Effect of the Medium Composition on the Zn2+ Lixiviation and the Antifouling Properties of a Glass with a High ZnO Content.
ABSTRACT: The dissolution of an antimicrobial ZnO-glass in the form of powder and in the form of sintered pellets were studied in water, artificial seawater, biological complex media such as common bacterial/yeast growth media (Luria Bertani (LB), yeast extract, tryptone), and human serum. It has been established that the media containing amino acids and proteins produce a high lixiviation of Zn2+ from the glass due to the ability of zinc and zinc oxide to react with amino acids and proteins to form complex organic compounds. The process of Zn2+ lixiviation from the glass network has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). From these results we can state that the process of lixiviation of Zn2+ from the glass network is similar to the one observed in sodalime glasses, where Na⁺ is lixiviated to the media first and the fraction of Zn that acts as modifiers (~2/3) is lixiviated in second place. After the subsequent collapse of the outer surface glass layer (about 200-300 nm thick layer) the dissolution process starts again. Antifouling properties against different bacteria (S. epidermidis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and M. lutea) have also been established for the glass pellets.
Project description:Many solid-dose oral drug products are engineered to release their active ingredients into the body at a certain rate. Techniques for measuring the dissolution or degradation of a drug product in vitro play a crucial role in predicting how a drug product will perform in vivo. However, existing techniques are often labor-intensive, time-consuming, irreproducible, require specialized analytical equipment, and provide only "snapshots" of drug dissolution every few minutes. These limitations make it difficult for pharmaceutical companies to obtain full dissolution profiles for drug products in a variety of different conditions, as recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration. Additionally, for drug dosage forms containing multiple controlled-release pellets, particles, beads, granules, etc. in a single capsule or tablet, measurements of the dissolution of the entire multi-particle capsule or tablet are incapable of detecting pellet-to-pellet variations in controlled release behavior. In this work, we demonstrate a simple and fully-automated technique for obtaining dissolution profiles from single controlled-release pellets. We accomplished this by inverting the drug dissolution problem: instead of measuring the increase in the concentration of drug compounds in the solution during dissolution (as is commonly done), we monitor the decrease in the buoyant mass of the solid controlled-release pellet as it dissolves. We weigh single controlled-release pellets in fluid using a vibrating tube sensor, a piece of glass tubing bent into a tuning-fork shape and filled with any desired fluid. An electronic circuit keeps the glass tube vibrating at its resonance frequency, which is inversely proportional to the mass of the tube and its contents. When a pellet flows through the tube, the resonance frequency briefly changes by an amount that is inversely proportional to the buoyant mass of the pellet. By passing the pellet back-and-forth through the vibrating tube sensor, we can monitor its mass as it degrades or dissolves, with high temporal resolution (measurements every few seconds) and mass resolution (700 nanogram resolution). As a proof-of-concept, we used this technique to measure the single-pellet dissolution profiles of several commercial controlled-release proton pump inhibitors in simulated stomach and intestinal contents, as well as comparing name-brand and generic formulations of the same drug. In each case, vibrating tube sensor data revealed significantly different dissolution profiles for the different drugs, and in some cases our method also revealed differences between different pellets from the same drug product. By measuring any controlled-release pellets, particles, beads, or granules in any physiologically-relevant environment in a fully-automated fashion, this method can augment and potentially replace current dissolution tests and support product development and quality assurance in the pharmaceutical industry.
Project description:The present research work explores formulation design, critical scale-up considerations and bio-equivalence studies of soluble itraconazole (ITZ) in a tablet form using disordered drug delivery approach. Disordered system of ITZ with a lower viscosity grade of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (Pharmacoat 603) was developed for the first time and extensively characterised at three different stages, namely development of glass system, pellet coating and tablet compression using advanced analytical techniques. Complete molecular embedment of ITZ resulting in amorphisation was observed and found to be sustained until end of the real-time and accelerated stability studies. Developed formulation exhibited comparative in vitro dissolution profile (similarity factor>70) with reference product (Sporanox, Janssen Pharmaceutica) in simulated gastric fluid without enzymes. Formulation was scaled up in three batches (50,000 tablets/batch) with detailed validation of critical process parameters using process capability index method. Critical scale-up considerations like control of residual solvent content, effect of pellet size on dissolution, process variables in pellet coating, compressibility of coated pellets and cushioning effect required for desired compressibility were thoroughly discussed. Bioequivalence study of single dose of test and reference product in seven healthy human volunteers under fed condition exhibited significant bioequivalence with results (AUClast and AUC?) lying between 90% confidence interval. With increase in number of subjects to 24, a significant effect on pharmacokinetic parameters of both reference as well as developed ITZ tablets was observed.
Project description:Zinc (Zn2+) is the most abundant biological metal ion aside from iron and is an essential element in numerous biological systems, acting as a cofactor for a large number of enzymes and regulatory proteins. Zn2+ must be tightly regulated, as both the deficiency and overabundance of intracellular free Zn2+ are harmful to cells. Zn2+ transporters (ZnTs) play important functions in cells by reducing intracellular Zn2+ levels by transporting the ion out of the cytoplasm. We characterized a Toxoplasma gondii gene (TgGT1_251630, TgZnT), which is annotated as the only ZnT family Zn2+ transporter in T. gondii TgZnT localizes to novel vesicles that fuse with the plant-like vacuole (PLV), an endosome-like organelle. Mutant parasites lacking TgZnT exhibit reduced viability in in vitro assays. This phenotype was exacerbated by increasing zinc concentrations in the extracellular media and was rescued by media with reduced zinc. Heterologous expression of TgZnT in a Zn2+-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain partially restored growth in media with higher Zn2+ concentrations. These results suggest that TgZnT transports Zn2+ into the PLV and plays an important role in the Zn2+ tolerance of T. gondii extracellular tachyzoites.IMPORTANCE Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular pathogen of human and animals. T. gondii pathogenesis is associated with its lytic cycle, which involves invasion, replication, egress out of the host cell, and invasion of a new one. T. gondii must be able to tolerate abrupt changes in the composition of the surrounding milieu as it progresses through its lytic cycle. We report the characterization of a Zn2+ transporter of T. gondii (TgZnT) that is important for parasite growth. TgZnT restored Zn2+ tolerance in yeast mutants that were unable to grow in media with high concentrations of Zn2+ We propose that TgZnT plays a role in Zn2+ homeostasis during the T. gondii lytic cycle.
Project description:Zinkicide is a systemic bactericidal formulation containing protein-size fluorescent zinc oxide-based nanoparticles (nano-ZnO). Previous studies have shown that Zinkicide is effective in controlling citrus diseases. Its field performance as an antimicrobial agent has been linked to the bioavailability of zinc ions (Zn2+) at the target site. It is therefore important to monitor Zn2+ release from Zinkicide so that application rates and frequency can be estimated. In this study, we present a simplistic approach designed to monitor Zinkicide nanoparticle dissolution rates in water and acidic buffer solutions using traditional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The evolution of nano-ZnO in the polyacrylamide gel scaffolds was studied by exciting the sample with UV light and detecting the fluorescence of nano-ZnO. Fluorescence intensities measured with this assay allowed for quantitative analysis of molecular weight changes of nano-ZnO in citrate buffer, a surrogate of citrus juice. Our results demonstrated that citrate buffer induced the greatest degradation of Zinkicide. Fluorescence intensity fluctuations were observed over time, indicating interactions of citrate with the surface of nano-ZnO. These findings provide a new approach to quantify the dissolution of nanoparticles in simulated environments, even when other analytical methods lack sensitivity because of the small size of the system (?4 nm).
Project description:Cell morphology of filamentous microorganisms is highly interesting during cultivations as it is often linked to productivity and can be influenced by process conditions. Hence, the characterization of cell morphology is of major importance to improve the understanding of industrial processes with filamentous microorganisms. For this purpose, reliable and robust methods are necessary. In this study, pellet morphology and physiology of the rebeccamycin producing filamentous actinomycete Lentzea aerocolonigenes were investigated by microscopy and flow cytometry. Both methods were compared regarding their applicability. To achieve different morphologies, a cultivation with glass bead addition (Ø = 969 ?m, 100 g L-1) was compared to an unsupplemented cultivation. This led to two different macro-morphologies. Furthermore, glass bead addition increased rebeccamycin titers after 10 days of cultivation (95 mg L-1 with glass beads, 38 mg L-1 without glass beads). Macro-morphology and viability were investigated through microscopy and flow cytometry. For viability assessment fluorescent staining was used additionally. Smaller, more regular pellets were found for glass bead addition. Pellet diameters resulting from microscopy followed by image analysis were 172 ?m without and 106 ?m with glass beads, diameters from flow cytometry were 170 and 100 ?m, respectively. These results show excellent agreement of both methods, each considering several thousand pellets. Furthermore, the pellet viability obtained from both methods suggested an enhanced metabolic activity in glass bead treated pellets during the exponential production phase. However, total viability values differ for flow cytometry (0.32 without and 0.41 with glass beads) and confocal laser scanning microscopy of single stained pellet slices (life ratio in production phase of 0.10 without and 0.22 with glass beads), which is probably caused by the different numbers of investigated pellets. In confocal laser scanning microscopy only one pellet per sample could be investigated while flow cytometry considered at least 50 pellets per sample, resulting in an increased statistical reliability.
Project description:Hypromellose is a hydrophilic polymer widely used in immediate- and modified-release oral pharmaceutical dosage forms. However, currently available grades of hypromellose are difficult, if not impossible, to process by hot melt extrusion (HME) because of their high glass transition temperature, high melt viscosity, and low degradation temperature. To overcome these challenges, a modified grade of hypromellose, AFFINISOL™ HPMC HME, was recently introduced. It has a significantly lower glass transition temperature and melt viscosity as compared to other available grades of hypromellose. The objective of this paper is to assess the extrudability and performance of AFFINISOL™ HPMC HME (100LV and 4M) as compared to other widely used polymers in HME, including HPMC 2910 100cP (the currently available hypromellose), Soluplus®, Kollidon® VA 64, and EUDRAGIT® E PO. Formulations containing polymer and carbamazepine (CBZ) were extruded on a co-rotating 16-mm twin-screw extruder, and the effect of temperature, screw speed, and feed rate was investigated. The performance of the solid dispersions was evaluated based on Flory-Huggins modeling and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and dissolution. All formulations extruded well except for HPMC 2910 100cP, which resulted in over-torqueing the extruder (machine overloading because the motor cannot provide efficient energy to rotate the shaft). Among the HME extrudates, only the EUDRAGIT® E PO formulation was crystalline as confirmed by DSC, XRD, and Raman, which agreed with predictions from Flory-Huggins modeling. Dissolution testing was conducted under both sink and non-sink conditions. Sink dissolution testing in neutral media revealed that amorphous CBZ in the HME extrudates completely dissolved within 15 min, which was much more rapid than the time for complete dissolution of bulk CBZ (60 min) and EUDRAGIT® E PO solid dispersion (more than 6 h). Non-sink dissolution in acidic media testing revealed that only CBZ contained in the AFFINISOL™ HPMC HME, and EUDRAGIT® E PO solid dispersions rapidly supersaturated after 15 min, reaching a twofold drug concentration compared to the CBZ equilibrium solubility. In summary, AFFINISOL™ HPMC HME 100LV and AFFINISOL™ HPMC HME 4M are useful in the pharmaceutical HME process to increase wetting and dissolution properties of poorly water-soluble drugs like CBZ.
Project description:Zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) are one of the most highly produced nanomaterials and are used in numerous applications including cosmetics and sunscreens despite reports demonstrating their cytotoxicity. Dissolution is viewed as one of the main sources of nanoparticle (NP) toxicity; however, dissolution studies can be time-intensive to perform and complicated by issues such as particle separation from solution. Our work attempts to overcome some of these challenges by utilizing new methods using UV/vis and fluorescence spectroscopy to quantitatively assess nZnO dissolution in various biologically relevant solutions. All biological buffers tested induce rapid dissolution of nZnO. These buffers, including HEPES, MOPS, and PIPES, are commonly used in cell culture media, cellular imaging solutions, and to maintain physiological pH. Additional studies using X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ICP-MS, and TEM were performed to understand how the inclusion of these nonessential media components impacts the behavior of nZnO in RPMI media. From these assessments, we demonstrate that HEPES causes increased dissolution kinetics, boosts the conversion of nZnO into zinc phosphate/carbonate, and, interestingly, alters the structural morphology of the complex precipitates formed with nZnO in cell culture conditions. Cell viability experiments demonstrated that the inclusion of these buffers significantly decrease the viability of Jurkat leukemic cells when challenged with nZnO. This work demonstrates that biologically relevant buffering systems dramatically impact the dynamics of nZnO including dissolution kinetics, morphology, complex precipitate formation, and toxicity profiles.
Project description:Vesicular zinc transporters (ZnTs) play a critical role in regulating Zn2+ homeostasis in various cellular compartments and are linked to major diseases ranging from Alzheimer disease to diabetes. Despite their importance, the intracellular localization of ZnTs poses a major challenge for establishing the mechanisms by which they function and the identity of their ion binding sites. Here, we combine fluorescence-based functional analysis and structural modeling aimed at elucidating these functional aspects. Expression of ZnT5 was followed by both accelerated removal of Zn2+ from the cytoplasm and its increased vesicular sequestration. Further, activity of this zinc transport was coupled to alkalinization of the trans-Golgi network. Finally, structural modeling of ZnT5, based on the x-ray structure of the bacterial metal transporter YiiP, identified four residues that can potentially form the zinc binding site on ZnT5. Consistent with this model, replacement of these residues, Asp599 and His451, with alanine was sufficient to block Zn2+ transport. These findings indicate, for the first time, that Zn2+ transport mediated by a mammalian ZnT is catalyzed by H+/Zn2+ exchange and identify the zinc binding site of ZnT proteins essential for zinc transport.
Project description:Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on the surface of polyetheresulfone (PES) electrospun fibers confer antimicrobial properties to the obtained hybrid inorganic-polymeric PES/ZnO mats. In particular, a decrement of bacteria colony forming units (CFU) is observed for both negative (Escherichia coli) and positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) Grams. Since antimicrobial action is strictly related to the quantity of ZnO present on surface, a CBD process optimization is performed to achieve the best results in terms of coverage uniformity and reproducibility. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provide morphological and compositional analysis of PES/ZnO mats while thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is useful to assess the best process conditions to guarantee the higher amount of ZnO with respect to PES scaffold. Biocidal action is associated to Zn2+ ion leaching in solution, easily indicated by UV-Vis measurement of metallation of free porphyrin layers deposited on glass.
Project description:This study aimed to develop a novel sustained release pellet of loxoprofen sodium (LXP) by coating a dissolution-rate controlling sub-layer containing hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and citric acid, and a second diffusion-rate controlling layer containing aqueous dispersion of ethyl cellulose (ADEC) on the surface of a LXP conventional pellet, and to compare its performance in vivo with an immediate release tablet (Loxinon®). A three-level, three-factor Box-Behnken design and the response surface model (RSM) were used to investigate and optimize the effects of the citric acid content in the sub-layer, the sub-layer coating level, and the outer ADEC coating level on the in vitro release profiles of LXP sustained release pellets. The pharmacokinetic studies of the optimal sustained release pellets were performed in fasted beagle dogs using an immediate release tablet as a reference. The results illustrated that both the citric acid (CA) and ADEC as the dissolution- and diffusion-rate controlling materials significantly decreased the drug release rate. The optimal formulation showed a pH-independent drug release in media at pH above 4.5 and a slightly slow release in acid medium. The pharmacokinetic studies revealed that a more stable and prolonged plasma drug concentration profile of the optimal pellets was achieved, with a relative bioavaibility of 87.16% compared with the conventional tablets. This article provided a novel concept of two-step control of the release rate of LXP, which showed a sustained release both in vitro and in vivo.