Serum N-glycome characterization and anti-carbohydrate antibody profiling in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.
ABSTRACT: Glycosylation is a protein post translational modification which plays important role in protein function, stabilization, trafficking, and turnover. Alteration of protein glycosylation is a common phenomenon during tumor progression, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, as well as metastasis. Hence, aberrant glycan structures and the induced corresponding anti-carbohydrate antibodies are potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. In this study, serum N-glycomes and anti-carbohydrate antibodies from normal populations and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients were investigated. Total serum proteins were lyophilized and subjected to chemical reduction, alkylation and trypsin digestion. The N-glycans were released, purified, permethylated, and analyzed using MALDI-TOF-Mass spectrometry. In addition, the serum anti-carbohydrate antibody profiles were also investigated by carbohydrate microarray. We found that the relative abundances of seven N-glycans were decreased or increased in serum of OSCC with diagnostic accuracy greater than 75%. The relative abundances of total tri-antennary and tetra-antennary glycans with varying degrees of fucosylation and sialylation were also increased in serum N-glycomes of OSCC. In an independent validation group of forty-eight OCCC patients, most of the high-molecular weight serum N-glycans showed significantly high sensitivity and specificity according to the identified cutoff values. Furthermore, the serum levels of two IgM antibodies were elevated accompanied with the decreased levels of nine IgG antibodies in patient serum. Taken together, these serum N-glycans and antibodies identified in this study should be considered as the candidates of potential biomarkers for OSCC diagnosis.
Project description:We investigated the correlation between metastatic behaviors of tumor cells and asparagine-linked glycosylation (N-glycosylation) of tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Three mouse melanoma B16 variants with distinct metastatic potentials show similar gene expression levels and enzymatic activities of glycosyltransferases involved in N-glycosylation. All melanoma variants and EVs have nearly identical profiles of de-sialylated N-glycans. The major de-sialylated N-glycan structures of cells and EVs are core-fucosylated, tetra-antennary N-glycans with ?1,6-N-acetylglucosamine branches. A few N-glycans are extended by N-acetyllactosamine repeats. Sialylation of these N-glycans may generate cell-type-specific N-glycomes on EVs. Taken together, melanoma-derived EVs show high expression of tumor-associated N-glycans, and the core structure profile is inherited during multiple selection cycles of B16 melanomas and from tumor cells to EVs.
Project description:We previously developed a biobetter version of rhIFN-? (R27T) that possesses an additional glycosylation site compared with rhIFN-? 1a. Herein, we characterized N-glycosylation heterogeneity of R27T, which includes both N-glycan site occupancy heterogeneity (macro-heterogeneity) and complexity of carbohydrate moieties (micro-heterogeneity). N-glycan site occupancy manifested as distinct differences in size and isoelectric point. The analysis of complex carbohydrate moieties of R27T involved the common biopharmaceutical glycosylation critical quality attributes such as core fucosylation, antennary composition, sialylation, N-acetyllactosamine extensions, linkages, and overall glycan profiles using weak anion-exchange and hydrophilic interaction high-performance liquid chromatography with 2-aminobenzoic acid-labeled N-glycans. The double-glycosylated form accounted for approx. 94% R27T, while the single-glycosylated form accounted for 6% R27T. N-glycans consisted of a mixture of bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary glycans, some with N-acetyllactosamine extensions, but neither outer arm fucose nor ?-galactose was detected. Sialic acid major variants, N-acetyl- and N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid, were more abundant in R27T than in Rebif. The major N-glycan, accounting for ?42% of total N-glycans, had a di-sialylated, core-fucosylated bi-antennary structure.
Project description:The glycosylation of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) obtained from the Bowes melanoma cell line was re-examined using methods of serial lectin affinity chromatography coupled with Bio-Gel P-4 gel filtration chromatography and exoglycosidase sequencing. This study clarified an earlier discrepancy in the literature and confirmed that the major complex N-linked glycans on Bowes t-PA that carry sialic acid as their sole charged group are bi-antennary, core fucosylated, with terminal N-acetylgalactosamine residues. We also report the characterization of a series of related and previously unidentified sialylated glycans. Further we show that Bowes t-PA expresses glucuronic acid/sulphate containing N-linked glycans and is recognized by anti-carbohydrate L2/HNK-1 monoclonal antibodies. The presence on Bowes t-PA of glycans associated primarily with the nervous system is consistent with its expression in a cell line of neuroectodermal origin.
Project description:Recent exploitation of the avian immune system has highlighted its suitability for the generation of high-quality, high-affinity antibodies to a wide range of antigens for a number of therapeutic and biotechnological applications. The glycosylation profile of potential immunoglobulin therapeutics is species specific and is heavily influenced by the cell-line/culture conditions used for production. Hence, knowledge of the carbohydrate moieties present on immunoglobulins is essential as certain glycan structures can adversely impact their physicochemical and biological properties. This study describes the detailed N-glycan profile of IgY polyclonal antibodies from the serum of leghorn chickens using a fully quantitative high-throughput N-glycan analysis approach, based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) separation of released glycans. Structural assignments revealed serum IgY to contain complex bi-, tri- and tetra-antennary glycans with or without core fucose and bisects, hybrid and high mannose glycans. High sialic acid content was also observed, with the presence of rare sialic acid structures, likely polysialic acids. It is concluded that IgY is heavily decorated with complex glycans; however, no known non-human or immunogenic glycans were identified. Thus, IgY is a potentially promising candidate for immunoglobulin-based therapies for the treatment of various infectious diseases.
Project description:Therapeutic antibodies are decorated with complex-type N-glycans that significantly affect their biodistribution and bioactivity. The N-glycan structures on antibodies are incompletely processed in wild-type CHO cells due to their limited glycosylation capacity. To improve N-glycan processing, glycosyltransferase genes have been traditionally overexpressed in CHO cells to engineer the cellular N-glycosylation pathway by using random integration, which is often associated with large clonal variations in gene expression levels. In order to minimize the clonal variations, we used recombinase-mediated-cassette-exchange (RMCE) technology to overexpress a panel of 42 human glycosyltransferase genes to screen their impact on antibody N-linked glycosylation. The bottlenecks in the N-glycosylation pathway were identified and then released by overexpressing single or multiple critical genes. Overexpressing B4GalT1 gene alone in the CHO cells produced antibodies with more than 80% galactosylated bi-antennary N-glycans. Combinatorial overexpression of B4GalT1 and ST6Gal1 produced antibodies containing more than 70% sialylated bi-antennary N-glycans. In addition, antibodies with various tri-antennary N-glycans were obtained for the first time by overexpressing MGAT5 alone or in combination with B4GalT1 and ST6Gal1. The various N-glycan structures and the method for producing them in this work provide opportunities to study the glycan structure-and-function and develop novel recombinant antibodies for addressing different therapeutic applications.
Project description:Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1) is the first enzyme of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. It transfers an amino group from glutamine to fructose-6-phosphate to yield glucosamine-6-phosphate, thus providing the precursor for uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) synthesis. UDP-GlcNAc is an essential substrate for all mammalian glycosylation biosynthetic pathways and N-glycan branching is especially sensitive to alterations in the concentration of this sugar nucleotide. It has been reported that GFPT1 mutations lead to a distinct sub-class of congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) termed "limb-girdle CMS with tubular aggregates". CMS are hereditary neuromuscular transmission disorders in which neuromuscular junctions are impaired. To investigate whether alterations in protein glycosylation at the neuromuscular junction might be involved in this impairment, we have employed mass spectrometric strategies to study the N-glycomes of myoblasts and myotubes derived from two healthy controls, three GFPT1 patients, and four patients with other muscular diseases, namely CMS caused by mutations in DOK7, myopathy caused by mutations in MTND5, limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), and Pompe disease. A comparison of the relative abundances of bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary N-glycans in each of the cell preparations revealed that all samples exhibited broadly similar levels of branching. Moreover, although some differences were observed in the relative abundances of some of the N-glycan constituents, these variations were modest and were not confined to the GFPT1 samples. Therefore, GFPT1 mutations in CMS patients do not appear to compromise global N-glycosylation in muscle cells.
Project description:A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based methodology has been developed to differentiate core- and antennary-fucosylated glycosylation of glycopeptides. Both the glycosylation sites (heterogeneity) and multiple possible glycan occupancy at each site (microheterogeneity) can be resolved via intact glycopeptide analysis. The serum glycoprotein alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) which contains both core- and antennary-fucosylated glycosites was used in this study. Sialidase was used to remove the sialic acids in order to simplify the glycosylation microheterogeneity and to enhance the MS signal of glycopeptides with similar glycan structures. ?1-3,4 galactosidase was used to differentiate core- and antennary-fucosylation. In-source dissociation was found to severely affect the identification and quantification of glycopeptides with low abundance glycan modification. The settings of the mass spectrometer were therefore optimized to minimize the in-source dissociation. A three-step mass spectrometry fragmentation strategy was used for glycopeptide identification, facilitated by pGlyco software annotation and manual checking. The collision energy used for initial glycopeptide fragmentation was found to be crucial for improved detection of oxonium ions and better selection of Y1 ion (peptide+GlcNAc). Structural assignments revealed that all three glycosylation sites of A1AT glycopeptides contain complex N-glycan structures: site Asn70 contains biantennary glycans without fucosylation; site Asn107 contains bi-, tri- and tetra-antennary glycans with both core- and antennary-fucosylation; site Asn271 contains bi- and tri-antennary glycans with both core- and antennary-fucosylation. The relative intensity of core- and antennary-fucosylation on Asn107 was similar to that of the A1AT protein indicating that the glycosylation level of Asn107 is much larger than the other two sites.
Project description:Glycodelin is a human glycoprotein with four reported glycoforms, namely glycodelin-A (GdA), glycodelin-F (GdF), glycodelin-C (GdC), and glycodelin-S (GdS). These glycoforms have the same protein core and appear to differ in their N-glycosylation. The glycosylation of GdA is completely different from that of GdS. GdA inhibits proliferation and induces cell death of T cells. However, the glycosylation and immunomodulating activities of GdF and GdC are not known. This study aimed to use ultra-high sensitivity mass spectrometry to compare the glycomes of GdA, GdC, and GdF and to study the relationship between the immunological activity and glycosylation pattern among glycodelin glycoforms. Using MALDI-TOF strategies, the glycoforms were shown to contain an enormous diversity of bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary complex-type glycans carrying Galbeta1-4GlcNAc (lacNAc) and/or GalNAcbeta1-4GlcNAc (lacdiNAc) antennae backbones with varying levels of fucose and sialic acid substitution. Interestingly, they all carried a family of Sda (NeuAcalpha2-3(GalNAcbeta1-4)Gal)-containing glycans, which were not identified in the earlier study because of less sensitive methodologies used. Among the three glycodelins, GdA is the most heavily sialylated. Virtually all the sialic acid on GdC is located on the Sda antennae. With the exception of the Sda epitope, the GdC N-glycome appears to be the asialylated counterpart of the GdA/GdF glycomes. Sialidase activity, which may be responsible for transforming GdA/GdF to GdC, was detected in cumulus cells. Both GdA and GdF inhibited the proliferation, induced cell death, and suppressed interleukin-2 secretion of Jurkat cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In contrast, no immunosuppressive effect was observed for GdS and GdC.
Project description:Glycans serve as important regulators of antibody activities and half-lives. IgE is the most heavily glycosylated antibody, but in comparison to other antibodies little is known about its glycan structure function relationships. We therefore describe the site specific IgE glycosylation from a patient with a novel hyper IgE syndrome linked to mutations in PGM3, which is an enzyme involved in synthesizing UDP-GlcNAc, a sugar donor widely required for glycosylation. A two-step method was developed to prepare two IgE samples from less than 1 mL of serum collected from a patient with PGM3 mutation and a patient with atopic dermatitis as a control subject. Then, a glycoproteomic strategy was used to study the site-specific glycosylation. No glycosylation was found at Asn264, whilst high mannose glycans were only detected at Asn275, tri-antennary glycans were exclusively observed at Asn99 and Asn252, and non-fucosylated complex glycans were detected at Asn99. The results showed similar glycosylation profiles between the two IgE samples. These observations, together with previous knowledge of IgE glycosylation, imply that IgE glycosylation is similarly regulated among healthy control, allergy and PGM3 related hyper IgE syndrome.
Project description:One of the most common genetic backgrounds for mice used as a model to investigate human diseases is the inbred BALB/c strain. This work is aimed to characterize the pattern of natural anti-carbohydrate antibodies present in the serum of 20 BALB/c mice by printed glycan array technology and to compare their binding specificities with that of human natural anti-carbohydrate antibodies. Natural antibodies (NAbs) from the serum of BALB/c mice interacted with 71 glycans from a library of 419 different carbohydrate structures. However, only seven of these glycans were recognized by the serum of all the animals studied, and other five glycans by at least 80% of mice. The pattern of the 12 glycans mostly recognized by the circulating antibodies of BALB/c mice differed significantly from that observed with natural anti-carbohydrate antibodies in humans. This lack of identical repertoires of natural anti-carbohydrate antibodies between individual inbred mice, and between mice and humans, should be taken into consideration when mouse models are intended to be used for investigation of NAbs in biomedical research.