Comparison of Ca2+ puffs evoked by extracellular agonists and photoreleased IP3.
ABSTRACT: The inositol trisphosphate (IP3) signaling pathway evokes local Ca2+ signals (Ca2+ puffs) that arise from the concerted openings of clustered IP3 receptor/channels in the ER membrane. Physiological activation is triggered by binding of agonists to G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on the cell surface, leading to cleavage of phosphatidyl inositol bisphosphate and release of IP3 into the cytosol. Photorelease of IP3 from a caged precursor provides a convenient and widely employed means to study the final stage of IP3-mediated Ca2+ liberation, bypassing upstream signaling events to enable more precise control of the timing and relative concentration of cytosolic IP3. Here, we address whether Ca2+ puffs evoked by photoreleased IP3 fully replicate those arising from physiological agonist stimulation. We imaged puffs in individual SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells that were sequentially stimulated by picospritzing extracellular agonist (carbachol, CCH or bradykinin, BK) followed by photorelease of a poorly-metabolized IP3 analog, i-IP3. The centroid localizations of fluorescence signals during puffs evoked in the same cells by agonists and photorelease substantially overlapped (within ?1?m), suggesting that IP3 from both sources accesses the same, or closely co-localized clusters of IP3Rs. Moreover, the time course and spatial spread of puffs evoked by agonists and photorelease matched closely. Because photolysis generates IP3 uniformly throughout the cytoplasm, our results imply that IP3 generated in SH-SY5Y cells by activation of receptors to CCH and BK also exerts broadly distributed actions, rather than specifically activating a subpopulation of IP3Rs that are scaffolded in close proximity to cell surface receptors to form a signaling nanodomain.
Project description:Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) evokes Ca2+ release through IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) to generate both local Ca2+ puffs arising from concerted openings of clustered IP3Rs and cell-wide Ca2+ waves. Imaging Ca2+ puffs with single-channel resolution yields information on the localization and properties of native IP3Rs in intact cells, but interpretation has been complicated because cells express varying proportions of three structurally and functionally distinct isoforms of IP3Rs. Here, we used TIRF and light-sheet microscopy to image Ca2+ puffs in HEK-293 cell lines generated by CRISPR-Cas9 technology to express exclusively IP3R type 1, 2, or 3. Photorelease of the IP3 analog i-IP3 in all three cell lines evoked puffs with largely similar mean amplitudes, temporal characteristics, and spatial extents. Moreover, the single-channel Ca2+ flux was similar among isoforms, indicating that clusters of different IP3R isoforms contain comparable numbers of active channels. Our results show that all three IP3R isoforms cluster to generate local Ca2+ puffs and, contrary to findings of divergent properties from in vitro electrophysiological studies, display similar conductances and gating kinetics in intact cells.
Project description:The building blocks of intracellular Ca2+ signals evoked by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are Ca2+ puffs, transient focal increases in Ca2+ concentration that reflect the opening of small clusters of IP3Rs. We use total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and automated analyses to detect Ca2+ puffs evoked by photolysis of caged IP3 or activation of endogenous muscarinic receptors with carbachol in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Ca2+ puffs evoked by carbachol initiated at an estimated 65±7 sites/cell, and the sites remained immobile for many minutes. Photolysis of caged IP3 evoked Ca2+ puffs at a similar number of sites (100±35). Increasing the carbachol concentration increased the frequency of Ca2+ puffs without unmasking additional Ca2+ release sites. By measuring responses to sequential stimulation with carbachol or photolysed caged IP3, we established that the two stimuli evoked Ca2+ puffs at the same sites. We conclude that IP3-evoked Ca2+ puffs initiate at numerous immobile sites and the sites become more likely to fire as the IP3 concentration increases; there is no evidence that endogenous signalling pathways selectively deliver IP3 to specific sites.
Project description:We describe the construction of a simplified, inexpensive lattice light-sheet microscope, and illustrate its use for imaging subcellular Ca2+ puffs evoked by photoreleased i-IP3 in cultured SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells loaded with the Ca2+ probe Cal520. The microscope provides sub-micron spatial resolution and enables recording of local Ca2+ transients in single-slice mode with a signal-to-noise ratio and temporal resolution (2ms) at least as good as confocal or total internal reflection microscopy. Signals arising from openings of individual IP3R channels are clearly resolved, as are stepwise changes in fluorescence reflecting openings and closings of individual channels during puffs. Moreover, by stepping the specimen through the light-sheet, the entire volume of a cell can be scanned within a few hundred ms. The ability to directly visualize a sideways (axial) section through cells directly reveals that IP3-evoked Ca2+ puffs originate at sites in very close (?a few hundred nm) to the plasma membrane, suggesting they play a specific role in signaling to the membrane.
Project description:The 'building-block' model of inositol trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated Ca2+ liberation posits that cell-wide cytosolic Ca2+ signals arise through coordinated activation of localized Ca2+ puffs generated by stationary clusters of IP3 receptors (IP3Rs). Here, we revise this hypothesis, applying fluctuation analysis to resolve Ca2+ signals otherwise obscured during large Ca2+ elevations. We find the rising phase of global Ca2+ signals is punctuated by a flurry of puffs, which terminate before the peak by a mechanism involving partial ER Ca2+ depletion. The continuing rise in Ca2+, and persistence of global signals even when puffs are absent, reveal a second mode of spatiotemporally diffuse Ca2+ signaling. Puffs make only small, transient contributions to global Ca2+ signals, which are sustained by diffuse release of Ca2+ through a functionally distinct process. These two modes of IP3-mediated Ca2+ liberation have important implications for downstream signaling, imparting spatial and kinetic specificity to Ca2+-dependent effector functions and Ca2+ transport.
Project description:The range of action of intracellular messengers is determined by their rates of diffusion and degradation. Previous measurements in oocyte cytoplasmic extracts indicated that the Ca2+-liberating second messenger inositol trisphosphate (IP3) diffuses with a coefficient (~280 ?m2 s-1) similar to that in water, corresponding to a range of action of ~25 ?m. Consequently, IP3 is generally considered a "global" cellular messenger. We reexamined this issue by measuring local IP3-evoked Ca2+ puffs to monitor IP3 diffusing from spot photorelease in neuroblastoma cells. Fitting these data by numerical simulations yielded a diffusion coefficient (?10 ?m2 s-1) about 30-fold slower than that previously reported. We propose that diffusion of IP3 in mammalian cells is hindered by binding to immobile, functionally inactive receptors that were diluted in oocyte extracts. The predicted range of action of IP3 (<5 ?m) is thus smaller than the size of typical mammalian cells, indicating that IP3 should better be considered as a local rather than a global cellular messenger.
Project description:Tightly clustered inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) control localized Ca2+ liberation from the endoplasmic reticulum to generate repetitive Ca2+ puffs. Distributions of the interpuff interval (IPI), i.e., the waiting time between successive puffs, are found to be well characterized by a probability density function involving only two parameters, ? and ?, which represent the basal rate of puff generation and the recovery rate from refractoriness, respectively. However, how the two parameters depend on the kinetic parameters of single IP3Rs in a cluster is still unclear. In this article, using a stochastic puff model and a single-channel data-based IP3R model, we establish the dependencies of ? and ? on two important IP3R model parameters, IP3 concentration ([IP3]) and the recovery rate from Ca2+ inhibition (rlow). By varying [IP3] and rlow in physiologically plausible ranges, we find that the ?-? plane is comprised of only two disjoint regions, a biologically impermissible region and a region where each parameter set (?, ?) can be caused by using two different combinations of [IP3] and rlow. The two combinations utilize very different mechanisms to maintain the same IPI distribution, and the mechanistic difference provides a way of identifying IP3R kinetic parameters by observing properties of the IPI.
Project description:A variety of agonists stimulate in hepatocytes a response that takes the shape of repetitive cytosolic free Ca2+ transients called Ca2+ oscillations. The shape of spikes and the pattern of oscillations in a given cell differ depending on the agonist of the phosphoinositide pathway that is applied. In this study, the response of individual rat hepatocytes to maximal stimulation by arginine vasopressin (AVP), phenylephrine and ADP was investigated by fluorescence microscopy and flash photolysis. Hepatocytes loaded with Ca2+-sensitive probes were stimulated with a first agonist to evoke a maximal response, and then a second agonist was added. When phenylephrine or ADP was used as the first agonist, AVP applied subsequently could elicit an additional response, which did not happen when AVP was first applied and phenylephrine or ADP was applied later. Cells microinjected with caged myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) were challenged with the different agonists and, when a maximal response was obtained, photorelease of IP3 was triggered. Cells maximally stimulated with AVP did not respond to IP3 photorelease, whereas those stimulated with phenylephrine or ADP responded with a fast Ca2+ spike above the elevated steady-state level, which was followed by an undershoot. In contrast, with all three agonists, IP3 photorelease triggered at the top of an oscillatory Ca2+ transient was able to mobilize additional Ca2+. These experiments indicate that the differential response of cells to agonists is found not only during Ca2+ oscillations but also during maximal agonist stimulation and that potency and efficacy differences exist among agonists.
Project description:Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3Rs) allow extracellular stimuli to redistribute Ca2+ from the ER to cytosol or other organelles. We show, using small interfering RNA (siRNA) and vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) inhibitors, that lysosomes sequester Ca2+ released by all IP3R subtypes, but not Ca2+ entering cells through store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). A low-affinity Ca2+ sensor targeted to lysosomal membranes reports large, local increases in cytosolic [Ca2+] during IP3-evoked Ca2+ release, but not during SOCE. Most lysosomes associate with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and dwell at regions populated by IP3R clusters, but IP3Rs do not assemble ER-lysosome contacts. Increasing lysosomal pH does not immediately prevent Ca2+ uptake, but it causes lysosomes to slowly redistribute and enlarge, reduces their association with IP3Rs, and disrupts Ca2+ exchange with ER. In a "piston-like" fashion, ER concentrates cytosolic Ca2+ and delivers it, through large-conductance IP3Rs, to a low-affinity lysosomal uptake system. The involvement of IP3Rs allows extracellular stimuli to regulate Ca2+ exchange between the ER and lysosomes.
Project description:IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) release Ca2+ from the ER when they bind IP3 and Ca2+. The spatial organization of IP3Rs determines both the propagation of Ca2+ signals between IP3Rs and the selective regulation of cellular responses. Here we use gene editing to fluorescently tag endogenous IP3Rs, and super-resolution microscopy to determine the geography of IP3Rs and Ca2+ signals within living cells. We show that native IP3Rs cluster within ER membranes. Most IP3R clusters are mobile, moved by diffusion and microtubule motors. Ca2+ signals are generated by a small population of immobile IP3Rs. These IP3Rs are licensed to respond, but they do not readily mix with mobile IP3Rs. The licensed IP3Rs reside alongside ER-plasma membrane junctions where STIM1, which regulates store-operated Ca2+ entry, accumulates after depletion of Ca2+ stores. IP3Rs tethered close to ER-plasma membrane junctions are licensed to respond and optimally placed to be activated by endogenous IP3 and to regulate Ca2+ entry.
Project description:Chagas cardiomyopathy is the most severe manifestation of human Chagas disease and represents the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America. We previously demonstrated diastolic Ca2+ alterations in cardiomyocytes isolated from Chagas' patients to different degrees of cardiac dysfunction. In addition, we have found a significant elevation of diastolic [Na+]d in Chagas' cardiomyocytes (FCII>FCI) that was greater than control. Exposure of cardiomyocytes to agents that enhance inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP3) generation or concentration like endothelin (ET-1) or bradykinin (BK), or membrane-permeant myoinositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate hexakis(butyryloxy-methyl) esters (IP3BM) caused an elevation in diastolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]d) that was always greater in cardiomyocytes from Chagas' than non- Chagas' subjects, and the magnitude of the [Ca2+]d elevation in Chagas' cardiomyocytes was related to the degree of cardiac dysfunction. Incubation with xestospongin-C (Xest-C), a membrane-permeable selective blocker of the IP3 receptors (IP3Rs), significantly reduced [Ca2+]d in Chagas' cardiomyocytes but did not have a significant effect on non-Chagas' cells. The effects of ET-1, BK, and IP3BM on [Ca2+]d were not modified by the removal of extracellular [Ca2+]e. Furthermore, cardiomyocytes from Chagas' patients had a significant decrease in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+content compared to control (Control>FCI>FCII), a higher intracellular IP3 concentration ([IP3]i) and markedly depressed contractile properties compared to control cardiomyocytes. These results provide additional and convincing support about the implications of IP3 in the pathogenesis of Chagas cardiomyopathy in patients at different stages of chronic infection. Additionally, these findings open the door for novel therapeutic strategies oriented to improve cardiac function and quality of life of individuals suffering from chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CC).