Specialty-Based Variations in Spinal Cord Stimulation Success Rates for Treatment of Chronic Pain.
ABSTRACT: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has emerged as an appropriate modality of treatment for intractable chronic pain. The present study examines variations in SCS trial-to-permanent conversion rates based on provider types performing the procedure.We designed a large, retrospective analysis using the Truven MarketScan data base analyzing adult SCS patients with provider information available, with or without IPG implantation from the years 2007-2012. Patients were categorized based on provider type performing the implantation including anesthesiologists, neurosurgeons, orthopedic surgeons, and physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R). Univariate and multivariate models identified factors associated with successful conversion.A total of 7667 unique instances of SCS implants were identified across five providers. Overall, 4842 (63.2%) of those receiving trials underwent permanent SCS system implantation. Anesthesiology performed the majority of implants (62.8%), followed by neurosurgery (22.0%), orthopedic surgery (10.2%), and PM&R (5.3%). Compared to anesthesiologists, both neurosurgeons (OR 10.99, 95% CI [9.11, 13.25]; p?
Project description:Conversion rates from trial leads to permanent spinal cord stimulation (SCS) systems have important implications for healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and pain management. We hypothesized that there is a volume-outcome effect, with chronic pain patients who visit high volume SCS implanters will have higher trial-to-permanent conversion rates.We designed a large, retrospective analysis using the Truven MarketScan database analyzing adult SCS patients with provider information available, with or without IPG implantation from the years 2007 to 2012 was designed. Patients were divided into three provider-based groups: high (>25), medium (9-24), and low (3-8) volume providers. Univariate and multivariate models identified factors associated with successful conversion.A total of 17,850 unique trial implants were performed by 3028 providers. Of 13,879 patients with baseline data available, 8981 (64.7%) progressed to permanent SCS. Higher volume providers were associated with slightly higher conversion rates (65.9% vs. 63.3% low volume, p?=?0.029), explant rates (9.2% vs. 7.7% medium volume, p?=?0.026), younger age (52.0?±?13.4 years vs. 53.0?±?13.4 years, p?=?0.0026), Medicare/Medicaid (47.8% vs. 35.0% low volume, p?<?0.0001), Southern region (53.5% vs. 38.9% low volume, p?<?0.0001), and higher Charlson comorbidity scores (1.0 [SD?=?1.4], p?=?0.0002). Multivariate regression results showed female gender (1.13 [95% CI: 1.05-1.22], p?<?0.001) and high volume providers associated with higher odds of successful trial conversion (1.12 [95% CI: 1.02-1.22], p?=?0.014).In this nationwide analysis, high volume providers achieved higher trial-to-permanent SCS conversion rates than lower volume providers. The study has implications for both training requirements and referral patterns to delineate minimum implant experience necessary for provider proficiency. Future studies may be useful to understand HCRU differences.
Project description:Introduction:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a significant burden of a global disease, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) such as India. Efforts to curb the impact of TBI require an appreciation of local factors related to this disease and its treatment. Methods:Semi-structured qualitative interviews were administered to paramedics, anesthesiologists, general surgeons, and neurosurgeons in locations throughout Mumbai from April to May 2018. A thematic analysis with an iterative coding was used to analyze the data. The primary objective was to identify provider-perceived themes related to TBI care in Mumbai. Results:A total of 50 participants were interviewed, including 17 paramedics, 15 anesthesiologists, 9 general surgeons, and 9 neurosurgeons who were involved in caring for TBI patients. The majority of physicians interviewed discussed their experiences in public sector hospitals (82%), while 12% discussed private sector hospitals and 6% discussed both. Four major themes emerged: Workforce, equipment, financing care, and the family and public role. These themes were often discussed in the context of their effects on increasing or decreasing complications and delays. Participants developed adaptations when managing shortcomings in these thematic areas. These adaptations included teamwork during workforce shortages and resource allocation when equipment was limited among others. Conclusions:Workforce, equipment, financing care, and the family and public role were identified as major themes in the care for TBI in Mumbai. These thematic elements provide a framework to evaluate and improve care along the care spectrum for TBI. Similar frameworks should be adapted to local contexts in urbanizing cities in LMICs.
Project description:Over the last decades, joint arthroplasty has become a successful treatment for joint disease. Nowadays, with a growing demand and increasingly younger and active patients accepting these approaches, orthopedic surgeons are seeking implants with improved mechanical behavior and longer life span. However, aseptic loosening as a result of wear debris from implants is considered to be the main cause of long-term implant failure. Previous studies have neatly illustrated the role of micrometric wear particles in the pathological mechanisms underlying aseptic loosening. Recent osteoimmunologic insights into aseptic loosening highlight the important and heretofore underrepresented contribution of nanometric orthopedic wear particles. The present review updates the characteristics of metallic and ceramic nanoparticles generated after prosthesis implantation and summarizes the current understanding of their hazardous effects on peri-prosthetic cells.
Project description:Background:Previous studies have reported what patients value while choosing their surgeon, but there are no studies exploring the patterns of referral to spine surgeons among primary care physicians (PCPs). This study aims to identify any trends in PCPs' referral to orthopedic surgery versus neurosurgery for spinal pathology. Methods:In total, 450 internal medicine, family medicine, emergency medicine, neurology, and pain management physicians who practice at one of three locations (suburban community hospital, urban academic university hospital, and urban private practice) were asked to participate in the study. Consenting physicians completed our 24-question survey addressing their beliefs according to pathologies, locations of pathologies, and surgical interventions. Results:Overall, 108 physicians (24%) completed our survey. Fifty-seven physicians (52.8%) felt that neurosurgeons would provide better long-term comprehensive spinal care. Overall, 66.7% of physicians would refer to neurosurgery for cervical spine radiculopathy; 52.8%, to neurosurgery for thoracic spine radiculopathy; and 56.5%, to orthopedics for lumbar spine radiculopathy. Most physicians would refer all spine fractures to orthopedics for treatment except cervical spine fractures (56.5% to neurosurgeons). Most physicians would refer to neurosurgery for extradural tumors (91.7%) and intradural tumors (96.3%). Most would refer to orthopedic surgeons for chronic pain. Finally, physicians would refer to orthopedics for spine fusion (61.1%) and discectomy (58.3%) and to neurosurgery for minimally invasive surgery (59.3%). Conclusions:Even though both orthopedic surgeons and neurosurgeons are intensively trained to treat a similar breath of spinal pathology, physicians vary in their referring patterns according to spinal pathology, location of pathology, and intended surgery. Education on the role of spine surgeons among PCPs is essential in ensuring unbiased referral patterns.
Project description:Clinical trials of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) have largely focused on conversion from trial to permanent SCS and the first years after implant. This study evaluates the association of type of SCS and patient characteristics with longer-term therapy-related explants.Implanting centers in three European countries conducted a retrospective chart review of SCS systems implanted from 2010 to 2013. Ethics approval or waiver was obtained, and informed consent was not required. The chart review recorded implants, follow-up visits, and date and reasons for any explants through mid-2016. Results are presented using Cox regression to determine factors associated with explant for inadequate pain relief.Four implanting centers in three countries evaluated 955 implants, with 8720 visits over 2259 years of follow-up. Median age was 53 years; 558 (58%) were female. Explant rate was 7.9% per year. Over half (94 of 180) of explants were for inadequate pain relief, including 32/462 (6.9%) of implants with conventional nonrechargeable SCS, 37/329 (11.2%) with conventional rechargeable and 22/155 (14.2%) with high-frequency (10 kHz) rechargeable SCS. A higher explant rate was found in univariate regression for conventional rechargeable (HR 1.98, p?=?0.005) and high-frequency stimulation (HR 1.79, p?=?0.035) than nonrechargeable SCS. After covariate adjustment, the elevated explant rate persisted for conventional rechargeable SCS (HR 1.95, p?=?0.011), but was not significant for high-frequency stimulation (HR 1.71, p?=?0.069).This international, real-world study found higher explant rates for conventional rechargeable and high-frequency SCS than nonrechargeable systems. The increased rate for conventional rechargeable stimulation persisted after covariate adjustment.
Project description:Surface modification of orthopedic and dental implants has been demonstrated to be an effective strategy to accelerate bone healing at early implantation times. Among the different alternatives, coating implants with a layer of hydroxyapatite (HAp) is one of the most used techniques, due to its excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductive behavior. The composition and crystalline structure of HAp allow for numerous ionic substitutions that provide added value, such as antibiotic properties or osteoinduction. In this article, we will review and critically analyze the most important advances in the field of substituted hydroxyapatite coatings. In recent years substituted HAp coatings have been deposited not only on orthopedic prostheses and dental implants, but also on macroporous scaffolds, thus expanding their applications towards bone regeneration therapies. Besides, the capability of substituted HAps to immobilize proteins and growth factors by non-covalent interactions has opened new possibilities for preparing hybrid coatings that foster bone healing processes. Finally, the most important in vivo outcomes will be discussed to understand the prospects of substituted HAp coatings from a clinical point of view.
Project description:Background:The use of fluoroscopically-guided interventional (FGI) procedures by orthopedic surgeons has been increasing. This study aimed to investigate the occupational radiation exposure among orthopedic surgeons in South Korea. Methods:A nationwide survey of orthopedic surgeons was conducted in South Korea in October 2017. The dosimetry data of the participants were obtained from the National Dosimetry Registry. The orthopedic surgeons were categorized by job specialty [spine or trauma specialists, other orthopedic specialists, and residents], and descriptive statistics for the demographics and work-related characteristics were presented. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors for the orthopedic surgeons who were not linked with the dosimetry data. Results:Among the total participants (n?=?513), 40.5% of the orthopedic surgeons spent more than 50% of their time working with the FGI procedures when compared with their overall work. The average frequency of the FGI procedures among the orthopedic surgeons was 12.3?days per month. Less than 30% of the participants were regularly provided with radiation monitoring badges. The proportion of subjects who always wore lead aprons and thyroid shields were 52 and 29%, respectively. The residents group experienced more unfavorable working conditions of radiation exposure than the other specialists. The dosimetry data were not significantly linked among the residents (odds ratio [OR] 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-3.95) and orthopedic surgeons working at small hospitals (OR 4.76, 95% CI 1.05-21.51). Conclusions:Although orthopedic surgeons often performed FGI procedures, they wore protective gear less frequently, and a large proportion of orthopedic surgeons were not monitored by the national radiation dosimetry system. As the number of radiation procedures performed by the orthopedic surgeons increases, more intensive approaches are needed to reduce radiation exposure, especially for spine and trauma surgeons.
Project description:This study identified potential general influencing factors for a mathematical prediction of implant stability quotient (ISQ) values in clinical practice.We collected the ISQ values of 557 implants from 2 different brands (SICace and Osstem) placed by 2 surgeons in 336 patients. Surgeon 1 placed 329 SICace implants, and surgeon 2 placed 113 SICace implants and 115 Osstem implants. ISQ measurements were taken at T1 (immediately after implant placement) and T2 (before dental restoration). A multivariate linear regression model was used to analyze the influence of the following 11 candidate factors for stability prediction: sex, age, maxillary/mandibular location, bone type, immediate/delayed implantation, bone grafting, insertion torque, I-stage or II-stage healing pattern, implant diameter, implant length and T1-T2 time interval.The need for bone grafting as a predictor significantly influenced ISQ values in all three groups at T1 (weight coefficients ranging from -4 to -5). In contrast, implant diameter consistently influenced the ISQ values in all three groups at T2 (weight coefficients ranging from 3.4 to 4.2). Other factors, such as sex, age, I/II-stage implantation and bone type, did not significantly influence ISQ values at T2, and implant length did not significantly influence ISQ values at T1 or T2.These findings provide a rational basis for mathematical models to quantitatively predict the ISQ values of implants in clinical practice.
Project description:Reprogramming somatic cells into an ESC-like state, or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, has emerged as a promising new venue for customized cell therapies. In this study, we performed directed differentiation to assess the ability of murine iPS cells to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and fat in vitro and to maintain an osteoblast phenotype on a scaffold in vitro and in vivo. Embryoid bodies derived from murine iPS cells were cultured in differentiation medium for 8–12 weeks. Differentiation was assessed by lineage-specific morphology, gene expression, histological stain, and immunostaining to detect matrix deposition. After 12 weeks of expansion, iPS-derived osteoblasts were seeded in a gelfoam matrix followed by subcutaneous implantation in syngenic imprinting control region (ICR) mice. Implants were harvested at 12 weeks, histological analyses of cell and mineral and matrix content were performed. Differentiation of iPS cells into mesenchymal lineages of bone, cartilage, and fat was confirmed by morphology and expression of lineage-specific genes. Isolated implants of iPS cell-derived osteoblasts expressed matrices characteristic of bone, including osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein. Implants were also stained with alizarin red and von Kossa, demonstrating mineralization and persistence of an osteoblast phenotype. Recruitment of vasculature and microvascularization of the implant was also detected. Taken together, these data demonstrate functional osteoblast differentiation from iPS cells both in vitro and in vivo and reveal a source of cells, which merit evaluation for their potential uses in orthopedic medicine and understanding of molecular mechanisms of orthopedic disease.