Direct measurement of optical trapping force gradient on polystyrene microspheres using a carbon nanotube mechanical resonator.
ABSTRACT: Optical tweezers based on optical radiation pressure are widely used to manipulate nanoscale to microscale particles. This study demonstrates direct measurement of the optical force gradient distribution acting on a polystyrene (PS) microsphere using a carbon nanotube (CNT) mechanical resonator, where a PS microsphere with 3??m diameter is welded at the CNT tip using laser heating. With the CNT mechanical resonator with PS microsphere, we measured the distribution of optical force gradient with resolution near the thermal noise limit of 0.02?pN/?m in vacuum, in which condition enables us to high accuracy measurement using the CNT mechanical resonator because of reduced mechanical damping from surrounding fluid. The obtained force gradient and the force gradient distribution agree well with theoretical values calculated using Lorenz-Mie theory.
Project description:<h4>Highlights</h4>The cationic waterborne polyurethanes microspheres with Diels-Alder bonds were synthesized for the first time. The electrostatic attraction not only endows the composite with segregated structure to gain high electromagnetic-interference shielding effectiveness, but also greatly enhances mechanical properties. Efficient healing property was realized under heating environment. It is still challenging for conductive polymer composite-based electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials to achieve long-term stability while maintaining high EMI shielding effectiveness (EMI SE), especially undergoing external mechanical stimuli, such as scratches or large deformations. Herein, an electrostatic assembly strategy is adopted to design a healable and segregated carbon nanotube (CNT)/graphene oxide (GO)/polyurethane (PU) composite with excellent and reliable EMI SE, even bearing complex mechanical condition. The negatively charged CNT/GO hybrid is facilely adsorbed on the surface of positively charged PU microsphere to motivate formation of segregated conductive networks in CNT/GO/PU composite, establishing a high EMI SE of 52.7 dB at only 10 wt% CNT/GO loading. The Diels-Alder bonds in PU microsphere endow the CNT/GO/PU composite suffering three cutting/healing cycles with EMI SE retention up to 90%. Additionally, the electrostatic attraction between CNT/GO hybrid and PU microsphere helps to strong interfacial bonding in the composite, resulting in high tensile strength of 43.1 MPa and elongation at break of 626%. The healing efficiency of elongation at break achieves 95% when the composite endured three cutting/healing cycles. This work demonstrates a novel strategy for developing segregated EMI shielding composite with healable features and excellent mechanical performance and shows great potential in the durable and high precision electrical instruments.
Project description:Fractals are ubiquitous in nature, and prominent examples include snowflakes and neurons. Although it has long been known that intricate optical fractal patterns can be realized with components such as gratings and reflecting spheres, generating fractal transverse modes from a laser has proven to be elusive. By introducing a 2D network of microspheres into a Fabry-Pérot cavity bounding a gain medium, we demonstrate a hybrid optical resonator in which the spheres enable the simultaneous generation of arrays of conventional (Gaussian) and fractal laser modes. Within the interstices of the microsphere crystal, several distinct fractal modes are observed, two of which resemble the Sierpinski Triangle. Coupling between adjacent fractal modes is evident, and fractal modes may be synthesized through design of the microsphere network. Owing to a unique synergy between the gain medium and the resonator, this optical platform is able to emit hundreds of microlaser beams and probe live motile cells.
Project description:In the present study, we have investigated the effect of post-welding heat treatment (PWHT) of quenching and tempering (QT) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of welded boron steel joints processed using laser-arc hybrid welding on two commercial filler materials, SM80 (Type-I) and ZH120 (Type-II). The microstructure and mechanical properties of the weld joints were characterized via optical microscopy, Vickers microhardness, and the uniaxial tensile test. The macrostructure of the weld joint was composed of a fusion zone (FZ), heat-affected zone (HAZ), and base metal zone (BMZ). After the QT-PWHT, the QT specimens revealed the V-shape hardness distribution across the weld joint, while the as-welded specimen exhibited the M-shape hardness distribution. As a result, the QT specimens revealed the premature fracture with little reduction in the area at the interface between the HAZ and FZ, while the as-welded specimen exhibited the local necking and rupture in the BMZ. In addition, the Type-II filler material with a greater value of equivalent carbon content was rarely influenced by the tempering, maintaining its hardness in the as-quenched status, while the Type-I filler material showed a gradual decrease in hardness with the tempering time. The results demonstrate that the Type-II weld joint outperformed the Type-I weld joint in terms of the structural integrity of welded parts.
Project description:Carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene-based sponges and aerogels have an isotropic porous structure and their mechanical strength and stability are relatively lower. Here, we present a junction-welding approach to fabricate porous CNT solids in which all CNTs are coated and welded in situ by an amorphous carbon layer, forming an integral three-dimensional scaffold with fixed joints. The resulting CNT solids are robust, yet still highly porous and compressible, with compressive strengths up to 72?MPa, flexural strengths up to 33?MPa, and fatigue resistance (recovery after 100,000 large-strain compression cycles at high frequency). Significant enhancement of mechanical properties is attributed to the welding-induced interconnection and reinforcement of structural units, and synergistic effects stemming from the core-shell microstructures consisting of a flexible CNT framework and a rigid amorphous carbon shell. Our results provide a simple and effective method to manufacture high-strength porous materials by nanoscale welding.
Project description:This study intends to show the potential application of a non-recyclable plastic waste towards the development of electrically conductive nanocomposites. Herein, the conductive nanofiller and binding matrix are carbon nanotubes (CNT) and polystyrene (PS), respectively, and the waste material is a plastic foam consisting of mainly vulcanized nitrile butadiene rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Two nanocomposite systems, i.e., PS/Waste/CNT and PS/CNT, with different compositions were melt-blended in a mixer and characterized for electrical properties. Higher electrical conduction and improved electromagnetic interference shielding performance in PS/Waste/CNT system indicated better conductive network of CNTs. For instance, at 1.0 wt.% CNT loading, the PS/Waste/CNT nanocomposites with the plastic waste content of 30 and 50 wt.% conducted electricity 3 and 4 orders of magnitude higher than the PS/CNT nanocomposite, respectively. More importantly, incorporation of the plastic waste (50 wt.%) reduced the electrical percolation threshold by 30% in comparison with the PS/CNT nanocomposite. The enhanced network of CNTs in PS/Waste/CNT samples was attributed to double percolation morphology, evidenced by optical images and rheological tests, caused by the excluded volume effect of the plastic waste. Indeed, due to its high content of vulcanized rubber, the plastic waste did not melt during the blending process. As a result, CNTs concentrated in the PS phase, forming a denser interconnected network in PS/Waste/CNT samples.
Project description:Measurements in magnetic tweezers rely upon precise determination of the position of a magnetic microsphere. Fluctuations in the position due to Brownian motion allows calculation of the applied force, enabling deduction of the force-extension response function for a single DNA molecule that is attached to the microsphere. The standard approach relies upon using the mean of position fluctuations, which is valid when the microsphere axial position fluctuations obey a normal distribution. However, here we demonstrate that nearby surfaces and the non-linear elasticity of DNA can skew the distribution. Through experiment and simulations, we show that such a skewing leads to inaccurate position measurements which significantly affect the extracted DNA extension and mechanical properties, leading to up to two-fold errors in measured DNA persistence length. We develop a simple, robust and easily implemented method to correct for such mismeasurements.
Project description:Networks based on carbon nanotube (CNT) have been widely utilized to fabricate flexible electronic devices, but defects inevitably exist in these structures. In this study, we investigate the influence of the CNT-unit defects on the mechanical properties of a honeycomb CNT-based network, super carbon nanotube (SCNT), through molecular dynamics simulations. Results show that tensile strengths of the defective SCNTs are affected by the defect number, distribution continuity and orientation. Single-defect brings 0 ~ 25% reduction of the tensile strength with the dependency on defect position and the reduction is over 50% when the defect number increases to three. The distribution continuity induces up to 20% differences of tensile strengths for SCNTs with the same defect number. A smaller arranging angle of defects to the tensile direction leads to a higher tensile strength. Defective SCNTs possess various modes of stress concentration with different concentration degrees under the combined effect of defect number, arranging direction and continuity, for which the underlying mechanism can be explained by the effective crack length of the fracture mechanics. Fundamentally, the force transmission mode of the SCNT controls the influence of defects and the cases that breaking more force transmission paths cause larger decreases of tensile strengths. Defects are non-negligible factors of the mechanical properties of CNT-based networks and understanding the influence of defects on CNT-based networks is valuable to achieve the proper design of CNT-based electronic devices with better performances.
Project description:Near-field optical techniques exploit light-matter interactions at small length scales for mechanical sensing and actuation of nanomechanical structures. Here, we study the optical interaction between two mechanical oscillators--a plasmonic nanofocusing probe-tip supported by a low frequency cantilever, and a high frequency nanomechanical resonator--and leverage their interaction for local detection of mechanical vibrations. The plasmonic nanofocusing probe provides a confined optical source to enhance the interaction between the two oscillators. Dynamic perturbation of the optical cavity between the probe-tip and the resonator leads to nonlinear modulation of the scattered light intensity at the sum and difference of their frequencies. This double-frequency demodulation scheme is explored to suppress unwanted background and to detect mechanical vibrations with a minimum detectable displacement sensitivity of 0.45 pm/Hz(1/2), which is limited by shot noise and electrical noise. We explore the demodulation scheme for imaging the bending vibration mode shape of the resonator with a lateral spatial resolution of 20 nm. We also demonstrate the time-resolved aspect of the local optical interaction by recording the ring-down vibrations of the resonator at frequencies of up to 129 MHz. The near-field optical technique is promising for studying dynamic mechanical processes in individual nanostructures.
Project description:Tunability is a desirable property of microring resonators to facilitate superior performance. Using light to control light, we present an alternative simple approach to tuning the extinction ratio (ER) and Q-factor of silicon microring resonators based on optical forces. We design an opto-mechanical tunable silicon microring resonator consisting of an add-drop microring resonator and a control-light-carrying waveguide ("controlling" waveguide). One of the two bus waveguides of the microring resonator is a deformable nanostring put in parallel with the "controlling" waveguide. The tuning mechanism relies on the optical force induced deflection of suspended nanostring, leading to the change of coupling coefficient of microring and resultant tuning of ER and Q-factor. Two possible geometries, i.e. double-clamped nanostring and cantilever nanostring, are studied in detail for comparison. The obtained results imply a favorable structure with the microring positioned at the end of the cantilever nanostring. It features a wide tuning range of ER from 5.6 to 39.9 dB and Q-factor from 309 to 639 as changing the control power from 0 to 1.4 mW.
Project description:This study followed the approach of dispersing and localizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in nanostructured domains of block copolymers (BCPs) by shortening the CNTs via ball milling. The aim was to selectively tune the electrical and mechanical properties of the resulting nanocomposites, e.g., for use as sensor materials. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were ground into different size fractions. The MWCNT length distribution was evaluated via transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The nanostructure of the BCPs and the glass transition temperatures of the PB-rich and PS phases were not strongly affected by the addition of CNTs up to 2 wt%. However, AFM and TEM investigations indicated a partial localization of the shortened CNTs in the soft PB-rich phase or at the interface of the PB-rich and PS phase, respectively. The stress-strain behavior of the solution-mixed composites differed little from the mechanical property profile of the neat BCP and was largely independent of CNT amount and CNT size fraction. Significant changes could only be observed for Young's modulus and strain at break and may be attributed to CNT localization and small changes in morphology. For nanocomposites with unmilled CNTs, the electrical percolation threshold was less than 0.1 wt%. As the CNTs were shortened, the resistivity increased and the percolation threshold shifted to higher CNT contents. Composites with CNTs ground for 7.5 h and 13.5 h showed no bulk conductivity but significantly decreased surface resistivity on the bottom side of the films, which could be attributed to a sedimentation process of the grind and thereby highly compressed CNT agglomerates during evaporation.