Coroglaucigenin enhances the radiosensitivity of human lung cancer cells through Nrf2/ROS pathway.
ABSTRACT: Seven cardenolides isolated from the ethanol extract of the stems of Calotropis gigantea were evaluated in vitro against human cancer cells and the structure-activity relationships were discussed. The results demonstrated that a compound, named CGN (coroglaucigenin), had better anti-proliferative activity with the IC50 value less than 6 ?M among these compounds. Further, we found that CGN displayed much lower cytotoxicity to normal lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) than cancer cells (A549). Especially, our results demonstrated that treatment with CGN (1 ?M) combined with X-ray irradiation induced higher radiosensitivity in human lung cancer cells (A549, NCI-H460, NCI-H446) but not in BEAS-2B. The expression levels of nuclear transcription factor Nrf2 and Nrf2-driven antioxidant molecule NQO-1 reduced in A549 cells after combined treatment compared to the radiation only. However, CGN had no toxicity and the levels of antioxidant molecules expression were higher in BEAS-2B cells when given the similar treatment as A549 cells. These results suggest that CGN is a very promising potential sensitizer for cancer radiotherapy, which not only inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells but also enhances the radiosensitivity of cancer cells through suppressing the expression of antioxidant molecules while there is no influence for normal cells.
Project description:Several clinically used drugs are mitotoxic causing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations, and thereby influence cancer treatment response. We hypothesized that radiation responsiveness will be enhanced in cellular models with decreased mtDNA content, attributed to altered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant capacity. For this purpose BEAS-2B, A549, and 143B cell lines were depleted from their mtDNA (?0). Overall survival after irradiation was increased (p<0.001) for BEAS-2B ?0 cells, while decreased for both tumor ?0 lines (p<0.05). In agreement, increased residual DNA damage was observed after mtDNA depletion for A549 and 143B cells. Intrinsic radiosensitivity (surviving fraction at 2Gy) was not influenced. We investigated whether ROS levels, oxidative stress and/or antioxidant responses were responsible for altered radiation responses. Baseline ROS formation was similar between BEAS-2B parental and ?0 cells, while reduced in A549 and 143B ?0 cells, compared to their parental counterparts. After irradiation, ROS levels significantly increased for all parental cell lines, while levels for ?0 cells remained unchanged. In order to investigate the presence of oxidative stress upon irradiation reduced glutathione: oxidized glutathione (GSH:GSSG) ratios were determined. Irradiation reduced GSH:GSSG ratios for BEAS-2B parental and 143B ?0, while for A549 this ratio remained equal. Additionally, changes in antioxidant responses were observed. Our results indicate that mtDNA depletion results in varying radiation responses potentially involving variations in cellular ROS and antioxidant defence mechanisms. We therefore suggest when mitotoxic drugs are combined with radiation, in particular at high dose per fraction, the effect of these drugs on mtDNA copy number should be explored.
Project description:Lycopene can be cleaved by carotene 9',10'-oxygenase at its 9',10' double bond to form apo-10'-lycopenoids, including apo-10'-lycopenal, -lycopenol and -lycopenoic acid. The latter has been recently shown to inhibit lung carcinogenesis both in vivo and in vitro, however, the mechanism(s) underlying this protection is not well defined. In the present study, we report that treatment with apo-10'-lycopenoic acid, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, results in the nuclear accumulation of transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor E(2)-related factor 2) protein in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. The activation of Nrf2 by apo-10'-lycopenoic acid is associated with the induction of phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, glutathione S-transferases, and glutamate-cysteine ligases in BEAS-2B cells. Furthermore, apo-10'-lycopenoic acid treatment increased total intracellular glutathione levels and suppressed both endogenous reactive oxygen species generation and H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage in BEAS-2B cells. In addition, both apo-10'-lycopenol and apo-10'-lycopenal induced heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in BEAS-2B cells. These data strongly suggest that the anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant functions of lycopene may be mediated by apo-10'-lycopenoids via activating Nrf2 and inducing phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are associated with the occurrence, development and prognoses of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, we investigated the functional mechanisms of the lncRNA XIST in two human NSCLC cell lines, A549 and NCI-H1299. In all the 5 NSCLC cell lines (NL9980, NCI-H1299, NCI-H460, SPC-A-1 and A549) tested, the expression levels of XIST were significantly elevated, as compared with those in normal human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. In A549 and NCI-H1299 cells, knockdown of XIST by siRNA significantly inhibited the cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and promoted cell apoptosis. Furthermore, XIST knockdown elevated the expression of E-cadherin, and suppressed the expression of Bcl-2. Moreover, knockdown of XIST significantly suppressed the tumor growth in NSCLC A549 xenograft mouse model. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assays revealed that XIST was negatively regulated by miR-449a. We further identified reciprocal repression between XIST and miR-449a, which eventually influenced the expression of Bcl-2: XIST functioned as a miRNA sponge of miR-449a, which was a negative regulator of Bcl-2. These data show that expression of the lncRNA XIST is associated with an increased growth rate and metastatic potential in NSCLC A549 and NCI-H1299 cells partially through miR-449a, and suggest that XIST may be a potential prognostic factor and therapeutic target for patients with NSCLC.
Project description:Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] causes malignant cell transformation. Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3) regulates mitochondrial adaptive response to stress, such as metabolic reprogramming and antioxidant defense mechanisms. In Cr(VI)-transformed cells, SIRT3 was upregulated and mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and proton leak were reduced. Knockdown of SIRT3 by its shRNA further decreased mitochondrial ATP production, proton leak, mitochondrial mass, and mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that SIRT3 positively regulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and maintenance of mitochondrial integrity. Mitophagy is critical to maintain proper cellular functions. In Cr(VI)-transformed cells expressions of Pink 1 and Parkin, two mitophagy proteins, were elevated, and mitophagy remained similar as that in passage-matched normal BEAS-2B cells, indicating that in -Cr(VI)-transformed cells mitophagy is suppressed. Knockdown of SIRT3 induced mitophagy, suggesting that SIRT3 plays an important role in mitophagy suppression of Cr(VI)-transformed cells. In Cr(VI)-transformed cells, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) was constitutively activated, and protein levels of p62 and p-p62Ser349 were elevated. Knockdown of SIRT3 or treatment with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) decreased the binding of p-p62Ser349 to Keap1, resulting in increased binding of Keap1 to Nrf2 and consequently reduced Nrf2 activation. The results from CHIP assay showed that in Cr(VI)-transformed cells binding of Nrf2 to antioxidant response element (ARE) of SIRT3 gene promoter was dramatically increased. Knockdown of SIRT3 suppressed cell proliferation and tumorigenesis of Cr(VI)-transformed cells. Overexpression of SIRT3 in normal BEAS-2B cells exhibited mitophagy suppression phenotype and increased cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. The present study demonstrated that upregulation of SIRT3 causes mitophagy suppression and plays an important role in cell survival and tumorigenesis of Cr(VI)-transformed cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 expression in lung carcinoma correlates with poor patient prognosis. The present study explored strategies to repress BMP signaling. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The cytotoxicity of BMP2-knockdown, dorsomorphin derivatives, and microRNAs was tested in transformed and non-transformed lung cells. Microarray analyses of 1,145 microRNAs in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells and two other transformed lung cell types relative to BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells were performed. RESULTS:Reduced BMP2 synthesis inhibited A549 cell growth. The dorsomorphin derivative LDN-193189, but not DMH1 or DMH4, was strongly cytotoxic towards A549 cells, but not towards BEAS-2B cells. Microarray analysis revealed that 106 miRNAs were down-regulated and 69 miRNAs were up-regulated in the three transformed lines. Three down-regulated miRNAs, hsa-mir-34b, hsa-mir-34c-3p, and hsa-miR-486-3p, repressed a BMP2 reporter gene and were cytotoxic in A549 cells, but not towards BEAS-2B cells. CONCLUSION:The observed cytotoxicity suggests that reducing BMP signaling is a useful line of attack for therapy of lung cancer.
Project description:Hyperactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway is observed in most human cancer including lung carcinomas. Here we have investigated the role of miRNAs as downstream targets of activated PI3K/AKT signaling in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). To this aim, miRNA profiling was performed in human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) expressing active AKT1 (BEAS-AKT1-E17K), active PI3KCA (BEAS-PIK3CA-E545K) or with silenced PTEN (BEAS-shPTEN).Twenty-four differentially expressed miRNAs common to BEAS-AKT1-E17K, BEAS-PIK3CA-E545K and BEAS-shPTEN cells were identified through this analysis, with miR-196a being the most consistently up-regulated miRNA. Interestingly, miR-196a was significantly overexpressed also in human NSCLC-derived cell lines (n=11) and primary lung cancer samples (n=28).By manipulating the expression of miR-196a in BEAS-2B and NCI-H460 cells, we obtained compelling evidence that this miRNA acts downstream the PI3K/AKT pathway, mediating some of the proliferative, pro-migratory and tumorigenic activity that this pathway exerts in lung epithelial cells, possibly through the regulation of FoxO1, CDKN1B (hereafter p27) and HOXA9.
Project description:Background:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in fibrosis, chronic inflammation, tumor metastasis, etc. Glycyrrhizin, an active component extracted from licorice plant, has been reported to treat a variety of inflammatory reactions through inhibiting high-mobility group box1 (HMGB1), which has been suggested to be a significant mediator in EMT process. However, whether glycyrrhizin affects the EMT process or not remains unclear. Methods:Human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and normal human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B were treated with extrinsic TGF-?1 to induce EMT. Elisa was used to detect HMGB1 concentrations in cell supernatant. RNA interference and lentivirus infection experiments were performed to investigate the involvement of HMGB1 in EMT process. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to detect the viability of A549 and BEAS-2B cells treated with glycyrrhizin. Finally, the effects of glycyrrhizin on EMT changes, as well as the underlying mechanisms, were evaluated via Western blot, immunofluorescence and transwell assays. Results:Our results showed that HMGB1 expression was increased by TGF-?1, and knockdown of HMGB1 expression reversed TGF-?1-induced EMT in A549 and BEAS-2B cells. Ectopic HMGB1 expression or TGF-?1 treatment caused a significant increase in HMGB1 release. Notably, we found that glycyrrhizin treatment effectively suppressed TGF-?1-induced EMT process by inhibiting HMGB1. Also, glycyrrhizin significantly inhibited the migration of both A549 and BEAS-2B cells promoted by TGF-?1. Mechanistically, HMGB1 overexpression could activate Smad2/3 signaling in A549 and BEAS-2B cells. Glycyrrhizin significantly blocked the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 stimulated either by TGF-?1 or by ectopic HMGB1 in A549 and BEAS-2B cells. Conclusions:HMGB1 is a vital mediator of EMT changes induced by TGF-?1 in lung epithelial cells. Importantly, glycyrrhizin can effectively block Smad2/3 signaling pathway through inhibiting HMGB1, thereby suppressing the EMT progress.
Project description:Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are known to generate reactive oxygen species in the respiratory system, triggering cells to activate antioxidant defence mechanisms, such as Keap1-Nrf2 signalling and autophagy. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the Keap1-Nrf2 signalling and autophagy pathways after DEP exposure. BEAS-2B cells were transfected with silencing RNA (siRNA) specific to Nrf2 and exposed to DEP. The relative levels of mRNA for Nrf2, NQO1, HO-1, LC3B, p62 and Atg5 were determined using RT-PCR, while the levels of LCB3, Nrf2, and p62 protein were determined using Western blotting. The autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin caused a significant decrease in the production of Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1 compared to DEPs treatment, whereas the Nrf2 activator sulforaphane increased the LC3B (p?=?0.020) levels. BEAS-2B cells exposed to DEP at a concentration of 50??g/mL for 2?h showed a significant increase in the expression of LC3B (p?=?0.001), p62 (p?=?0.008), Nrf2 (p?=?0.003), HO-1 (p?=?0.001) and NQO1 (p?=?0.015) genes compared to control. In siRNA-transfected cells, the LC3B (p?<?0.001), p62 (p?=?0.001) and Atg5 (p?=?0.024) mRNA levels and the p62 and LC3II protein levels were decreased, indicating that Nrf2 modulated the expression of autophagy markers (R?<?1). These results imply that, in bronchial cells exposed to DEP, the Nrf2 system positively regulates autophagy to maintain cellular homeostasis.
Project description:Heat-Not-Burn (HNB) products, generating vapor without combusting tobacco leaves, have been developed with the expectation that the number and quantity of chemicals in the vapor of these products would be reduced compared with the smoke from conventional combustible cigarettes. However, whether the lower chemical levels correlate with lower toxicity remains to be determined. Here we examined differences in the biological effects of conventional cigarette smoke (CS) and two HNB products, Ploom TECH and Ploom TECH+, using the cultured cancer cell line A549 and the normal bronchial epithelium cell line BEAS-2B. The conventional CS 3R4F extract (0.5%) markedly decreased cell proliferation of both A549 and BEAS-2B cells; however, 0.5% extracts of these commercially available HNB products did not affect cell growth. To determine the cause of decreased cell proliferation, a TUNEL assay was performed, and the results indicated that apoptosis had occurred in both A549 and BEAS-2B cells at 24 h after exposure to 3R4F. To further explore the effect of CS on epigenetics, we performed western blotting to detect histone H2A phosphorylation, which is known to affect transcriptional regulation. Only the 3R4F extract decreased histone H2A phosphorylation in both A549 and BEAS-2B cells. Next, we examined alterations in gene expression after treatment of A549 cells with Ploom TECH, Ploom TECH+, or 3R4F extracts. It was found that 339, 107, and 103 genes were upregulated more than 2 fold in A549 cells treated with 3R4F, Ploom TECH, or Ploom TECH + extracts, respectively. Among the 339 genes that were upregulated in response to 3R4F, we focused on <i>EGR1</i>, <i>FOS</i>, and <i>FOSB</i>, since they were upregulated more than 100 fold, which was confirmed using RT-qPCR. These results suggest that CS, but not HNB products, cause epigenetic disruption and cell apoptosis, possibly by elevating transcription of genes such as <i>EGR1</i>.
Project description:S-Carboxymethyl-L-cysteine (CMC) is an antioxidant and mucolytic commonly prescribed to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In humans, CMC is rapidly metabolized to S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (CMCO). In this study, we assessed structural and functional similarities between CMC and CMCO. X-Ray diffraction analysis provided detailed structural information about CMCO, which exists as a 1:1 mixture of epimers, due to the emergence of a new chiral center at the sulfur atom. Both CMC and CMCO epimers protected model DNA from copper-mediated hydroxyl free radical damage. Using an insulated transposable construct for reporting activity of the cellular stress-responsive transcription factors Nrf2, p53, NF-?B, and AP-1, we demonstrate that CMCO, especially its (4R)-epimer, is comparable to CMC in their ability to mitigate the effects of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory stimuli in human alveolar (A549) and bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. The results of these in vitro studies suggest that CMCO retains, at least partially, the antioxidant potential of CMC and may inform pharmacodynamics considerations of CMC use in clinics.