Low-Cell-Number Epigenome Profiling Aids the Study of Lens Aging and Hematopoiesis.
ABSTRACT: Understanding how chromatin modification regulates development and disease can be limited by available material. Despite recent progress, balancing high-quality and reliable mapping using chromatin-immunoprecipitation-based deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) remains a challenge. We report two techniques, recovery via protection (RP)-ChIP-seq and favored amplification RP-ChIP-seq (FARP-ChIP-seq), that provide reproducible mapping in as few as 500 cells. RP-ChIP-seq allows detection of age-associated epigenetic changes in a single mouse lens, whereas FARP-ChIP-seq accurately maps histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and H3K27me3 in long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs), short-term HSCs (ST-HSCs), and multi-potent progenitors (MPPs) from one mouse. These datasets not only highlight genes that may be involved in lens aging but also indicate a lack of H3K4me3/H3K27me3 bivalency on hematopoietic genes in HSCs.
Project description:Difficulties to accurately map epigenomes in a few cells sorted or dissected from tissues have hampered our understanding of how chromatin modification regulates development and diseases. Despite recent progress, all reported chromatin-immunoprecipitation-based deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) methods have not achieved high quality mapping of rare cell populations. We report Recovery via Protection (RP)-ChIP-seq and favored amplification RP-ChIP-seq (FARP-ChIP-seq) for as few as 500 cells with superior quality compared to all reported techniques to date. FARP-ChIP-seq accurately mapped histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and H3K27me3 in long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs), short-term HSCs (ST-HSCs), and multi-potent progenitors (MPPs) sorted from one mouse. These high quality datasets not only implicate genes involved in HSC differentiation but also demonstrate a general lack of H3K4me3/H3K27me3 bivalency on hematopoietic genes in HSCs. Thus the method offers accurate mapping for fewest cells. Overall design: two H3K4me3 replications for mESC, two to three replications of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 for LT-HSC, ST-HSC and MPP, 2 replicates of H3K4me3 for young and old lens
Project description:Epigenetic mechanisms set apart the active and inactive regions in the genome of multicellular organisms to produce distinct cell fates during embryogenesis. Here, we report on the epigenetic and transcriptome genome-wide maps of gastrula-stage Xenopus tropicalis embryos using massive parallel sequencing of cDNA (RNA-seq) and DNA obtained by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq) of histone H3 K4 and K27 trimethylation and RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII). These maps identify promoters and transcribed regions. Strikingly, genomic regions featuring opposing histone modifications are mostly transcribed, reflecting spatially regulated expression rather than bivalency as determined by expression profile analyses, sequential ChIP, and ChIP-seq on dissected embryos. Spatial differences in H3K27me3 deposition are predictive of localized gene expression. Moreover, the appearance of H3K4me3 coincides with zygotic gene activation, whereas H3K27me3 is predominantly deposited upon subsequent spatial restriction or repression of transcriptional regulators. These results reveal a hierarchy in the spatial control of zygotic gene activation.
Project description:Additional sex combs like 1 (ASXL1) is frequently mutated in myeloid malignancies and clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP). Although loss of ASXL1 promotes hematopoietic transformation, there is growing evidence that ASXL1 mutations might confer an alteration of function. In this study, we identify that physiological expression of a C-terminal truncated Asxl1 mutant in vivo using conditional knock-in (KI) results in myeloid skewing, age-dependent anemia, thrombocytosis, and morphological dysplasia. Although expression of mutant Asxl1 altered the functions of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), it maintained their survival in competitive transplantation assays and increased susceptibility to leukemic transformation by co-occurring RUNX1 mutation or viral insertional mutagenesis. KI mice displayed substantial reductions in H3K4me3 and H2AK119Ub without significant reductions in H3K27me3, distinct from the effects of Asxl1 loss. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next-generation sequencing analysis demonstrated opposing effects of wild-type and mutant Asxl1 on H3K4me3. These findings reveal that ASXL1 mutations confer HSCs with an altered epigenome and increase susceptibility for leukemic transformation, presenting a novel model for CHIP.
Project description:Trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) at promoters of actively transcribed genes is a universal epigenetic mark and a key product of Trithorax-Group action. Here we show that Mll2, one of the six Set1/Trithorax-type H3K4 methyltransferases in mammals, is required for trimethylation of bivalent promoters in mouse embryonic stem cells. Mll2 is bound to bivalent promoters but also to most active promoters, which do not require Mll2 for H3K4me3 or mRNA expression. In contrast, the Set1 complex (Set1C) subunit Cxxc1 is primarily bound to active but not bivalent promoters. This indicates that bivalent promoters rely on Mll2 for H3K4me3 whereas active promoters have more than one bound H3K4 methyltransferase including Set1C. Removal of Mll1, sister to Mll2, had almost no effect on any promoter unless Mll2 was also removed indicating functional back-up between these enzymes. Except for a subset, loss of H3K4me3 on bivalent promoters did not prevent responsiveness to retinoic acid thereby arguing against a priming model for bivalency. In contrast, we propose that Mll2 is the pioneer trimethyltransferase for promoter definition in the naM-CM-/ve epigenome and Polycomb-Group action on bivalent promoters blocks premature establishment of active, Set1C bound, promoters. ChIP-Seq to study MLL2 function using H3K4me3 (12 samples), H3K27me3 (4 samples), Pol2 (1 sample) or GFP (7 samples) antibody, and 6 RNA-Seq profiles
Project description:We developed a ChIP protocol for the analysis of histone marks using less than 10,000 cells per IP, and used it to investigate the chromatin state of E11.5 mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs). A genome-wide ChIP-Seq analysis of E11.5 PGCs revealed a distribution of H3K4me3/H3K27me3 bivalent domains highly enriched for developmental regulatory genes. H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 ChIP-Seq from mouse E11.5 primordial germ cells.
Project description:Erythropoiesis of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintains generation of red blood cells throughout life. However, little is known how human erythropoiesis is regulated by long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). By using ChIRP-seq, we report here that the lncRNA steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA) occupies chromatin, and co-localizes with CTCF, H3K4me3, and H3K27me3 genome-wide in human erythroblast cell line K562. CTCF binding sites that are also occupied by SRA are enriched for either H3K4me3 or H3K27me3. Transcriptome-wide analyses reveal that SRA facilitates expression of erythroid-associated genes, while repressing leukocyte-associated genes in both K562 and CD36-positive primary human proerythroblasts derived from HSCs. We find that SRA-regulated genes are enriched by both CTCF and SRA bindings. Further, silencing of SRA decreases expression of the erythroid-specific markers TFRC and GYPA, and down-regulates expression of globin genes in both K562 and human proerythroblast cells. Taken together, our findings establish that the lncRNA SRA occupies chromatin, and promotes transcription of erythroid genes, therefore facilitating human erythroid transcriptional program.
Project description:We have used a genome-wide ChIP-sequencing approach to define and investigate the dynamics of the cis-regulatory landscape in three developmental stages of the murine hematopoietic system. To this end, we have compared the profiles of H3K4me3, H3K4me1, H3K27ac, H3K27me3 and H3K9me2 in HSCs, committed pro-B and splenic mature B cells. We find the enhancer repertoire to be dynamically reshaped during hematopoiesis progression, surprisingly only a small fraction of primed enhancers in HSCs or committed progenitors become activated in subsequent stages. In turn, the majority of active enhancers in terminally differentiated cells are not primed in earlier stages. We also found that The heterochromatin mark H3K9me2 covers large domains that remain largerly invariant across the three stages and are depleted in both active chromatin marks and the Polycomb related mark H3K27me3. Investigating enhancer dynamics in 3 different stages of B cell development
Project description:Human blood develops from self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells to terminal lineages and necessitates regulator and effector gene expression changes; each cell type specifically expresses a subset of genes to carry out a specific function. Gene expression changes coincide with histone modification, histone variant deposition, and recruitment of transcription-related enzymes to specific genetic loci. Transcriptional regulation has been mostly studied using in vitro systems while epigenetic changes occurring during in vivo development remain poorly understood.By integrating previously published and novel global expression profiles from human CD34+/CD133+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), in vivo differentiated human CD4+ T-cells and CD19+ B-cells, and in vitro differentiated CD36+ erythrocyte precursors, we identified hundreds of transcripts specifically expressed in each cell type. To relate concurrent epigenomic changes to expression, we examined genome-wide distributions of H3K4me1, H3K4me3, H3K27me1, H3K27me3, histone variant H2A.Z, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler BRG1, and RNA Polymerase II in these cell types, as well as embryonic stem cells. These datasets revealed that numerous differentiation genes are primed for subsequent downstream expression by BRG1 and PolII binding in HSPCs, as well as the bivalent H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 modifications in the HSPCs prior to their expression in downstream, differentiated cell types; much HSPC bivalency is retained from embryonic stem cells. After differentiation, bivalency resolves to active chromatin configuration in the specific lineage, while it remains in parallel differentiated lineages. PolII and BRG1 are lost in closer lineages; bivalency resolves to silent monovalency in more distant lineages. Correlation of expression with epigenomic changes predicts tens of thousands of potential common and tissue-specific enhancers, which may contribute to expression patterns and differentiation pathways.Several crucial lineage factors are bivalently prepared for their eventual expression or repression. Bivalency is not only resolved during differentiation but is also established in a step-wise manner in differentiated cell types. We note a progressive, specific silencing of alternate lineage genes in certain cell types coinciding with H3K27me3 enrichment, though expression silencing is maintained in its absence. Globally, the expression of type-specific genes across many cell types correlates strongly with their epigenetic profiles. These epigenomic data appear useful for further understanding mechanisms of differentiation and function of human blood lineages.
Project description:Gene expression is controlled by coordinated action of many epigenetic mechanisms including covalent histone modifications. Although numerous recurrent patterns of colocalized histone modifications have been associated with specific gene expression states, interrelationships between individual modifications are largely unknown. Here, we analyze quantitative relationships between colocalized histone marks during embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation and find that, for autosomal genes, these densities follow bimodal patterns. Analysis of repressive H3K27me3 and activating H3K4me3 modifications reveals the expected anticorrelation between them at active promoters but an unexpected positive correlation at inactive promoters. The two trends connect in a region corresponding to bivalent genes. Interestingly, this region is characterized by maximal H3K27 methylation. Resolving gene bivalency during ESC differentiation does not conform to the expected model of two marks as counteracting and competing forces. Although activated genes acquire H3K4me3 and lose H3K27me3, repressed genes lose H3K4me3 without gaining H3K27me3. The behavior of X-linked genes also deviates from expected models. Allele-specific analysis of chromatin modifications during X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) suggests that the silencing machinery focuses on active genes and depletion of H3K4me3 and that H3K27me3 is most significant during establishment of gene silencing. Our analysis reveals nontrivial relationships between H3K4me3 and H3K27me3, reveals unique aspects of gene bivalency, and demonstrates that XCI does not conform neatly to autosomal models.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Key regulators of developmental processes can be prioritized through integrated analysis of ChIP-Seq data of master transcriptional factors (TFs) such as Nanog and Oct4, active histone modifications (HMs) such as H3K4me3 and H3K27ac, and repressive HMs such as H3K27me3. Recent studies show that broad enrichment signals such as super-enhancers and broad H3K4me3 enrichment signals play more dominant roles than short enrichment signals of the master TFs and H3K4me3 in epigenetic regulatory mechanism. Besides the broad enrichment signals, up to ten thousands of short enrichment signals of these TFs and HMs exist in genome. Prioritization of these broad enrichment signals from ChIP-Seq data is a prerequisite for such integrated analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Here, we present a method named Clustering-Local-Unique-Enriched-Signals (CLUES), which uses an adaptive-size-windows strategy to identify enriched regions (ERs) and cluster them into broad enrichment signals. Tested on 62 ENCODE ChIP-Seq datasets of Ctcf and Nrsf, CLUES performs equally well as MACS2 regarding prioritization of ERs with the TF's motif. Tested on 165 ENCODE ChIP-Seq datasets of H3K4me3, H3K27me3, and H3K36me3, CLUES performs better than existing algorithms on prioritizing broad enrichment signals implicating cell functions influenced by epigenetic regulatory mechanism in cells. Most importantly, CLUES helps to confirm several novel regulators of mouse ES cell self-renewal and pluripotency through integrated analysis of prioritized broad enrichment signals of H3K4me3, H3K27me3, Nanog and Oct4 with the support of a CRISPR/Cas9 negative selection genetic screen.<h4>Conclusions</h4>CLUES holds promise for prioritizing broad enrichment signals from ChIP-Seq data. The download site for CLUES is https://github.com/Wuchao1984/CLUESv1.