ABSTRACT: Monofilament nylon strings with a range of diameters, commercially marketed as harp strings, have been tested to establish their long-term mechanical properties. Once a string had settled into a desired stress state, the Young's modulus was measured by a variety of methods that probe different time-scales. The modulus was found to be a strong function of testing frequency and also a strong function of stress. Strings were also subjected to cyclical variations of temperature, allowing various thermal properties to be measured: the coefficient of linear thermal expansion and the thermal sensitivities of tuning, Young's modulus and density. The results revealed that the particular strings tested are divided into two groups with very different properties: stress-strain behaviour differing by a factor of two and some parametric sensitivities even having the opposite sign. Within each group, correlation studies allowed simple functional fits to be found to the key properties, which have the potential to be used in automated tuning systems for harp strings.
Project description:The long-term mechanical behaviour of a number of fluorocarbon and gut harp strings has been examined, and the results compared with a previous study of rectified nylon strings. The stretching behaviour of the three materials was studied via different measures of the Young's modulus; with test time scales on the order of weeks, minutes, and milliseconds. The strings were subjected to cyclic variations in temperature, enabling various aspects of their thermal behaviour to be investigated. The effects of humidity changes on gut strings were also examined. The behaviour of the fluorocarbon strings was found to be similar in many ways to that of the nylon strings, despite their different chemical formulation and significantly higher density. In particular, the faster measures of Young's modulus were found to show an almost identical strong variation with the applied stress; while the thermal behaviour of both materials was largely determined by the balance between opposing effects associated with thermal contraction and thermal variations in the Young's modulus. The gut strings showed some similarities of behaviour to the synthetic materials, but also major differences. All three measures of the Young's modulus remained constant as the applied stress was increased. The gut strings were far more sensitive to changes in humidity than the synthetic materials, although some of the results, especially the thermal tuning sensitivity of the strings when held at constant length, displayed remarkable stability under changing humidity. The observed behaviour suggests very strongly that there is significant coupling between humidity-related changes in the linear density of a gut string and complementary changes in its tension.
Project description:We conduct molecular dynamics simulations to study the mechanical and thermal properties of monolayer indium selenide (InSe) sheets. The influences of temperature, intrinsic structural defect on the tensile properties were assessed by tensile strength, fracture strain, and Young's modulus. We found that the tensile strength, fracture strain, and Young's modulus reduce as increasing temperature. The results also indicate that with the existence of defects, the stress is concentrated at the region around the vacancy leading to the easier destruction. Therefore, the mechanical properties were considerably decreased with intrinsic structural defects. Moreover, Young's modulus is isotropy in both zigzag and armchair directions. The point defect almost has no influence on Young's modulus but it strongly influences the ultimate strength and fracture strain. Besides, the effects of temperature, length size, vacancy defect on thermal conductivity (?) of monolayer InSe sheets were also studied by using none-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The ? significantly arises as increasing the length of InSe sheets. The ? of monolayer InSe with infinite length at 300 K in armchair direction is 46.18 W/m K, while in zigzag direction is 45.87 W/m K. The difference of ? values in both directions is very small, indicating the isotropic properties in thermal conduction of this material. The ? decrease as increasing the temperature. The ? goes down with the number of atoms vacancy defect increases.
Project description:In this study, the mechanical and thermal properties of graphene were systematically investigated using molecular dynamic simulations. The effects of temperature, strain rate and defect on the mechanical properties, including Young's modulus, fracture strength and fracture strain, were studied. The results indicate that the Young's modulus, fracture strength and fracture strain of graphene decreased with the increase of temperature, while the fracture strength of graphene along the zigzag direction was more sensitive to the strain rate than that along armchair direction by calculating the strain rate sensitive index. The mechanical properties were significantly reduced with the existence of defect, which was due to more cracks and local stress concentration points. Besides, the thermal conductivity of graphene followed a power law of ?~L0.28, and decreased monotonously with the increase of defect concentration. Compared with the pristine graphene, the thermal conductivity of defective graphene showed a low temperature-dependent behavior since the phonon scattering caused by defect dominated the thermal properties. In addition, the corresponding underlying mechanisms were analyzed by the stress distribution, fracture structure during the deformation and phonon vibration power spectrum.
Project description:Mutations in HepA-related protein (HARP, or SMARCAL1) cause Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia (SIOD). HARP has ATP-dependent annealing helicase activity, which helps to stabilize stalled replication forks and facilitate DNA repair during replication. Here, we show that the conserved tandem HARP (2HP) domain dictates this annealing helicase activity. Furthermore, chimeric proteins generated by fusing the 2HP domain of HARP with the SNF2 domain of BRG1 or HELLS show annealing helicase activity in vitro and, when targeted to replication forks, mimic the functions of HARP in vivo. We propose that the HARP domain endows HARP with this ATP-driven annealing helicase activity.
Project description:The electric power output of a piezoelectric nanogenerator (PENG) depends on the various physical parameters of the constituent materials, including the piezoelectric coefficient, Young's modulus, and dielectric constant. Herein, we report the mechanical and electrical properties of a poly(vinylidene fluoride)?BaTiO? (PVDF?BTO) composite-based PENG. Variation of the BTO nanoparticle (NP) content enabled the systematic tuning of the physical parameters that are related to power generation in the composite. The Young's modulus of the PVDF?BTO composite initially increased, and then eventually decreased, with the increasing BTO content, which was probably due to the clustering effect of the high modulus BTO NPs. The dielectric constant of the composite continuously increased as the BaTiO? content increased. The piezoelectric outputs were greatly enhanced at 10 wt% of BTO, where the Young's modulus was the highest. These results indicate that the Young's modulus plays an important role in the piezoelectric power generation of the composite-based PENGs.
Project description:DNA-dependent adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) participate in a broad range of biological processes including transcription, DNA repair, and chromatin dynamics. Mutations in the HepA-related protein (HARP) ATPase are responsible for Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD), but the function of the protein is unknown. We found that HARP is an ATP-dependent annealing helicase that rewinds single-stranded DNA bubbles that are stably bound by replication protein A. Other related ATPases, including the DNA translocase Rad54, did not exhibit annealing helicase activity. Analysis of mutant HARP proteins suggests that SIOD is caused by a deficiency in annealing helicase activity. Moreover, the pleiotropy of HARP mutations is consistent with the function of HARP as an annealing helicase that acts throughout the genome to oppose the action of DNA-unwinding activities in the nucleus.
Project description:HARP (SMARCAL1, MARCAL1) is an annealing helicase that functions in the repair and restart of damaged DNA replication forks through its DNA branch migration and replication fork regression activities. HARP is conserved among metazoans. HARP from invertebrates differs by the absence of one of the two HARP-specific domain repeats found in vertebrates. The annealing helicase and branch migration activity of invertebrate HARP has not been documented. We found that HARP from Drosophila melanogaster retains the annealing helicase activity of human HARP, the ability to disrupt D-loops and to branch migrate Holliday junctions, but fails to regress model DNA replication fork structures. A comparison of human and Drosophila HARP on additional substrates revealed that both HARPs are competent in branch migrating a bidirectional replication bubble composed of either DNA:DNA or RNA:DNA hybrid. Human, but not Drosophila, HARP is also capable of regressing a replication fork structure containing a highly stable poly rG:dC hybrid. Persistent RNA:DNA hybrids in vivo can lead to replication fork arrest and genome instability. The ability of HARP to strand transfer hybrids may signify a hybrid removal function for this enzyme, in vivo.
Project description:Young's modulus (E) is one of the most important parameters in the mechanical properties of solid materials. Young's modulus is proportional to the stress and strain values. There are several experimental and theoretical methods for gaining Young's modulus values, such as stress-strain curves in compression and tensile tests, electromagnetic-acoustic resonance, ultrasonic pulse echo and density functional theory (DFT) in different basis sets. Apparently, preparing specimens for measuring Young's modulus through the experimental methods is not convenient and it is time-consuming. In addition, for calculating Young's modulus values by software, presumptions of data and structures are needed. Therefore, this new method for gaining the Young's modulus values of crystalline materials is presented. Herein, the new method for calculating Young's modulus of crystalline materials is extracted by X-ray diffraction. In this study, Young's modulus values were gained through the arbitrary planes such as random (hkl) in the research. In this study, calculation of Young's modulus through the relationship between elastic compliances, geometry of the crystal lattice and the planar density of each plane is obtained by X-ray diffraction. Sodium chloride (NaCl) with crystal lattices of FCC was selected as the example. The X-ray diffraction, elastic stiffness constant and elastic compliances values have been chosen by the X'Pert software, literature and experimental measurements, respectively. The elastic stiffness constant and Young's modulus of NaCl were measured by the ultrasonic technique and, finally, the results were in good agreement with the new method of this study. The aim of the modified Williamson-Hall (W-H) method in the uniform stress deformation model (USDM) utilized in this paper is to provide a new approach of using the W-H equation, so that a least squares technique can be applied to minimize the sources of errors.
Project description:The mechanical stress in silicon-on-glass MEMS structures and a stress isolation scheme were studied by analysis and experimentation. Double-ended tuning forks (DETFs) were used to measure the stress based on the stress-frequency conversion effect. Considering the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of silicon and glass and the temperature coefficient of the Young's modulus of silicon, the sensitivity of the natural frequency to temperature change was analyzed. A stress isolation mechanism composed of annular isolators and a rigid frame is proposed to prevent the structure inside the frame from being subjected to thermal stresses. DETFs without and with one- or two-stage isolation frames with the orientations <110> and <100> were designed, the stress and natural frequency variations with temperature were simulated and measured. The experimental results show that in the temperature range of -50 °C to 85 °C, the stress varied from -18 MPa to 10 MPa in the orientation <110> and -11 MPa to 5 MPa in the orientation <100>. For the 1-stage isolated DETF of <110> orientation, the measured stress variation was only 0.082 MPa. The thermal stress can be mostly rejected by a stress isolation structure, which is applicable in the design of stress-sensitive MEMS sensors and actuators.
Project description:Polyelectrolyte hydrogel fibers can mimic the extracellular matrix and be used for tissue scaffolding. Mechanical properties of polyelectrolyte nanofibers are crucial in manipulating cell behavior, which metal ions have been found to enable tuning. While metal ions play an important role in manipulating the mechanical properties of the fibers, evaluating the mechanical properties of a single hydrated hydrogel fiber remains a challenging task and a more detailed understanding of how ions modulate the mechanical properties of individual polyelectrolyte polymers is still lacking. In this study, dark-field microscopy and persistence length analysis help directly evaluate fiber mechanics using electrospun fibers of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), chitosan (CS), and ferric ions as a model system. By comparing the persistence length and estimated Young's modulus of different nanofibers, we demonstrate that persistence length analysis is a viable approach to evaluate mechanical properties of hydrated fibers. Ferric ions were found to create shorter and stiffer nanofibers, with Young's modulus estimated at a few kilopascals. Ferric ions, at low concentration, reduce the Young's modulus of PAA and PAA/CS fibers through the interaction between ferric ions and carboxylate groups. Such interaction was further supported by nanoscale infrared spectroscopy studies of PAA and PAA/CS fibers with different concentrations of ferric ions.