Cascaded spintronic logic with low-dimensional carbon.
ABSTRACT: Remarkable breakthroughs have established the functionality of graphene and carbon nanotube transistors as replacements to silicon in conventional computing structures, and numerous spintronic logic gates have been presented. However, an efficient cascaded logic structure that exploits electron spin has not yet been demonstrated. In this work, we introduce and analyse a cascaded spintronic computing system composed solely of low-dimensional carbon materials. We propose a spintronic switch based on the recent discovery of negative magnetoresistance in graphene nanoribbons, and demonstrate its feasibility through tight-binding calculations of the band structure. Covalently connected carbon nanotubes create magnetic fields through graphene nanoribbons, cascading logic gates through incoherent spintronic switching. The exceptional material properties of carbon materials permit Terahertz operation and two orders of magnitude decrease in power-delay product compared to cutting-edge microprocessors. We hope to inspire the fabrication of these cascaded logic circuits to stimulate a transformative generation of energy-efficient computing.
Project description:Electronic devices lose efficacy due to quantum effect when the line-width of gate decreases to sub-10 nm. Spintronics overcome this bottleneck and logic gates are building blocks of integrated circuits. Thus, it is essential to control electronic transport of opposite spins for designing a spintronic logic gate, and spin-selective semiconductors are natural candidates such as zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNR) whose edges are ferromagnetically ordered and antiferromagnetically coupled with each other. Moreover, it is necessary to sandwich ZGNR between two ferromagnetic electrodes for making a spintronic logic gate and also necessary to apply magnetic field to change the spin orientation for modulating the spin transport. By first principle calculations, we propose a method to manipulate the spin transport in graphene nanoribbons with electric field only, instead of magnetic field. We find that metal gates with specific bias nearby edges of ZGNR build up an in-plane inhomogeneous electric field which modulates the spin transport by localizing the spin density in device. The specific manipulation of spin transport we have proposed doesn't need spin-charge conversion for output and suggests a possible base for designing spintronic integrated circuit in atomic scale.
Project description:Spintronic computing promises superior energy efficiency and nonvolatility compared to conventional field-effect transistor logic. But, it has proven difficult to realize spintronic circuits with a versatile, scalable device design that is adaptable to emerging material physics. Here we present prototypes of a logic device that encode information in the position of a magnetic domain wall in a ferromagnetic wire. We show that a single three-terminal device can perform inverter and buffer operations. We demonstrate one device can drive two subsequent gates and logic propagation in a circuit of three inverters. This prototype demonstration shows that magnetic domain wall logic devices have the necessary characteristics for future computing, including nonlinearity, gain, cascadability, and room temperature operation.
Project description:Optical computing has been pursued for decades as a potential strategy for advancing beyond the fundamental performance limitations of semiconductor-based electronic devices, but feasible on-chip integrated logic units and cascade devices have not been reported. Here we demonstrate that a plasmonic binary NOR gate, a 'universal logic gate', can be realized through cascaded OR and NOT gates in four-terminal plasmonic nanowire networks. This finding provides a path for the development of novel nanophotonic on-chip processor architectures for future optical computing technologies.
Project description:Powerful information processing and ubiquitous computing are crucial for all machines and living organisms. The Watson-Crick base-pairing principle endows DNA with excellent recognition and assembly abilities, which facilitates the design of DNA computers for achieving intelligent systems. However, current DNA computational systems are always constrained by poor integration efficiency, complicated device structures or limited computational functions. Here, we show a DNA arithmetic logic unit (ALU) consisting of elemental DNA logic gates using polymerase-mediated strand displacement. The use of an enzyme resulted in highly efficient logic gates suitable for multiple and cascaded computation. Based on our basic single-rail DNA configuration, additional combined logic gates (e.g., a full adder and a 4:1 multiplexer) have been constructed. Finally, we integrate the gates and assemble the crucial ALU. Our strategy provides a facile strategy for assembling a large-scale complex DNA computer system, highlighting the great potential for programming the molecular behaviors of complicated biosystems.
Project description:Acoustic computing devices, including switches, logic gates, differentiator and integrator, have attracted extensive attentions in both academic research and engineering. However, no scheme of acoustic computing device with more complex functionality has been proposed, such as ordinary differential equation (ODE) solver. Here, we propose an acoustic analog computing (AAC) system based on three cascaded metasurfaces to solve the nth-order ODEs. The metasurfaces are constructed with layered labyrinthine units featuring broad amplitude and phase modulation ranges. The simulated transmitted pressure of the AAC system agrees well with the theoretical solution of ODE, demonstrating the excellent functionality. Unlike the optical ODE solver based on differentiator or integrator, whose geometry becomes more complicated for solving higher order ODE, the proposed AAC system with fixed geometry can be designed for arbitrary nth-order ODE in principle. The proposal may find applications in various scenarios such as acoustic communication, analog computing and signal processing.
Project description:The nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checker is an essential core component for optical computing systems and ultrahigh-speed ultrawide-band information processing chips. Unfortunately, little experimental progress has been made in development of these devices to date because of material bottleneck limitations and a lack of effective realization mechanisms. Here, we report a simple and efficient strategy for direct realization of nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checkers in integrated plasmonic circuits in the optical communication range. The proposed parity checker consists of two-level cascaded exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gates that are realized based on the linear interference of surface plasmon polaritons propagating in the plasmonic waveguides. The parity of the number of logic 1s in the incident four-bit logic signals is determined, and the output signal is given the logic state 0 for even parity (and 1 for odd parity). Compared with previous reports, the overall device feature size is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude, while ultralow energy consumption is maintained. This work raises the possibility of realization of large-scale integrated information processing chips based on integrated plasmonic circuits, and also provides a way to overcome the intrinsic limitations of serious surface plasmon polariton losses for on-chip integration applications.
Project description:Wiring a series of simple logic gates to process complex data is significantly important and a large challenge for untraditional molecular computing systems. The programmable property of DNA endows its powerful application in molecular computing. In our investigation, it was found that DNA exhibits excellent peroxidase-like activity in a colorimetric system of TMB/H2O2/Hemin (TMB, 3,3', 5,5'-Tetramethylbenzidine) in the presence of K+ and Cu2+, which is significantly inhibited by the addition of an antioxidant. According to the modulated catalytic activity of this DNA-based catalyst, three cascade logic gates including AND-OR-INH (INHIBIT), AND-INH and OR-INH were successfully constructed. Interestingly, by only modulating the concentration of Cu2+, a majority logic gate with a single-vote veto function was realized following the same threshold value as that of the cascade logic gates. The strategy is quite straightforward and versatile and provides an instructive method for constructing multiple logic gates on a simple platform to implement complex molecular computing.
Project description:Reversible computing has been studied since Rolf Landauer advanced the argument that has come to be known as Landauer's principle. This principle states that there is no minimum energy dissipation for logic operations in reversible computing, because it is not accompanied by reductions in information entropy. However, until now, no practical reversible logic gates have been demonstrated. One of the problems is that reversible logic gates must be built by using extremely energy-efficient logic devices. Another difficulty is that reversible logic gates must be both logically and physically reversible. Here we propose the first practical reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices and experimentally demonstrate the logical and physical reversibility of the gate. Additionally, we estimate the energy dissipation of the gate, and discuss the minimum energy dissipation required for reversible logic operations. It is expected that the results of this study will enable reversible computing to move from the theoretical stage into practical usage.
Project description:The achievement of half-metallicity with ferromagnetic (FM) coupling has become a key technology for the development of one-dimensional (1D) nanoribbons for spintronic applications. Unfortunately, in previous studies, such a half-metallicity always occurs upon certain external constraints. Here we, for the first time, demonstrate, via density functional theory (DFT), that the recent experimentally realized gallium sulfide nanoribbons (GaSNRs) can display an intrinsic half-metallic character with FM coupling, raised from Ga-4s, Ga-4p and S-3p states at the Ga-dominated edge. Furthermore, the novel half-metallic behavior with FM coupling here is rather robust, especially for GaSNRs with large width and thickness, and can be sustained to the room temperature. Thus, our results accidentally disclose a new 1D spin nanomaterial, which allows us to go beyond the current scope limited to the graphene, boron nitride (BN), zinc oxide (ZnO) and molybdenum sulfide (MoS2) nanoribbons, toward more realistic spintronic applications.
Project description:Although DNA computing has exhibited a magical power across diverse areas, current DNA logic gates with different functions are always separately operated and can only produce hard-to-visualize output. The fussy/obligatory gates' redesign/reconstruction and the non-intuitive output cause the wastage of time and costs, low efficiency and practicality. Herein, inspired by the ancient Roman mythical God Janus, for the first time, we propose the concept of "DNA Janus Logic Pair" (DJLP) to classify the DNA logic gates with contrary functions into "Positive + Negative" gates (DJLP = Pos + Neg). Based on the biocatalytic property of G-quadruplex DNAzyme (G4zyme) and the luminescence quenching ability of oxidized 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (OxTMB) towards the upconversion (UC) particles, we fabricated a universal amphichromatic platform that kills two birds with one stone for operating a versatile DJLP library. Different from the previous DNA logic systems, the "Pos + Neg" gates of each DJLP in this study were concomitantly achieved via the same one-time DNA reaction, which avoided the gates' redesign/reoperation and reduced the operating costs/time of the DNA gates by at least half. Besides, both the amphichromatic outputs (Visual-blue and UC luminescent-green) can be visualized under harmless-NIR, thus bringing greatly enhanced practicality to the method. Moreover, we constructed various concatenated logic circuits via logically modulating the G4zyme's biocatalytic property with glutathione, thus enabling the largely improved computing complexity. Furthermore, taking the circuit "YES-INH-1-2 decoder" as the "computing core", we designed an "antioxidant indicator" with ratiometric logical responses that could recognize the presence of antioxidants smartly (output changed from "10" to "01"), which provided a typical prototype for potential intelligent bio-applications.