Epidural Anesthesia for Cesarean Section in a Pregnant Woman with Marfan Syndrome and Dural Ectasia.
ABSTRACT: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a genetic disorder of connective tissue, characterized by variable clinical features and multisystem complications. The anesthetic management during delivery is debated. Regional anesthesia has been used with success during cesarean delivery, but in some MFS patients there is a probability of erratic and inadequate spread of intrathecal local anesthetics as a result of dural ectasia. In these cases, epidural anesthesia may be a particularly useful technique during cesarean delivery because it allows an adequate spread and action of local anesthetic with a controlled onset of anesthesia, analgesia, and sympathetic block and a low risk of perioperative complications. We report the perioperative management of a patient with MFS and dural ectasia who successfully underwent cesarean section using epidural technique anesthesia. The previous pregnancy of this woman ended with cesarean section with a failed spinal anesthesia that was converted to general anesthesia due to unknown dural ectasia at that time.
Project description:Background:If conversion of labor epidural analgesia to cesarean delivery anesthesia fails, the anesthesiologist can be confronted with a challenging clinical dilemma. Optimal management of a failed epidural top up continues to be debated in the absence of best practice guidelines. Method:All members of the Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association in the United Kingdom were emailed an online survey in May 2017. It obtained information on factors influencing the decision to utilize an existing labor epidural for cesarean section and, if epidural top up resulted in no objective sensory block, bilateral T10 sensory block, or unilateral T6 sensory block, factors influencing the management and selection of anesthetic technique. Differences in management options between respondents were compared using the chi-squared test. Results:We received 710 survey questionnaires with an overall response rate of 41%. Most respondents (89%) would consider topping up an existing labor epidural for a category-one cesarean section. In evaluating whether or not to top up an existing labor epidural, the factors influencing decision-making were how effective the epidural had been for labor pain (99%), category of cesarean section (73%), and dermatomal level of blockade (61%). In the setting of a failed epidural top up, the most influential factors determining further anesthetic management were the category of cesarean section (92%), dermatomal level of blockade (78%), and the assessment of maternal airway. Spinal anesthesia was commonly preferred if an epidural top up resulted in no objective sensory block (74%), bilateral T10 sensory block (57%), or unilateral T6 sensory block (45%). If the sensory block level was higher or unilateral, then a lower dose of intrathecal local anesthetic was selected and alternative options such as combined-spinal epidural and general anesthesia were increasingly favored. Discussion:Our survey revealed variations in the clinical management of a failed epidural top up for cesarean delivery, suggesting guidelines to aid decision-making are needed.
Project description:Up to 40% of women gain excessive weight during pregnancy. Obesity complications and risks in parturient women undergoing cesarean section (CS) with different anesthetic methods remain unknown. This study aimed to assess the safety and risk of obese women undergoing CS delivery with various perioperative anesthetic methods.Seven hundred ninety parturient women underwent CS under general anesthesia (GA), intraspinal anesthesia including epidural anesthesia (EA) and combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA). They were divided into morbid (n?=?255), severe (n?=?274), and non-obesity (n?=?261) groups. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT03002636).Between 2013 and 2016, 790 pregnant were assessed. Compared with the non-obesity group, there were significantly more fetal distress and higher body mass index (BMI) in the morbid obesity group (P?=?.0001 and P?=?.001, respectively). Significantly more patients showed preeclampsia, multifetation, amniotic fluid abnormality, and high bleeding amounts in the morbid obesity group compared with the non-obesity group (P?=?.0001, P?=?.048, P?=?.017, and P?=?.018, respectively); more patients were administered EA and GA compared with the non-obesity group (P?=?.0001 and P?=?.0001, respectively). More post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) patients were found in the severe obesity group no more than the non-obesity group. Significantly increased anesthesia puncture times for 5?>?n???3 and n???5 were obtained in the morbid obesity group (P?=?.0001 and P?=?.0001, respectively), with more patients in the puncture sitting position, compared with the non-obesity group (P?=?.0001).GA, EA, and CSEA are safe and effective in severely or morbidly obese patients. Morbidly obese parturient show increased likelihood for fetal distress, PACU, sitting position puncture, puncture difficulty, and other pregnancy complications. There were more anesthesia puncture times in morbidly obese patients.
Project description:Background Globally obstetric anesthesia is being done under spinal and epidural than general anesthesia (GA) for most caesarean sections (CSs). This is because GA is associated with failed endotracheal intubation and aspiration of gastric contents. Eventhough general anesthesia is the fastest method for anesthetizing a category 1 cesarean section, it is associated with increased maternal mortality and morbidity. Spinal anesthesia is the preferred regional technique for cesarean section but failure sometimes occurs. To minimize the time factor of spinal anesthesia as well as to avoid the side effects of general anesthesia ‘rapid sequence spinal ‘(RSS) has developed as a novel approach in cases of category one cesarean sections. Methods The study was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol. Search engines like PubMed through HINARI, Cochrane database and Google Scholars were used to find high-level evidences that help to draw appropriate conclusions. Discussion Neuraxial anesthetic techniques have several advantages which include low risk of aspiration and failed intubation, avoidance of central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory depressant drugs, the ability to maintain a wakeful state of mother enjoying the experience of delivery of baby and also lower incidence of blood loss. ‘Rapid sequence spinal’ described to minimize anesthetic time. This consists of a no-touch spinal technique, consideration of omission of the spinal opioid, limiting spinal attempts, allowing the start of surgery before full establishment of the spinal block, and being prepared for conversion to general anesthesia if there are delays or problems. To do rapid sequence spinal anesthesia safely and timely, cooperative work is mandatory with good team relation for those simultaneous and necessary tasks. Conclusion The choice of anesthetic in Cesarean section has long been recognized as one of prime importance, because there are two lives to safeguard instead of one. A balance must be struck between the anesthetic dictated by the general condition of the mother and that suited to the needs of the fetal respiratory system. Highlights • Globally obstetric anesthesia is being done under neuraxial anesthesia.• Neuraxial anesthetic techniques have been associated with less risk of obstetric difficult airways.• Nowadays general anesthesia for obstetrics is outdated due to high incidence of difficult airways.• To do rapid sequence spinal anesthesia safely and timely, cooperative work is mandatory.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Many factors can influence the secretion of breast milk. Cesarean section is a risk factor for late onset of breastfeeding. MATERIAL AND METHODS:In our study, we compared the lactation process by mothers who underwent elective cesarean section under general anesthesia, spinal anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, and normal birth; 84 patients between 18-40 years of age with a risk of ASA I-II were included. Randomly patients were divided into four groups: group G (general anesthesia, n:21), group S (spinal anesthesia, n:21), group E (epidural anesthesia, n:21), and group V (vaginal birth, without anesthesia, n:21). Oxytocin and prolactin values of all patients before and after operation or birth were recorded. In addition the initiation time of lactation after delivery or cesarean section were recorded. RESULTS:In all groups, there were no significant differences among hormone levels in the prepartum period (p=0.350). Prolactin levels in group G (p=0.011) and oxytocin levels in group V (p=0.012) in the postpartum period were significantly higher than in the other groups. The start of lactation was significantly delayed in group G (p=0.003). CONCLUSION:We consider that the onset time of lactation is delayed in patients undergoing cesarean section with general anesthesia when compared with patients who undergo cesarean section with spinal and epidural anesthesia and with patients who undergo normal vaginal birth. Because of the delay of awakening and recovery of cognitive functions in general anesthesia, communication between the mother and the newborn is delayed and so is the lactation.
Project description:Background: Use of an in situ epidural catheter has been suggested to be efficient to provide anesthesia for postpartum tubal ligation (PPTL). Reported epidural reactivation success rates vary from 74% to 92%. Predictors for reactivation failure include poor patient satisfaction with labor analgesia, increased delivery-to-reactivation time and the need for top-ups during labor. Some have suggested that this high failure rate precludes leaving the catheter in situ after delivery for subsequent reactivation attempts. In this study, we sought to evaluate the success rate of neuraxial techniques for PPTL and to determine if predictors of failure can be identified. Methods: After obtaining IRB approval, a retrospective chart review of patients undergoing PPTL after vaginal delivery from July 2010 to July 2016 was conducted using CPT codes, yielding 93 records for analysis. Demographic, obstetric and anesthetic data (labor analgesia administration, length of epidural catheter in epidural space, top-up requirements, time of catheter reactivation, final anesthetic technique and corresponding doses for spinal and epidural anesthesia) were obtained. Results: A total of 70 patients received labor neuraxial analgesia. Reactivation was attempted in 33 with a success rate of 66.7%. Patient height, epidural volume of local anesthetic and administered fentanyl dose were lower in the group that failed reactivation. Overall, spinal anesthesia was performed in 60 patients, with a success rate of 80%. Conclusions: Our observed rate of successful postpartum epidural reactivation for tubal ligation was lower than the range reported in the literature. Our success rates for both spinal anesthesia and epidural reactivation for PPTL were lower than the generally accepted rates of successful epidural and spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. This gap may reflect a lower level of motivation on behalf of both the patients and anesthesia providers to tolerate "imperfect" neuraxial anesthesia once fetal considerations are removed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Loss of resistance (LOR) technique is a widely used method to identify the epidural space. However, cases of inadequate epidural anesthesia in cesarean section were frequently reported. Also, the success rate of epidural anesthesia with LOR technique varied depending on the proficiency of the practitioner. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of electrical stimulation to identify epidural spaces in cesarean section for novices or clinicians with recent gap in experience. METHODS:Pregnant women scheduled for elective cesarean section were randomly allocated to two groups. Groups were classified based on the methods used for identifying the epidural space: the LOR group (group L) and the LOR with epidural electrical stimulation group (group E). Clinicians with less than 10 epidural cesarean section experiences in the recent year performed epidural anesthesia for cesarean section. In the group E, a RegionalStim® conductive catheter was inserted through the Tuohy needle, and the guidewire passing through the catheter was connected to a peripheral nerve stimulator. The intensity of the stimulation was gradually increased from 0.25?mA to 1.5?mA until paresthesia was elicited and radiated. We assessed the success of epidural anesthesia (complete success, partial success or failure). Other clinical parameters including maternal satisfaction, time required for epidural anesthesia, neonatal Apgar scores, pain scores and adverse events were compared between the two groups. RESULTS:Except for 6 patients who withdrew consent, 54 patients were enrolled in this study (28 for the group L and 26 for the group E). The demographic data showed no difference between the two groups. There was no adverse event resulted from electrical stimulation. The group E showed higher rate of complete success, sensitivity in finding epidural space and maternal satisfaction compared to the group L (21/26 vs. 15/28, p?=?0.034, 0.96 vs. 0.68, p?=?0.012 and 4.04 vs. 3.39, p?=?0.02, respectively). The other clinical parameters showed no differences between the two groups. CONCLUSION:In addition to the conventional LOR technique, identifying epidural spaces using electrical stimulation led to better outcomes without additional risks for novices as well as clinicians with recent gap in experience. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study was retrospectively registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT03443466) on February 23, 2018.
Project description:Purpose:Quadratus lumborum block (QLB) is shown to be effective on analgesia following cesarean section. This study aimed to compare the effects of three practical QLB approaches and classic epidural analgesia (EA) for cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Patients and methods:Parturients undergoing elective cesarean section were randomized as group 1 (QLB type 2), group 2 (QLB type 3), group 3 (QLB type 2+3) and group 4 (EA). The block was performed at the end of the operation, and the epidural group was given a single epidural bolus. All subjects were provided with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia under identical settings. In addition, the postoperative pain severity was assessed by the VAS, which together with the morphine consumption at specific time intervals, was recorded within 48 hrs after surgery. Data were collected from December 2017 to June 2018. Results:A total of 94 parturients had completed the study. At almost all postoperative time points, the VAS scores at rest and with movement in QLB type 2+3 group were lower than those in QLB type 2 or 3 group. The mean additional morphine consumption in QLB type 2+3 group (2.7 mg) was lower than that in QLB type 2 or 3 group (6.1 mg and 5.7 mg, respectively) within 48 h after surgery (P<0.001). Besides, the total morphine consumption in EA group (1.3 mg) was lower than that in any other QLB group (P<0.001). Conclusions:The analgesic effect of QLB is highly dependent on the injection position of local anesthetic. Besides, the ultrasound-guided QLB type 2+3 can provide superior analgesic effect following cesarean section to that of QLB type 2 or 3 block. However, it remains to be further validated about whether the combination of QLB type 2 and 3 is the best approach.
Project description:Background:The present study aimed to describe the evolution of hemodynamic parameters over time of patients with invasive placentation during their third trimester who were delivered via cesarean section and subsequently underwent obstetric hysterectomy under epidural anesthesia. Methods:A prospective, descriptive, longitudinal, 11-month cohort study of 43 patients aged between 18 and 37 years who presented with invasive placentation. Minimal invasive monitoring was placed before the administration of epidural anesthesia for hemodynamic parameter tracking during the cesarean section. After delivery, the patients underwent an obstetric hysterectomy. Blood loss, hemodynamic parameters, and coagulation were managed via goal-directed therapy. Parameters were compared via repeated measures ANOVA and effect size estimation (Cohen's d). Results:The mean age of the patients was 29.2?±?3.4 years and was moderately overweight. They had minor cardiac index variance (P=NS, no significance), vascular systemic resistance index (NS), heart rate (P=NS), and median arterial pressure (P=NS). Differences were observed in the stroke volume index (P=0.015) due to moderately higher values (d?=?0.3, P=0.016) in the middle of the surgery. Patients had lower cardiac index (d?=?-0.36, NS) and cardiac workload requirements (d?=?-0.29, P=0.034) toward the completion of surgery. Conclusion:Patients who are in their third trimester and who subsequently underwent obstetric hysterectomy under epidural anesthesia had modest surgical hemodynamic variance and reduced cardiac workload requirements toward the end of the surgery.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Multiple sclerosis (MS) often occurs in young women and the effect of obstetric anesthesia/analgesia on the disease is poorly understood. No previous study has investigated the course of the disease in women in labor in the Czech Republic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence or absence of relapses in the 6-month postpartum period in MS parturients with and without obstetric anesthesia/analgesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We retrospectively studied all deliveries (n = 58,455) at the University Hospital Brno from 2004 to 2013 and identified those of the women with an ICD-10 code G35 (MS) recorded anytime in their medical history (n = 428). We included only deliveries of women with confirmed diagnosis at the time of labor (n = 70). Statistical analysis was performed using the Fischer Exact Test. RESULTS:There were 70 deliveries of 65 women, including 45 vaginal deliveries and 25 Cesarean deliveries (16 under general anesthesia, 8 with epidural anesthesia and 1 with spinal anesthesia). Epidural obstetric analgesia was performed in 11 deliveries. There was no statistically significant difference in relapses between the vaginal delivery group (n = 15; 33%) and Cesarean section group (n = 10; 40%), p = 0.611. CONCLUSION:Neither delivery mode (vaginal vs Caesarean) nor type of obstetric anesthesia/analgesia was found to have any impact on the course of MS at 6 months postpartum in women with this condition.
Project description:Background:Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm related to chromosomal reciprocal translocation t(9;22). Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as imatinib have drastically revolutionized the course and the prognosis of this hematologic malignancy. As we know, the association pregnancy-CML is an infrequent situation. Also the use of TKI in pregnant women is unsafe with a lack of alternatives and effective therapeutic options. Thus its cessation during gestation puts those patients at high risk of developing blast crisis characterized by poor outcomes. Case Report:A 37-year-old pregnant woman, gravida 2, para 2, with a previous cesarean section in 2011, presented to the obstetric unit. Her medical past revealed that she is a newly diagnosed patient with CML managed by TKI during her preconception period. Due to the perilous use of TKI during her pregnancy, a switch to interferon-? administration was adopted. But after the completion of 36 weeks of gestation, disease progression (relapse with blast crisis), attested by biological worsening, a white blood cell count = 245000/mm3 with 32% blasts in the peripheral blood, urged the medical team to opt for cesarean delivery. She underwent general endotracheal anesthesia without any perioperative incidents and gave birth to a healthy newborn. Ten days later, the patient was started on TKI. Discussion:Although data on this specific and challenging situation are limited, this case highlights the difficulties encountered by the anesthesiologists when choosing the accurate anesthetic strategy and how important it is to weigh the risks and benefits inherent to each technique. Above all, taking into consideration the possible central nervous system (CNS) contamination by circulating blast cells when performing spinal or epidural approach is primordial. This potential adverse event (CNS blast crisis) is extremely scarce but it is responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality.