?-3 free fatty acids and all-trans retinoic acid synergistically induce growth inhibition of three subtypes of breast cancer cell lines.
ABSTRACT: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), one of vitamin A derivatives, shows greater growth inhibition of breast cancer cell for ER-positive than ER-negative cells, while triple negative breast cancer cell such as MDA-MB-231 cell is poorly responsive to ATRA treatment. In this study, we found that combination of ?-3 free fatty acids (?-3 FFAs) and ATRA exhibited synergistic inhibition of cell growth in three subtypes (ER+ MCF7, HER2+ SK-BR-3, Triple negative HCC1806 and MDA-MB-231 cells) of human breast cancer cell lines. The combined treatment of ?-3 FFAs and ATRA resulted in cell cycle arrest. ?-3 FFAs combined with ATRA synergistically provoked cell apoptosis via the caspase signals but not p53. These findings suggest that combined chemotherapy of ?-3 FFAs with ATRA is beneficial for improvement of ATRA sensitivity in breast cancer cells.
Project description:Estrogen receptor ? (ER?) is expressed in the majority of invasive breast cancer cases, irrespective of their subtype, including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Thus, ER? might be a potential target for therapy of this challenging cancer type. In this in vitro study, we examined the role of ER? in invasion of two triple-negative breast cancer cell lines.MDA-MB-231 and HS578T breast cancer cells were treated with the specific ER? agonists ERB-041, WAY200070, Liquiritigenin and 3?-Adiol. Knockdown of ER? expression was performed by means of siRNA transfection. Effects on cellular invasion were assessed in vitro by means of a modified Boyden chamber assay. Transcriptome analyses were performed using Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST microarrays. Pathway and gene network analyses were performed by means of Genomatix and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software.Invasiveness of MBA-MB-231 and HS578T breast cancer cells decreased after treatment with ER? agonists ERB-041 and WAY200070. Agonists Liquiritigenin and 3?-Adiol only reduced invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. Knockdown of ER? expression increased invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cells about 3-fold. Transcriptome and pathway analyses revealed that ER? knockdown led to activation of TGF? signalling and induced expression of a network of genes with functions in extracellular matrix, tumor cell invasion and vitamin D3 metabolism.Our data suggest that ER? suppresses invasiveness of triple-negative breast cancer cells in vitro. Whether ER? agonists might be useful drugs in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer, has to be evaluated in further animal and clinical studies.
Project description:Forty-two cell lines recapitulating mammary carcinoma heterogeneity were profiled for all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) sensitivity. Luminal and ER(+) (estrogen-receptor-positive) cell lines are generally sensitive to ATRA, while refractoriness/low sensitivity is associated with a Basal phenotype and HER2 positivity. Indeed, only 2 Basal cell lines (MDA-MB157 and HCC-1599) are highly sensitive to the retinoid. Sensitivity of HCC-1599 cells is confirmed in xenotransplanted mice. Short-term tissue-slice cultures of surgical samples validate the cell-line results and support the concept that a high proportion of Luminal/ER(+) carcinomas are ATRA sensitive, while triple-negative (Basal) and HER2-positive tumors tend to be retinoid resistant. Pathway-oriented analysis of the constitutive gene-expression profiles in the cell lines identifies RAR? as the member of the retinoid pathway directly associated with a Luminal phenotype, estrogen positivity and ATRA sensitivity. RAR?3 is the major transcript in ATRA-sensitive cells and tumors. Studies in selected cell lines with agonists/antagonists confirm that RAR? is the principal mediator of ATRA responsiveness. RAR? over-expression sensitizes retinoid-resistant MDA-MB453 cells to ATRA anti-proliferative action. Conversely, silencing of RAR? in retinoid-sensitive SKBR3 cells abrogates ATRA responsiveness. All this is paralleled by similar effects on ATRA-dependent inhibition of cell motility, indicating that RAR? may mediate also ATRA anti-metastatic effects. We define gene sets of predictive potential which are associated with ATRA sensitivity in breast cancer cell lines and validate them in short-term tissue cultures of Luminal/ER(+) and triple-negative tumors. In these last models, we determine the perturbations in the transcriptomic profiles afforded by ATRA. The study provides fundamental information for the development of retinoid-based therapeutic strategies aimed at the stratified treatment of breast cancer subtypes.
Project description:Obesity is a known risk factor for breast cancer. Since obesity rates are constantly rising worldwide, understanding the molecular details of the interaction between adipose tissue and breast tumors becomes an urgent task. To investigate potential molecular changes in breast cancer cells induced by co-existing adipocytes, we used a co-culture system of different breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and T47D: ER+/PR+/HER2- and MDA-MB-231: ER-/PR-/HER2-) and murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Here, we report that co-culture with adipocytes revealed distinct changes in global gene expression pattern in the different breast cancer cell lines. Our microarray data revealed that in both ER+ cell lines, top upregulated genes showed significant enrichment for hormone receptor target genes. In triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells, co-culture with adipocytes led to the induction of pro-inflammatory genes, mainly involving genes of the Nf-?B signaling pathway. Moreover, co-cultured MDA-MB-231 cells showed increased secretion of the pro-inflammatory interleukins IL-6 and IL-8. Using a specific NF-?B inhibitor, these effects were significantly decreased. Finally, migratory capacities were significantly increased in triple-negative breast cancer cells upon co-culture with adipocytes, indicating an enhanced aggressive cell phenotype. Together, our studies illustrate that factors secreted by adipocytes have a significant impact on the molecular biology of breast cancer cells.
Project description:The androgen receptor (AR) is the most highly expressed steroid receptor in breast cancer with 75-95% of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and 40-70% of ER-negative breast cancers expressing AR. Though historically breast cancers were treated with steroidal androgens, their use fell from favor because of their virilizing side effects and the emergence of tamoxifen. Nonsteroidal, tissue selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) may provide a novel targeted approach to exploit the therapeutic benefits of androgen therapy in breast cancer.Since MDA-MB-453 triple-negative breast cancer cells express mutated AR, PTEN, and p53, MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells stably expressing wildtype AR (MDA-MB-231-AR) were used to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative effects of SARMs. Microarray analysis and epithelial:mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) co-culture signaling studies were performed to understand the mechanisms of action.Dihydrotestosterone and SARMs, but not bicalutamide, inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231-AR. The SARMs reduced the MDA-MB-231-AR tumor growth and tumor weight by greater than 90%, compared to vehicle-treated tumors. SARM treatment inhibited the intratumoral expression of genes and pathways that promote breast cancer development through its actions on the AR. SARM treatment also inhibited the metastasis-promoting paracrine factors, IL6 and MMP13, and subsequent migration and invasion of epithelial:MSC co-cultures.1. AR stimulation inhibits paracrine factors that are important for MSC interactions and breast cancer invasion and metastasis. 2. SARMs may provide promise as novel targeted therapies to treat AR-positive triple-negative breast cancer.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 15% of overall breast cancer. A lack of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 receptor) makes TNBC more aggressive and metastatic. Wnt signaling is one of the important pathways in the cellular process; in TNBC it is aberrantly regulated, which leads to the progression and metastasis. In this study, we designed a therapeutic strategy using a combination of a low dose of paclitaxel and a Wnt signaling inhibitor (XAV939), and examined the effect of the paclitaxel-combined XAV939 treatment on diverse breast cancer lines including TNBC cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and BT549) and ER+ve cell lines (MCF-7 and T-47D). The combination treatment of paclitaxel (20 nM) and XAV939 (10 µM) exerted a comparable therapeutic effect on MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, BT549, MCF-7, and T-47D cell lines, relative to paclitaxel with a high dose (200 nM). The paclitaxel-combined XAV939 treatment induced apoptosis by suppressing Bcl-2 and by increasing the cleavage of caspases-3 and PARP. In addition, the in vivo results of the paclitaxel-combined XAV939 treatment in a mice model with the MDA-MB-231 xenograft further confirmed its therapeutic effect. Furthermore, the paclitaxel-combined XAV939 treatment reduced the expression of ?-catenin, a key molecule in the Wnt pathway, which led to suppression of the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and angiogenic proteins both at mRNA and protein levels. The expression level of E-cadherin was raised, which potentially indicates the inhibition of EMT. Importantly, the breast tumor induced by pristane was significantly reduced by the paclitaxel-combined XAV939 treatment. Overall, the paclitaxel-combined XAV939 regimen was found to induce apoptosis and to inhibit Wnt signaling, resulting in the suppression of EMT and angiogenesis. For the first time, we report that our combination approach using a low dose of paclitaxel and XAV939 could be conducive to treating TNBC and an external carcinogen-induced breast cancer.
Project description:Retinoids, derivatives of vitamin A, are key physiological molecules with regulatory effects on cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. As a result, they are of interest for cancer therapy. Specifically, models of breast cancer have varied responses to manipulations of retinoid signaling. This study characterizes the transcriptional response of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells to retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1A3 (ALDH1A3) and all-trans retinoic acid (atRA). We demonstrate limited overlap between ALDH1A3-induced gene expression and atRA-induced gene expression in both cell lines, suggesting that the function of ALDH1A3 in breast cancer progression extends beyond its role as a retinaldehyde dehydrogenase. Our data reveals divergent transcriptional responses to atRA, which are largely independent of genomic retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) and consistent with the opposing responses of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 to in vivo atRA treatment. We identify transcription factors associated with each gene set. Manipulation of the IRF1 transcription factor demonstrates that it is the level of atRA-inducible and epigenetically regulated transcription factors that determine expression of target genes (e.g. CTSS, cathepsin S). This study provides a paradigm for complex responses of breast cancer models to atRA treatment, and illustrates the need to characterize RARE-independent responses to atRA in a variety of models.
Project description:<i>Annona muricata</i> L., known as graviola, is an evergreen plant of the tropical regions and is a rich source of natural products. Graviola has various biological activities, and it is best known for its anticancer activity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of crude graviola extract <i>in vitro</i> on breast cancer cells; in particular, we aimed to identify an agent against triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We used the TNBC MDA-MB-231 cell line as the experimental model and the ER(+) non-TNBC MCF-7 breast cancer cell line as the control. We identified annonaceous acetogenins, including annonacin isomers, characteristic to this plant by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). We observed a significant decrease in the cell viability in both cell lines within 48 h, whereas impaired cell motility and invasiveness were observed only in the MDA-MB-231 cell line. While the MCF-7 cells showed an ER-dependent mechanism of apoptosis, the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells was governed by an intrinsic apoptotic pathway triggered by graviola leaf extract (GLE).
Project description:Combination Index (CI) analysis suggested that MBIC and doxorubicin synergistically inhibited up to 97% of cell proliferation in ER+/PR+MCF-7 and triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, treatment of the breast cancer cells with the combined drugs resulted in lower IC50 values in contrast to the individual drug treatment. Small noncoding microRNAs (miRNA) may function as non-mutational gene regulators at post-transcriptional level of protein synthesis. In the present study, the effect of the combined treatment of MBIC and doxorubicin on the expression level of several miRNAs including miR-34a, miR-146a, miR-320a and miR-542 were evaluated in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. These miRNAs have the potential to alter the protein level of survivin, the anti-apoptotic protein and reduce the metastatic activity in human breast cancer cell lines by interfering with the nuclear accumulation of NF-?B. Our results demonstrated the several fold changes in expression of miRNAs, which is drug and cell line dependent. This finding demonstrated a functional synergistic network between miR-34a, miR-320a and miR-542 that are negatively involved in post-transcriptional regulation of survivin in MCF-7 cells. While in MDA-MB-231 cells, changes in expression level of miR-146a was correlated with inhibition of the nuclear translocation of NF-?B. The overall result suggested that alteration in protein level and location of survivin and NF-?B by miR-34a, miR-320a, miR-146a and miR-542, remarkably influenced the synergistic enhancement of combined MBIC and doxorubicin in treatment of aggressive and less aggressive human breast cancer cell lines.
Project description:All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is an effective agent that induces differentiation, inhibits cell proliferation, and acts as an anticancer agent. ATRA was successfully conjugated with Pluronic F127 via esterification to enhance its anticancer effects. Pluronic-ATRA showed high cytotoxicity and inhibitory concentrations (IC50) 50% lower than those of ATRA in various breast cancer cell lines (4T1:31.16-8.57 ?g/mL; EMT6: 50.48-7.08 ?g/mL; MDA-MB-231:37.58-8.99 ?g/mL; BT474:25.27-9.09 ?g/mL). In combination with chemotherapy, Pluronic-ATRA synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin (CDDP). Pluronic-ATRA combined with CDDP effectively suppressed breast tumor growth in vivo. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of Pluronic-ATRA as an anticancer agent that can be used in combination therapy against solid tumors.