Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 3D Printed Tablets for Intragastric Floating Delivery of Domperidone.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing to prepare intragastric floating sustained release (FSR) tablets. Domperidone (DOM), an insoluble weak base, was chosen as a model drug to investigate the potential of FSR in increasing its oral bioavailability and reducing its administration frequency. DOM was successfully loaded into hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) filaments using hot melt extrusion (HME). The filaments were then printed into hollow structured tablets through changing the shell numbers and the infill percentages. Physical characterization results indicated that the majority of DOM gradually turned into the amorphous form during the fabrication process. The optimized formulation (contain 10% DOM, with 2 shells and 0% infill) exhibited the sustained release characteristic and was able to float for about 10?h in vitro. Radiographic images showed that the BaSO4-labeled tablets were retained in the stomach of rabbits for more than 8?h. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic studies showed the relative bioavailability of the FSR tablets compared with reference commercial tablets was 222.49?±?62.85%. All the results showed that FDM based 3D printing might be a promising way to fabricate hollow tablets for the purpose of intragastric floating drug delivery.
Project description:This research demonstrates the use of fill density as an effective tool for controlling the drug release without changing the formulation composition. The merger of hot-melt extrusion (HME) with fused deposition modeling (FDM)-based 3-dimensional (3-D) printing processes over the last decade has directed pharmaceutical research towards the possibility of printing personalized medication. One key aspect of printing patient-specific dosage forms is controlling the release dynamics based on the patient's needs. The purpose of this research was to understand the impact of fill density and interrelate it with the release of a poorly water-soluble, weakly acidic, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) from a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMC-AS) matrix, both mathematically and experimentally. Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) of ibuprofen with three grades of AquaSolveTM HPMC-AS (HG, MG, and LG) were developed using an HME process and evaluated using solid-state characterization techniques. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), and polarized light microscopy (PLM) confirmed the amorphous state of the drug in both polymeric filaments and 3D printed tablets. The suitability of the manufactured filaments for FDM processes was investigated using texture analysis (TA) which showed robust mechanical properties of the developed filament compositions. Using FDM, tablets with different fill densities (20-80%) and identical dimensions were printed for each polymer. In vitro pH shift dissolution studies revealed that the fill density has a significant impact (F(11, 24) = 15,271.147, p < 0.0001) and a strong negative correlation (r > -0.99; p < 0.0001) with the release performance, where 20% infill demonstrated the fastest and most complete release, whereas 80% infill depicted a more controlled release. The results obtained from this research can be used to develop a robust formulation strategy to control the drug release from 3D printed dosage forms as a function of fill density.
Project description:The aim of the present work was to produce 3D-printed oral dosage forms with a sufficient drug dose displaying various release profiles. Hot-melt extrusion was utilized to produce drug-loaded feedstock material that was subsequently 3D-printed into 6, 8, and 10?×?2.5 mm tablets with 15% and 90% infill levels. The prepared formulations contained 30% (w/w) isoniazid in combination with one or multiple pharmaceutical polymers possessing suitable properties for oral drug delivery. Thirteen formulations were successfully hot-melt extruded of which eight had properties suitable for fused deposition modeling 3D printing. Formulations containing HPC were found to be superior regarding printability in this study. Filaments with a breaking distance below 1.5 mm were observed to be too brittle to be fed into the printer. In addition, filaments with high moisture uptake at high relative humidity generally failed to be printable. Different release profiles for the 3D-printed tablets were obtained as a result of using different polymers in the printed formulations. For 8 mm tablets printed with 90% infill, 80% isoniazid release was observed between 40 and 852 min. Drug release characteristics could further be altered by changing the infill or the size of the printed tablets allowing personalization of the tablets. This study presents novel formulations containing isoniazid for prevention of latent tuberculosis and investigates 3D printing technology for personalized production of oral solid dosage forms enabling adjustable dose and drug release properties.
Project description:The simplicity of object shape and composition modification make additive manufacturing a great option for customized dosage form production. To achieve this goal, the correlation between structural and functional attributes of the printed objects needs to be analyzed. So far, it has not been deeply investigated in 3D printing-related papers. The aim of our study was to modify the functionalities of printed tablets containing liquid crystal-forming drug itraconazole by introducing polyvinylpyrrolidone-based polymers into the filament-forming matrices composed predominantly of poly(vinyl alcohol). The effect of the molecular reorganization of the drug and improved tablets' disintegration was analyzed in terms of itraconazole dissolution. Micro-computed tomography was applied to analyze how the design of a printed object (in this case, a degree of an infill) affects its reproducibility during printing. It was also used to analyze the structure of the printed dosage forms. The results indicated that the improved disintegration obtained due to the use of Kollidon®CL-M was more beneficial for the dissolution of itraconazole than the molecular rearrangement and liquid crystal phase transitions. The lower infill density favored faster dissolution of the drug from printed tablets. However, it negatively affected the reproducibility of the 3D printed object.
Project description:Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the fastest-growing additive manufacturing methods used in printing fibre-reinforced composites (FRC). The performances of the resulting printed parts are limited compared to those by other manufacturing methods due to their inherent defects. Hence, the effort to develop treatment methods to overcome these drawbacks has accelerated during the past few years. The main focus of this study is to review the impact of those defects on the mechanical performance of FRC and therefore to discuss the available treatment methods to eliminate or minimize them in order to enhance the functional properties of the printed parts. As FRC is a combination of polymer matrix material and continuous or short reinforcing fibres, this review will thoroughly discuss both thermoplastic polymers and FRCs printed via FDM technology, including the effect of printing parameters such as layer thickness, infill pattern, raster angle and fibre orientation. The most common defects on printed parts, in particular, the void formation, surface roughness and poor bonding between fibre and matrix, are explored. An inclusive discussion on the effectiveness of chemical, laser, heat and ultrasound treatments to minimize these drawbacks is provided by this review.
Project description:Multiple-unit-type oral floating hollow microspheres of 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) were developed using modified solvent evaporation technique to prolong gastric residence time, to target stomach cancer, and to increase drug bioavailability. The prepared microspheres were characterized for micromeritic properties, floating behavior, entrapment efficiency, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The in vitro drug release and floating behavior were studied in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) at pH 1.2. The yield of microspheres was obtained up to 84.46 ± 6.47%. Microspheres showed passable flow properties. Based on optical microscopy, particle size was found to be ranging from 158.65 ± 12.02 to 198.67 ± 17.45 μm. SEM confirmed spherical size, perforated smooth surface, and a hollow cavity inside the microspheres. Different kinetic models for drug release were also applied on selected batches.
Project description:Among the 3D-printing technologies, fused deposition modeling (FDM) represents a promising route to enable direct incorporation of the battery within the final 3D object. Here, the preparation and characterization of lithium iron phosphate/polylactic acid (LFP/PLA) and SiO2/PLA 3D-printable filaments, specifically conceived respectively as positive electrode and separator in a lithium-ion battery is reported. By means of plasticizer addition, the active material loading within the positive electrode is raised as high as possible (up to 52 wt.%) while still providing enough flexibility to the filament to be printed. A thorough analysis is performed to determine the thermal, electrical and electrochemical effect of carbon black as conductive additive in the positive electrode and the electrolyte uptake impact of ceramic additives in the separator. Considering both optimized filaments composition and using our previously reported graphite/PLA filament for the negative electrode, assembled and "printed in one-shot" complete LFP/Graphite battery cells are 3D-printed and characterized. Taking advantage of the new design capabilities conferred by 3D-printing, separator patterns and infill density are discussed with a view to enhance the liquid electrolyte impregnation and avoid short-circuits.
Project description:Currently available anti-ulcer drugs suffer from serious side effects which limited their uses and prompted the need to search for a safe and efficient new anti-ulcer agent. Boswellia gum resin (BR) emerged as a safe, efficient, natural, and economic potential cytoprotective agent. Thus, it is of medical importance to develop gastroretentive (GR) formulations of BR to enhance its bioavailability and anti-ulcer efficacy. Early attempts involved the use of organic solvents and non-applicability to large-scale production. In this study, different tablet formulations were prepared by simple direct compression combining floating and bioadhesion mechanisms employing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC), pectin (PC), and/or carbopol (CP) as bioadhesive polymers and sodium bicarbonate (SB) as a gas former. The prepared tablets were subjected for assessment of swelling, floating, bioadhesion, and drug release in 0.1 N HCl. The optimized GR formulation was examined for its protective effect on the gastric ulcer induced by indomethacin in albino rabbits compared with lactose tablets. The obtained results disclosed that swelling, floating, bioadhesion, and drug release of the GR tablets of BR depend mainly on the nature of the matrix and the ratio of polymer combinations. Moreover, a combination of SCMC-CP in a ratio of 2:1 (SCP21) exhibited desirable floating, bioadhesion, swelling, and extended drug release. Also, a 6-h pretreatment with SCP21 tablets decreased the severity of inflammation and number of bleeding spots among ulcer-induced rabbits in comparison to those treated with lactose tablets.
Project description:Background:There is a potential for direct model manufacturing of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) using 3D printing technique for generating flexible semi-transparent prototypes. A patient-specific AAA model was manufactured using fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing technology. A flexible, semi-transparent thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), called Cheetah Water (produced by Ninjatek, USA), was used as the flexible, transparent material for model manufacture with a hydrophilic support structure 3D printed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Printing parameters were investigated to evaluate their effect on 3D-printing precision and transparency of the final model. ISO standard tear resistance tests were carried out on Ninjatek Cheetah specimens for a comparison of tear strength with silicone rubbers. Results:It was found that an increase in printing speed decreased printing accuracy, whilst using an infill percentage of 100% and printing nozzle temperature of 255 °C produced the most transparent results. The model had fair transparency, allowing external inspection of model inserts such as stent grafts, and good flexibility with an overall discrepancy between CAD and physical model average wall thicknesses of 0.05 mm (2.5% thicker than the CAD model). The tear resistance test found Ninjatek Cheetah TPU to have an average tear resistance of 83 kN/m, higher than any of the silicone rubbers used in previous AAA model manufacture. The model had lower cost (4.50 GBP per model), shorter manufacturing time (25 h 3 min) and an acceptable level of accuracy (2.61% error) compared to other methods. Conclusions:It was concluded that the model would be of use in endovascular aneurysm repair planning and education, particularly for practicing placement of hooked or barbed stents, due to the model's balance of flexibility, transparency, robustness and cost-effectiveness.
Project description:Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a revolutionary manufacturing technique that can fabricate a 3D object by depositing materials layer by layer. Different materials such as metals, polymers, and concretes are generally used for 3D printing. In order to make 3D printing sustainable, researchers are working on the use of different bioderived materials for 3D printing. Because of the abundant and sustainable sources, and versatile properties, biomaterials are considered as the potential candidates that have the ability to replace petroleum-based polymers. This review highlights the basic overview of fused deposition modeling (FDM) technique of 3D printing and recent developments that have occurred on FDM printing using biomaterials. Specifically, FDM printing process, final properties, and characteristics of biopolymers, their composites, and polymers containing biofillers are discussed.
Project description:Fused deposition modeling (FDM) three-dimensional (3D) printing is being increasingly explored as a direct manufacturing method to product pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. Despite its many advantages as a pharmaceutical formulation tool, it remains restricted to proof-of-concept formulations. The optimization of the printing process in order to achieve adequate precision and printing quality remains to be investigated. Demonstrating a thorough understanding of the process parameters of FDM and their impact on the quality of printed dosage forms is undoubtedly necessary should FDM advance from a proof-of-concept stage to an adapted pharmaceutical manufacturing tool. This article describes the findings of an investigation into a number of critical process parameters of FDM and their impact on quantifiable, pharmaceutically-relevant measures of quality. Polycaprolactone, one of the few polymers which is both suitable for FDM and is a GRAS (generally regarded as safe) material, was used to print internally-exposed grids, allowing examination of both their macroscopic and microstructural reproducibility of FDM. Of the measured quality parameters, dimensional authenticity of the grids was found to poorly match the target dimensions. Weights of the grids were found to significantly vary upon altering printing speed. Printing temperature showed little effect on weight. Weight uniformity per batch was found to lie within acceptable pharmaceutical quality limits. Furthermore, we report observing a microstructural distortion relating to printing temperature which we dub The First Layer Effect (FLE). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to study factor interactions and revealed, among others, the existence of an interaction between weight/dosing accuracy and dimensional authenticity dictating a compromise between the two quality parameters. The Summed Standard Deviation (SSD) is proposed as a method to extract the optimum printing parameters given all the perceived quality parameters and the necessary compromises among them.