficiency (ECE). The ECE of DSSCs based on the freestanding TNTAs is 5.87%. The ECE of DSSCs, based on the freestanding TNTAs with Au NPs or carbon materials, is 6.57% or 6.59%, respectively, and the final results of DSSCs according to the freestanding TNTAs with Au NPs and carbon materials is increased from 5.87% to 7.24%, which is an enhancement of 23.34% owing to plasmonic effect and better electron transport. Au NPs are incorporated into the channel of freestanding TNTAs and are characterized by CS-corrected-field emission transmission electron microscope (Cs-FE-TEM) and elemental mapping. Carbon materials are also well-incorporated in the channel of freestanding TNTAs and are analyzed by Raman spectroscopy.
Project description:The problem of weak magnetism has hindered the application of magnetic semiconductors since their invention, and on the other hand, the magnetic mechanism of GaN-based magnetic semiconductors has been the focus of long-standing debate. In this work, nanoscale GaN:Mn wires were grown on the top of GaN ridges by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), and the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer shows that its ferromagnetism is greatly enhanced. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) reveal an obvious increase of Mn composition in the nanowire part, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and EDS mapping results further indicate the correlation between the abundant stacking faults (SFs) and high Mn doping. When further combined with the micro-Raman results, the magnetism in GaN:Mn might be related not only to Mn concentration, but also to some kinds of built-in defects introduced together with the Mn doping or the SFs.
Project description:Demand is increasing for superhydrophobic materials in many applications, such as membrane distillation, separation and special coating technologies. In this study, we report a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process to fabricate superhydrophobic carbon nanomaterials (CNM) on nickel (Ni)-doped powder activated carbon (PAC). The reaction temperature, reaction time and H2/C2H2 gas ratio were optimized to achieve the optimum contact angle (CA) and carbon yield (CY). For the highest CY (380%) and CA (177°), the optimal reaction temperatures were 702?°C and 687?°C, respectively. However, both the reaction time (40?min) and gas ratio (1.0) were found to have similar effects on CY and CA. Based on the Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images, the CNM could be categorized into two main groups: a) carbon spheres (CS) free carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and b) CS mixed with CNFs, which were formed at 650 and 750?°C, respectively. Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis also support this finding. The hydrophobicity of the CNM, expressed by the CA, follows the trend of CS-mixed CNFs (CA: 177°)?>?CS-free CNFs (CA: 167°)?>?PAC/Ni (CA: 65°). This paves the way for future applications of synthesized CNM to fabricate water-repellent industrial-grade technologies.
Project description:An investigation was conducted into the influence of the amino acids as organic modifiers in the facile synthesis of metal incorporated fluorapatites (FAp) and their properties. The nanostructured Sm doped fluorapatites (Sm-FAp) were prepared by a co-precipitation method using four different amino acids, namely glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine and histidine. The materials were characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), N?-adsorption/desorption isotherm, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Under similar conditions, Sm-FAp prepared using different amino acids exhibited distinctly different morphological structures, surface area and pore properties. Their activity as catalysts was assessed and Sm-FAp/Glycine displayed excellent efficiency in the synthesis of 1,2,4-triazole catalyzing the reaction between 2-nitrobenzaldehyde and thiosemicarbazide with exceptional selectivity and 98% yield in a short time interval (10 min). The study provides an insight into the role of organic modifiers as controllers of nucleation, growth and aggregation which significantly influence the nature and activity of the catalytic sites on Sm-FAp. Sm-FAp could also have potential as photoactive material.
Project description:Lu3+/Yb3+ and Lu3+/Er3+ co-doped Sb2Se3 nanomaterials were synthesized by co-reduction method in hydrothermal condition. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the LnxLn'xSb2-2xSe3 Ln: Lu3+/Yb3+ and Lu3+/Er3+ crystals (x = 0.00 - 0.04) are isostructural with Sb2Se3. The cell parameters were increased for compounds upon increasing the dopant content (x). Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show that co-doping of Lu3+/Yb3+ ions in the lattice of Sb2Se3 produces nanorods, while that in Lu3+/Er3+ produces nanoparticles, respectively. The electrical conductivity of co-doped Sb2Se3 is higher than that of the pure Sb2Se3 and increases with temperature. By increasing the concentration of Ln3+ions, the absorption spectrum of Sb2Se3 shows red shifts and some intensity changes. In addition to the characteristic red emission peaks of Sb2Se3, emission spectra of co-doped materials show other emission bands originating from f-f transitions of the Yb3+ ions.
Project description:The influence of microgeometries on the Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) of surfaces is investigated. Laser written structures of different aspect ratio (height to width) on a copper surface tuned the SEY of the surface and reduced its value to less than unity. The aspect ratio of microstructures was methodically controlled by varying the laser parameters. The results obtained corroborate a recent theoretical model of SEY reduction as a function of the aspect ratio of microstructures. Nanostructures - which are formed inside the microstructures during the interaction with the laser beam - provided further reduction in SEY comparable to that obtained in the simulation of structures which were coated with an absorptive layer suppressing secondary electron emission.