Project description:Oncogenic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling plays an important role in regulating global metabolic pathways, including aerobic glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and pyrimidine biosynthesis. However, the molecular mechanism by which EGFR signaling regulates cancer cell metabolism is still unclear. To elucidate how EGFR signaling is linked to metabolic activity, we investigated the involvement of the RAS/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways on metabolic alteration in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) cell lines with activating EGFR mutations. Although MEK inhibition did not alter lactate production and the extracellular acidification rate, PI3K/mTOR inhibitors significantly suppressed glycolysis in EGFR-mutant LAD cells. Moreover, a comprehensive metabolomics analysis revealed that the levels of glucose 6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate as early metabolites in glycolysis and PPP were decreased after inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, suggesting a link between PI3K signaling and the proper function of glucose transporters or hexokinases in glycolysis. Indeed, PI3K/mTOR inhibition effectively suppressed membrane localization of facilitative glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which, instead, accumulated in the cytoplasm. Finally, aerobic glycolysis and cell proliferation were down-regulated when GLUT1 gene expression was suppressed by RNAi. Taken together, these results suggest that PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling is indispensable for the regulation of aerobic glycolysis in EGFR-mutated LAD cells.
Project description:Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a mitochondrially localized primary antioxidant enzyme, known to be essential for the survival of aerobic life and to have important roles in tumorigenesis. Here, we show that MnSOD deficiency in skin tissues of MnSOD-heterozygous knockout (Sod2(+/-)) mice leads to increased expresson of uncoupling proteins (UCPs). When MnSOD is deficient, superoxide radical and its resulting reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate ligand binding to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?), suggesting that the activation of PPAR? signaling is a major mechanism underlying MnSOD-dependent UCPs expression that consequently triggers the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, leading to increased aerobic glycolysis. Knockdown of UCPs and mTOR suppresses lactate production and increases ATP levels, suggesting that UCPs contribute to increased glycolysis. These results highlight the existence of a free radical-mediated mechanism that activates mitochondria uncoupling to reduce ROS production, which precedes the glycolytic adaptation described as the Warburg Effect.
Project description:Numerous mechanism-based anticancer drugs that target the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway are in clinical trials. However, it remains challenging to assess responses by traditional imaging methods. Here, we show for the first time the efficacy of hyperpolarized (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in detecting the effect of PI3K inhibition by monitoring hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]lactate levels produced from hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate through lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. In GS-2 glioblastoma cells, PI3K inhibition by LY294002 or everolimus caused hyperpolarized lactate to drop to 42 +/- 12% and to 76 +/- 5%, respectively. In MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, hyperpolarized lactate dropped to 71 +/- 15% after treatment with LY294002. These reductions were correlated with reductions in LDH activity to 48 +/- 4%, 63 +/- 4%, and 69 +/- 12%, respectively, and were associated with a drop in levels of LDHA mRNA and LDHA and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha proteins. Supporting these findings, tumor growth inhibition achieved by everolimus in murine GS-2 xenografts was associated with a drop in the hyperpolarized lactate-to-pyruvate ratio detected by in vivo MRS imaging, whereas an increase in this ratio occurred with tumor growth in control animals. Taken together, our findings illustrate the application of hyperpolarized (13)C MRS of pyruvate to monitor alterations in LDHA activity and expression caused by PI3K pathway inhibition, showing the potential of this method for noninvasive imaging of drug target modulation.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The testing of anticancer compounds in vitro is usually performed in hyperglycaemic cell cultures, although many tumours and their in vivo microenvironments are hypoglycaemic. Here, we have assessed, in cultures of tumour cells, the effects of reduced glucose levels on resistance to anticancer drugs and investigated the underlying cellular mechanisms. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: PIK3CA mutant (AGS, HGC27), and wild-type (MKN45, NUGC4) gastric cancer cells were cultured in high-glucose (HG, 25 mM) or low-glucose (LG, 5 mM) media and tested for sensitivity to two cytotoxic compounds, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and carboplatin, the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, PI103 and the mTOR inhibitor, Ku-0063794. KEY RESULTS: All cells had increased resistance to 5-FU and carboplatin when cultured in LG compared with HG conditions despite having similar growth and cell cycle characteristics. On treatment with PI103 or Ku-0063794, only the PIK3CA mutant cells displayed increased resistance in LG conditions. The PIK3CA mutant LG cells had selectively increased p-mTOR, p-S6, p-4EBP1, GLUT1 and lactate production, and reduced reactive oxygen species, consistent with increased glycolysis. Combination analysis indicated PI103 and Ku-0063794 were synergistic in PIK3CA mutant LG cells only. Synergism was accompanied by reduced mTOR signalling and increased autophagy. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Hypoglycaemia increased resistance to cytotoxic agents, especially in tumour cells with a high dependence on glycolysis. Dual inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR pathway may be able to attenuate such hypoglycaemia-associated resistance.
Project description:Acquired resistance (AQR) to drug treatment occurs frequently in cancer patients and remains an impediment to successful therapy. The aim of this study was to gain insight into how AQR arises following the application of PI3K/mTOR inhibitors. H1975 lung cancer cells with EGFR T790M mutations that confer resistance to EGFR inhibitors underwent prolonged treatment with the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, BEZ235. Monoclonal cells with stable and increased resistance to BEZ235 were obtained after 8 months treatment. These AQR clones showed class-specific resistance to PI3K/mTOR inhibitors, reduced G1 cell cycle arrest and impedance of migration following PI3K/mTOR inhibition, reduced PTEN expression and increased Akt and S6RP phosphorylation. Transcriptome analysis revealed the AQR clones had increased expression of the metabolite transporters SLC16A9 and SLC16A7, suggestive of altered cell metabolism. Subsequent experiments revealed that AQR clones possess features consistent with elevated glycolysis, including increased levels of glucose, lactate, glutamine, glucose dependence, GLUT1 expression, and rates of post-glucose extracellular acidification, and decreased levels of reactive oxygen species and rates of oxygen consumption. Combination treatment of BEZ235 with the glycolysis inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate was synergistic in AQR clones, but only additive in parental cells. DNA sequencing revealed the presence of a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) MT-C01 variant in AQR but not parental cells. Depletion of mitochondrial DNA in parental cells induced resistance to BEZ235 and other PI3K/mTOR inhibitors, and was accompanied by increased glycolysis. The results of this study provide the first evidence that a metabolic switch associated with mtDNA mutation can be an underlying mechanism for AQR.
Project description:Background: The aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A3 (ALDH1A3) is a key enzyme associated with a variety of metabolic processes, including glucose metabolism. We recently uncovered that glucose metabolism played an essential role in promoting metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As ALDH1A3 labels an aggressive subtype of PDAC, we hypothesized that ALDH1A3 functionally promoted PDAC metastasis via its metabolic effect on glucose metabolism. Methods: Expression of ALDH1A3 was detected in human PDAC tissues by immunohistochemistry. ALDH1A3 was knocked down or overexpressed in PDAC cells by either shRNA or overexpression vector. The functional roles of ALDH1A3 were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling via RNA-sequencing was used to explore the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. Glucose uptake, extracellular lactate, and ATP production were measured to access the metabolic influence of ALDH1A3 on PDAC cells. Results: ALDH1A3 was associated with poor prognosis in PDAC patients. Functionally, ALDH1A3 promoted PDAC metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Further studies revealed that ALDH1A3 activated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and its downstream target-PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma). This led to increase the expression of HK2 (hexokinase 2), which subsequently enhanced the glycolysis in PDAC cells. Additionally, the pharmacological inhibition of PPAR? activity in ALDH1A3-positive cells impaired glycolytic genes expression, PI3K/AKT/mTOR activity and cellular glycolysis. Conclusions: ALDH1A3 promotes PDAC metastasis via its metabolic influence on glucose metabolism. PPAR? and its downstream PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway maybe involved in this process.
Project description:The metabolic shift induced in human CD4+ T lymphocytes by stimulation is characterized by an upregulation of glycolysis, leading to an augmentation in lactate production. This adaptation has already been highlighted with various techniques and reported in several previous studies. We herein propose a method to rapidly and noninvasively detect the associated increase in flux from pyruvate to lactate catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase using hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance, a technique which can be used for in vivo imaging. It was shown that the conversion of hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate to 13C-lactate during the one-minute measurement increased by a mean factor of 3.6 in T cells stimulated for 5 days as compared to resting T cells. This method can be extended to other metabolic substrates and is therefore a powerful tool to noninvasively analyze T cell metabolism, possibly in vivo.
Project description:Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and hexokinase 2 (HK2) are involved in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Deregulation of cellular energetics involving an increase in glycolysis is a characteristic of HCC. This study examined whether STAT3 regulates HCC glycolysis through the HK2 pathway in HCC cells. Human HCC cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1(+)-EGFP-STAT3, STAT3 siRNA and HK2 siRNA, respectively, or treated with rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and the effects on STAT3 and HK2 expression and cell glycolysis were determined. STAT3 and HK2 expressions were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The level of glycolysis metabolism was assessed by the determination of glucose consumption and lactate production.The results showed that transfection of HepG2 and Hep3B cells with pcDNA3.1(+)-EGFP-STAT3 significantly increased STAT3 mRNA and protein expression, glucose consumption and lactate production, and HK2 mRNA and protein expression. However, transfection of HepG2 and Hep3B cells with STAT3 siRNA significantly decreased glucose consumption and lactate production and HK2 mRNA and protein expression. Transfection of HepG2 and Hep3B cells with HK2 siRNA significantly decreased glucose consumption and lactate production. Treatment of HepG2 and Hep3B cells with rapamycin significantly reduced HK2 mRNA and protein expression and glucose consumption and lactate production. These results suggest that mTOR-STAT3-HK2 pathway is involved in the glycolysis of HCC cells and STAT3 may regulate HCC glycolysis through HK2 pathway, providing potential multiple therapeutic targets through intervention of glycolysis for the treatment of HCC.