Dysregulation of lysophosphatidic acids in multiple sclerosis and autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
ABSTRACT: Bioactive lipids contribute to the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis. Here, we show that lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) are dysregulated in multiple sclerosis (MS) and are functionally relevant in this disease. LPAs and autotaxin, the major enzyme producing extracellular LPAs, were analyzed in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in a cross-sectional population of MS patients and were compared with respective data from mice in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model, spontaneous EAE in TCR1640 mice, and EAE in Lpar2 -/- mice. Serum LPAs were reduced in MS and EAE whereas spinal cord LPAs in TCR1640 mice increased during the 'symptom-free' intervals, i.e. on resolution of inflammation during recovery hence possibly pointing to positive effects of brain LPAs during remyelination as suggested in previous studies. Peripheral LPAs mildly re-raised during relapses but further dropped in refractory relapses. The peripheral loss led to a redistribution of immune cells from the spleen to the spinal cord, suggesting defects of lymphocyte homing. In support, LPAR2 positive T-cells were reduced in EAE and the disease was intensified in Lpar2 deficient mice. Further, treatment with an LPAR2 agonist reduced clinical signs of relapsing-remitting EAE suggesting that the LPAR2 agonist partially compensated the endogenous loss of LPAs and implicating LPA signaling as a novel treatment approach. Graphical summary of lysophosphatidic signaling in multiple sclerosis.
Project description:The elevation of several members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family promotes the pathophysiology of both multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Nonetheless, given the multiple activities of MMPs, it remains possible that increased levels of a particular MMP may have beneficial functions during disease progression. We reported previously that MMP-12(-/-) mice of the 129/SvEv strain had a poorer EAE outcome than wild-type controls. However, we did not determine further differences in disease profiles between these groups. Using the EAE model in 129/SvEv mice, we report that disease in both wild-type and MMP-12(-/-) mice follows a relapsing-remitting course. Although both mouse groups had similar clinical onsets, subsequent relapses were more severe in MMP-12(-/-) mice; their residual disability at remission was also higher compared with wild-type controls. The worsened relapses and remissions in MMP-12(-/-) mice occurred despite a deficiency of the antigen recall capacity of lymph node-derived cells as well as a reduction in the proportion of macrophages in the spinal cord during the chronic phase of EAE. Significantly, large increases of levels of chemokines and cytokines were found in the spinal cords of MMP-12(-/-) mice during chronic EAE. These results highlight MMP-12 as a beneficial enzyme in EAE and suggest that therapeutic interventions in multiple sclerosis should avoid targeting MMP-12.
Project description:Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is expressed by several immune cells in the central nervous system and plays an important role in neuroinflammation. TLR2 upregulation has been reported in multiple sclerosis patients and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model for multiple sclerosis. Therefore, modulating TLR2 signaling can be an effective treatment strategy against MS. Oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) has antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Hence, this study aimed to examine the effects of OAA on TLR2 signaling and neuroinflammation in EAE. EAE was induced in C57/BL6 mice using synthesized myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 peptide, and OAA was administered daily. Hind limb paralysis and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed in the spinal cords of EAE mice. Moreover, T-cell proliferation was significantly stimulated in splenic cells from EAE mice. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the spinal cord was upregulated, and their serum protein levels were increased in EAE mice. Furthermore, upregulation of TLR2 and downstream signaling molecules was observed in the spinal cord. These pathological changes were reversed by OAA treatment. Our results suggest that OAA might have promising therapeutic properties and that the TLR signaling pathway is an effective therapeutic target against multiple sclerosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13) plays a vital role in preventing microvascular thrombosis and inflammation. Reduced ADAMTS13 levels in plasma have been detected in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In the present study, we have determined the role of ADAMTS13 in the disease progression of MS using a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). METHODS:Female C57BL/6 mice were immunized with MOG35-55 peptide and then treated with ADAMTS13 or vehicle in preventive and therapeutic settings. Mice were analyzed for clinical deficit, white matter demyelination and inflammatory cell infiltration. To explore the underlying mechanism, VWF expression and blood-spinal cord barriers (BSCB) were determined. RESULTS:Plasma ADAMTS13 activity was suppressed in EAE mice. ADAMTS13-treated EAE mice exhibited an ameliorated disease course, reduced demyelination, and decreased T lymphocyte, neutrophil and monocyte infiltration into the spinal cord. Consistently, ADAMTS13 treatment reduced VWF levels and inhibited BSCB breakdown in the spinal cords of EAE mice. However, leukocytes in the blood and spleen of EAE mice remained unaffected by ADAMTS13 administration. CONCLUSION:Our results demonstrate that ADAMTS13 treatment ameliorates inflammatory responses, demyelination and disease course in EAE mice. Therefore, our study suggests that ADAMTS13 may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for MS patients.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex multifactorial disease that results from the interplay between environmental factors and a susceptible genetic background. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been widely used to investigate the mechanisms underlying MS pathogenesis. Chemokines, such as CCL2, are involved in the development of EAE. We have previously shown that thiamine deficiency (TD) induced CCL2 in neurons. We hypothesized that TD may affect the pathogenesis of EAE. In this study, EAE was induced in C57BL/6J mice by the injection of myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG) peptides 35-55 with or without TD. TD aggravated the development of EAE, which was indicated by clinical scores and pathologic alterations in the spinal cord. TD also accelerated the development of EAE in an adoptive transfer EAE model. TD caused microglial activation and a drastic increase (up 140%) in leukocyte infiltration in the spinal cord of the EAE mice; specifically, TD increased Th1 and Th17 cells. TD upregulated the expression of CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 in the spinal cord of EAE mice. Cells in peripheral lymph node and spleen isolated from MOG-primed TD mice showed much stronger proliferative responses to MOG. CCL2 stimulated the proliferation and migration of T lymphocytes in vitro. Our results suggested that TD exacerbated the development of EAE through activating CCL2 and inducing pathologic inflammation.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease in which myelin in the spinal cord is damaged. C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is implicated in immune cell migration and cytokine release in central nervous system (CNS). We investigated whether CCR5 plays a role in MS progression using a murine model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), in CCR5 deficient (CCR5-/-) mice. CCR5-/- and CCR5+/+ (wild-type) mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 (MOG35-55) followed by pertussis toxin, after which EAE paralysis was scored for 28 days. We found that clinical scoring and EAE neuropathology were lower in CCR5-/- mice than CCR5+/+ mice. Immune cells (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, B cell, NK cell and macrophages) infiltration and astrocytes/microglial activation were attenuated in CCR5-/- mice. Moreover, levels of IL-1?, TNF-?, IFN-? and MCP-1 cytokine levels were decreased in CCR5-/- mice spinal cord. Myelin basic protein (MBP) and CNPase were increased while NG2 and O4 were decreased in CCR5-/- mice, indicating that demyelination was suppressed by CCR5 gene deletion. These findings suggest that CCR5 is likely participating in demyelination in the spinal cord the MS development, and that it could serve as an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of MS.
Project description:Immunoregulatory sex hormones, including estrogen and estriol, may prevent relapses in multiple sclerosis during pregnancy. Our previous studies have demonstrated that regulatory B cells are crucial for estrogen-mediated protection against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Herein, we demonstrate an estrogen-dependent induction of alternatively activated (M2) macrophages/microglia that results in an increased frequency of regulatory B cells in the spinal cord of estrogen treated mice with EAE. We further demonstrate that cultured M2-polarized microglia promote the induction of regulatory B cells. Our study suggests that estrogen neuroprotection induces a regulatory feedback loop between M2 macrophages/microglia and regulatory B cells.
Project description:Demyelination and remyelination play pivotal roles in the pathological process of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a well-established animal model of MS. Although increasing evidence shows that various stimuli can promote the activation/induction of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the central nervous system, the potential contributions of these cells to remyelination following inflammatory injury remain to be fully investigated. In the present study, using an adult mouse model of EAE induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide, we investigated whether adult NSPCs in the spinal cord can lead to remyelination under inflammatory conditions. Immunohistochemistry showed that cells expressing the NSPC marker Nestin appeared after MOG peptide administration, predominantly at the sites of demyelination where abundant inflammatory cells had accumulated, whereas Nestin+ cells were rarely present in the spinal cord of PBS-treated control mice. In vitro, Nestin+ NSPCs obtained from EAE mice spinal cords could differentiate into multiple neural lineages, including neurons, astrocytes, and myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. Using the Cre-LoxP system, we established a mouse strain expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) under the control of the Nestin promoter and investigated the expression patterns of YFP-expressing cells in the spinal cord after EAE induction. At the chronic phase of the disease, immunohistochemistry showed that YFP+ cells in the injured regions expressed markers for various neural lineages, including myelin-forming oligodendrocytes. These results show that adult endogenous NSPCs in the spinal cord can be subject to remyelination under inflammatory conditions, such as after EAE, suggesting that endogenous NSPCs represent a therapeutic target for MS treatment.
Project description:Oligodendrocytes are myelinating cells of the central nervous system. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease characterized by both myelin loss and neuronal degeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal degeneration in demyelinating disorders are not fully understood. In the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) demyelinating mouse model of MS, inflammatory microglia produce cytokines including interleukin-1? (IL-1?). Since microglia and non-canonical Wnt signaling components in neurons, such as the co-receptor Ror2, were observed in the spinal cord of EAE mice, we postulated that the interplay between activated microglia and spinal neurons under EAE conditions is mediated through non-canonical Wnt signaling. EAE treatment up-regulated in vivo expression of non-canonical Wnt signaling components in spinal neurons through microglial activation. In accordance with the neuronal degeneration detected in the EAE spinal cord in vivo, co-culture of spinal neurons with microglia or the application of recombinant IL-1? up-regulated non-canonical Wnt signaling, and induced neuronal cell death, which was suppressed by the inhibition of the Wnt-Ror2 pathway. Ectopic non-canonical Wnt signaling aggravated the demyelinating pathology in another MS mouse model due to Wnt5a-induced neurodegeneration. The linkage between activated microglia and neuronal Wnt-Ror2 signaling may provide a possible candidate target for therapeutic approaches to demyelinating disorders.
Project description:The development of neuroprotective and repair strategies for treating progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) requires new insights into axonal injury. 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a blocker of voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels, is used in symptomatic treatment of progressive MS, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that deleting Kv3.1-the channel with the highest 4-AP sensitivity-reduces clinical signs in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model for MS. In Kv3.1 knockout (KO) mice, EAE lesions in sensory and motor tracts of spinal cord were markedly reduced, and radial astroglia were activated with increased expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Kv3.3/Kv3.1 and activated BDNF receptors were upregulated in demyelinating axons in EAE and MS lesions. In spinal cord myelin coculture, BDNF treatment promoted myelination, and neuronal firing via altering channel expression. Therefore, suppressing Kv3.1 alters neural circuit activity, which may enhance BNDF signaling and hence protect axons from inflammatory insults.
Project description:IL-1? and IL-18 are pro-inflammatory cytokines that are linked to inflammation. Activation of the NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is involved in the maturation and secretion of IL-1? and IL-18 and, thus, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory conditions, including multiple sclerosis (MS). OLT1177™ (Dapansutrile) is a newly developed drug that is safe in humans and inhibits specifically the NLRP3 inflammasome. In the present study, we investigated whether OLT1177 exerts therapeutic effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. We found that EAE mice fed an OLT1177-enriched diet prophylactically were significantly protected against functional deficits and demyelination in the spinal cord. We also demonstrated that prophylactic oral administration of OLT1177 led to marked reduction (~2- to 3-fold) in the protein levels of IL-1? and IL-18, as well as, IL-6 and TNF?, in the spinal cord of EAE mice. Moreover, prophylactic oral administration of OLT1177 significantly attenuated the infiltration of CD4 T cells and macrophages in the spinal cord. We also demonstrated that oral administration of OLT1177, starting at disease onset, resulted in significant amelioration of the clinical signs of EAE. Overall, these first data suggest that OLT1177 could have clinical benefit for the treatment of MS in humans.