The Refining Mechanism of Super Gravity on the Solidification Structure of Al-Cu Alloys.
ABSTRACT: There is far less study of the refining effect of super gravity fields on solidification structures of metals than of the effects of electrical currents, magnetic and ultrasonic fields. Moreover, the refining mechanisms of super gravity are far from clear. This study applied a super gravity field to Al-Cu alloys to investigate its effect on refining their structures and the mechanism of interaction. The experimental results showed that the solidification structure of Al-Cu alloys can be greatly refined by a super gravity field. The major refining effect was mainly achieved when super gravity was applied at the initial solidification stage; only slight refinement could be obtained towards the end of solidification. No refinement was obtained by the super gravity treatment on pure liquid or solid stages. The effectiveness of super gravity results from its promoting the multiplication of crystal nuclei, which we call "Heavy Crystal Rain", thereby greatly strengthening the migration of crystal nuclei within the alloy. Increasing the solute Cu content can increase nucleation density and restrict the growth of crystals, which further increases the refining effect of super gravity. Within this paper, we also discuss the motile behavior of crystals in a field of super gravity.
Project description:We report the influence of growth rate and external magnetic field on the eutectic lamellar spacing and properties of directionally-solidified Ag-Cu eutectic alloys. The results indicated that the relationship between the lamellar spacing of directionally-solidified Ag-Cu alloys and the growth rate matched the prediction of the Jackson-Hunt model, and the constant was 5.8 µm³/s. The increasing external magnetic field during solidification tilted the growth direction of the lamellar eutectics, and coarsened the eutectic lamellar spacing. These decreased the microhardness and strength of Ag-Cu alloys, but increased their electrical conductivity. The competitive strengthening contributions between the refinement of the eutectic lamellar spacing and the change in growth direction of the eutectics resulted in higher strength in the as-rolled sample with a 0.8 T magnetic field than with other samples, which was confirmed from higher relieved deformation energy using differential scanning calorimetry.
Project description:Three types of Al-5Ti master alloys were synthesized by a method of thermal explosion reaction in pure molten aluminum. Performance comparison of Al-5Ti master alloy in grain refinement of commercial purity Al with different additions (0.6%, 1.0%, 1.6%, 2.0%, and 3.0%) and holding time (10, 30, 60 and 120 min) were investigated. The results show that Al-5Ti master alloy with blocky TiAl₃ particles clearly has better refining efficiency than the master alloy with mixed TiAl₃ particles and the master alloy with needle-like TiAl₃ particles. The structures of master alloys, differing by sizes, morphologies and quantities of TiAl₃ crystals, were found to affect the pattern of the grain refining properties with the holding time. The grain refinement effect was revealed to reduce markedly for master alloys with needle-like TiAl₃ crystals and to show the further significant improvement at a longer holding time for the master alloy containing both larger needle-like and blocky TiAl₃ particles. For the master alloy with finer blocky particles, the grain refining effect did not obviously decrease during the whole studied range of the holding time.
Project description:Solidification of Al-Cu alloys has been investigated using a 29 Tesla super high static magnetic field (SHSMF). The results show that, by imposing a 29 Tesla SHSMF, the size of primary phases and spacing of eutectic structure have been refined through the increase of undercooling which results from the suppression of diffusion coefficient. The diffusion coefficient of atoms in the liquid matrix decreases to be about 1.2?×?10-12?m2/s. The lattice constants are reduced and high dislocation density forms in the primary phase, which induces a solute trapping effects. The spacing of (110) plane in Al2Cu is corrected to be 4.3123?Å and 4.2628?Å for Al-40?wt.%Cu alloys treated without and with a SHSMF. The spacing of (111) plane in Al is corrected to be 2.3351?Å and 2.3258?Å for Al-26?wt.%Cu alloys treated without and with a SHSMF. The compression yield strength has been improved by about 42% from 268?MPa to 462?MPa for Al-26?wt.%Cu and 42.5% from 248?MPa to 431?MPa for Al-40?wt.%Cu. The maximum elastic strain increases from about 2% to 4.3% for Al-26?wt.%Cu and from 2% to 4% for Al-40?wt.%Cu. It is expected that SHSMF is beneficial to process materials with high mechanical properties.
Project description:Mg has been considered a promising biomaterial for bone implants. However, the poor corrosion resistance has become its main undesirable property. In this study, both alloying Mn and laser-melting were applied to enhance the Mg corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance, mechanical properties, and microstructure of rapid laser-melted Mg-xMn (x = 0-3 wt %) alloys were investigated. The alloys were composed of dendrite grains, and the grains size decreased with increasing Mn. Moreover, Mn could dissolve and induce the crystal lattice distortion of the Mg matrix during the solidification process. Mn ranging from 0-2 wt % dissolved completely due to rapid laser solidification. As Mn contents further increased up to 3 wt %, a small amount of Mn was left undissolved. The compressive strength of Mg-Mn alloys increased first (up to 2 wt %) and then decreased with increasing Mn, while the hardness increased continuously. The refinement of grains and the increase in corrosion potential both made contributions to the enhancement of Mg corrosion resistance.
Project description:An alternating magnetic field (AMF)/Ag multi-alloying combined process was applied to the solidification of Cu?14Fe alloy to study its effects on the microstructure and properties of the resulting samples. The applied AMF and Ag multi-alloying had positive effects on the refinement of the primary Fe phase and precipitation of Fe solute atoms, respectively. These results indicated that the combined AMF/Ag multi-alloying process was effective to improve the distribution of the primary Fe phase and reduce the Fe content of the Cu matrix, which increased the conductivity of the alloy. The application of the combined AMF/Ag multi-alloying process to the solidification of Cu?Fe alloy provided samples with improved comprehensive properties compared with those of samples solidified using a single process (AMF or Ag multi-alloying).
Project description:Chemical differentiation of magma on Earth occurs through physical separation of liquids and crystals. The mechanisms of this separation still remain elusive due to the lack of information on solidification fronts in plutonic magmatic systems. Here, we present records of fossilized solidification fronts from massive magnetitites of the Bushveld Complex in South Africa, obtained by two-dimensional geochemical mapping on field outcrops. The chemical zoning patterns of solidification fronts indicate that nucleation and crystallization occur directly at the chamber floor and result in near-perfect fractionation due to convective removal of a compositional boundary layer from in situ growing crystals. Our data precludes the existence of thick crystal mushes during the formation of massive magnetitites, thus providing no support for the recent paradigm that envisages only crystal-rich and liquid-poor mushy reservoirs in the Earth's crust.
Project description:Understanding how the magnetic fields affect the formation of reinforced phase during solidification is crucial to tailor the structure and therefor the performance of metal matrix in situ composites. In this study, a hypereutectic Al-40 wt.%Cu alloy has been directionally solidified under various axial magnetic fields and the morphology of Al2Cu phase was quantified in 3D by means of high resolution synchrotron X-ray tomography. With rising magnetic fields, both increase of Al2Cu phase's total volume and decrease of each column's transverse section area were found. These results respectively indicate the growth enhancement and refinement of the primary Al2Cu phase in the magnetic field assisting directional solidification. The thermoelectric magnetic forces (TEMF) causing torque and dislocation multiplication in the faceted primary phases were thought dedicate to respectively the refinement and growth enhancement. To verify this, a real structure based 3D simulation of TEMF in Al2Cu column was carried out, and the dislocations in the Al2Cu phase obtained without and with a 10T high magnetic field were analysed by the transmission electron microscope.
Project description:Alloying combined with plastic deformation processing is widely used to improve mechanical properties of pure Zn. As-cast Zn and its alloys are brittle. Beside plastic deformation processing, no effective method has yet been found to eliminate the brittleness and even endow room temperature super-ductility. Second phase, induced by alloying, not only largely determines the ability of plastic deformation, but also influences strength, corrosion rate and cytotoxicity. Controlling second phase is important for designing biodegradable Zn alloys. In this review, knowledge related to second phases in biodegradable Zn alloys has been analyzed and summarized, including characteristics of binary phase diagrams, volume fraction of second phase in function of atomic percentage of an alloying element, and so on. Controversies about second phases in Zn-Li, Zn-Cu and Zn-Fe systems have been settled down, which benefits future studies. The effects of alloying elements and second phases on microstructure, strength, ductility, corrosion rate and cytotoxicity have been neatly summarized. Mg, Mn, Li, Cu and Ag are recommended as the major alloying elements, owing to their prominent beneficial effects on at least one of the above properties. In future, synergistic effects of these elements should be more thoroughly investigated. For other nutritional elements, such as Fe and Ca, refining second phase is a matter of vital concern.
Project description:Conventional fusion welding of brass (Cu-Zn) alloys has some difficulties such as evaporation of Zn, toxic behavior of Zn vapor, solidification cracking, distortion, and oxidation , , . Fortunately, friction stir welding (FSW) has been proved to be a good candidate for joining the brass alloys, which can overcome the fusion welding short comes , , , . The data presented here relates to FSW of the single and double phase brass alloys. The data is the microstructure and mechanical properties of the base metals and joints.
Project description:Continuous solidification experiments were carried out with Cu-Bi-Sn alloys under the effects of Electric Current Pulses (ECPs). A model describing the microstructure evolution was developed. The formation of the microstructure in the continuously solidified alloys was calculated. The calculations demonstrated that ECPs mainly affect the solidification process through changing the energy barrier for the nucleation of the minority phase droplets (MPDs). When the matrix liquid has a lower electric conductivity compared to the MPD, the ECPs lead to a decrease in the energy barrier for the nucleation of the MPDs which then promote the formation of a finely dispersed microstructure. When the matrix liquid has a higher electric conductivity compared to the MPD, the ECPs cause an increase in the energy barrier for the nucleation and lead to the formation of a phase segregated microstructure.