In Vitro Antiproliferative Activity of Extracts of Carlina acaulis subsp. caulescens and Carlina acanthifolia subsp. utzka.
ABSTRACT: Various species of the Carlina genus have been used in traditional medicine in many countries to treat numerous skin disorders, including cancer. The objective of this work was to assess the anticancer properties of root and leaf extracts from Carlina acaulis subsp. caulescens and C. acanthifolia subsp. utzka. Anti-tumor properties of the extracts were explored using a tetrazolium-based cell viability assay and flow cytometric apoptosis analysis, followed by immunodetection of phosphoactive ERK1/2 in UACC-903, C32, and UACC-647 human melanoma cell lines. Normal human fibroblasts were used as a control. Leaf extracts inhibited the viability of all tested melanoma cell lines in a dose-dependent fashion while the fibroblasts were less sensitive to such extract. The root extracts inhibited the proliferation of UACC-903 and UACC-647 cells only at the highest doses (300 ?g/mL). However, the C32 and fibroblast cells exhibited an increase in the cellular proliferation rate and no caspase activity was observed in response to the root extracts (100 ?g/mL). An increase in caspase activity was observed in melanoma cells treated with the leaf extracts of both Carlina species. Leaf extracts from C. acaulis subsp. caulescens (100 ?g/mL) inhibited proliferatory ERK1/2 in UACC-903 and C32 cells, as demonstrated by the decrease in ERK1/2 phosphorylation. No reduction in phospho-ERK1/2 was observed in the tested cell lines treated with the root extracts, apart from UACC-647 after incubation with the C. acanthifolia subsp. utzka root extract (100 ?g/mL). There was no change in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the fibroblasts. The extracts from the leaves and roots were analyzed by HPLC and the analysis showed the presence of triterpenes and phenolic acids as the main extract components. The research demonstrated that the extracts from the leaves of the plants were cytotoxic against the human melanoma line and induced apoptosis of the cells. The triterpene fraction present in the tested extracts may be responsible for this activity.
Project description:There are several reports indicating that the roots of the Carlina acaulis L. used to be commonly applied as a treatment measure in skin diseases and as an antiparasitic agent, starting from antiquity to the 19th century; however, nowadays, it has lost its importance. Currently, numerous studies are being conducted assessing the possibility of reintroducing C. acaulis-derived extracts to phytotherapy. Determining the safety profile of the main constituents of the plant material is crucial for achieving this goal. Here, we aimed to determine the toxicity profile of carlina oxide, one of the most abundant components of the C. acaulis root extract. We obtained the carlina oxide by distillation of C. acaulis roots in the Deryng apparatus. The purity of the standard was evaluated using GC-MS, and the identity was confirmed by IR, Raman, and NMR spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity was assessed using a panel of human cell lines of skin origin, including BJ normal fibroblasts and UACC-903, UACC-647, and C32 melanoma cells. This was accompanied by an in vivo zebrafish acute toxicity test (ZFET). In vitro studies showed a toxic effect of carlina oxide, as demonstrated by an induction of apoptosis and necrosis in both normal and melanoma cells. Decreased expression of AKT kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) was noted in the UACC-647 melanoma cell line. It was also observed that carlina oxide modified the expression of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in tested cell lines. Carlina oxide exhibited high in vivo toxicity, with LC50 = 10.13 µg/mL upon the 96 h of exposure in the ZFET test. Here, we demonstrate that carlina oxide displays toxic effects to cells in culture and to living organisms. The data indicate that C. acaulis-based extracts considered for therapeutic use should be completely deprived of carlina oxide.
Project description:The methanol extracts from three populations of Carlina vulgaris L. were examined for the chlorogenic acid content, mineral content, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity. Two populations originated from natural nonmetallicolous habitats (NN (populations from Nasi?ów) and NP (populations from Pi?czów)), and one metallicolous population (MB) was collected from Boles?aw waste heap localized at the place of former open-cast mining of Ag-Pb and Zn-Pb ores dating back to the 13th century and 18th century, respectively. The level of Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Ni, and Mn was significantly higher in the root and leaves of MB plants as a result of soil contaminations compared to those of the NN and NP ones. The highest antioxidant potency has been showed by the plants growing in a nonmetallicolous habitat. The flower head extracts obtained from the nonmetallicolous populations also contained the largest amount of chlorogenic acid, whereas the lowest was determined in the roots (ca. 2-3.5?mg/g and 0.2-0.4?mg/g of air-dry weight, resp.). These studies provide important information on the influence of a habitat on the quality of herbal materials and the content of the biologically active primary and secondary metabolites.
Project description:<i>Carlina acaulis</i> L. has a long tradition of use in folk medicine. The chemical composition of the roots and green parts of the plant is quite well known. There is the lowest amount of data on the cypsela (fruit) of this plant. In this study, the microscopic structures and the chemical composition of the cypsela were investigated. Preliminary cytochemical studies of the structure of the <i>Carlina acaulis</i> L. cypsela showed the presence of substantial amounts of protein and lipophilic substances. The chemical composition of the cypsela was investigated using spectrophotometry, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric and fluorescence detection. The cypsela has been shown to be a rich source of macro- and microelements, vegetable oil (25%), ?-tocopherol (approx. 2 g/kg of oil), protein (approx. 36% seed weight), and chlorogenic acids (approx. 22 g/kg seed weight). It also contains a complex set of volatile compounds. The <i>C. acaulis</i> cypsela is, therefore, a valuable source of nutrients and bioactive substances.
Project description:The impact of long-term chronic cadmium stress (ChS, 0.1 µM Cd, 85 days) or short-term acute cadmium stress (AS, 10 µM Cd, 4 days) on Carlina acaulis (Asteraceae) metabolites was compared to identify specific traits. The content of Cd was higher under AS in all organs in comparison with ChS (130 vs. 16 µg·g-1 DW, 7.9 vs. 3.2 µg·g-1 DW, and 11.5 vs. 2.4 µg·g-1 DW in roots, leaves, and trichomes, respectively) while shoot bioaccumulation factor under ChS (ca. 280) indicates efficient Cd accumulation. High content of Cd in the trichomes from the AS treatment may be an anatomical adaptation mechanism. ChS evoked an increase in root biomass (hormesis), while the impact on shoot biomass was not significant in any treatment. The amounts of ascorbic acid and sum of phytochelatins were higher in the shoots but organic (malic and citric) acids dominated in the roots of plants from the ChS treatment. Chlorogenic acid, but not ursolic and oleanolic acids, was elevated by ChS. These data indicate that both chelation and enhancement of antioxidative power contribute to protection of plants exposed to long-term (chronic) Cd presence with subsequent hormetic effect.
Project description:Roots and leaves of Carlina acaulis L. are still used in ethnomedicine in many European countries; however, the limited occurrence of the plants and protection of this species necessitate a search for alternative ways for obtaining this plant material. In this study, in vitro cultures, hydroponic cultures, and field cultivation were applied to obtain the C. acaulis plant material. Its quality was evaluated using antioxidant activity tests and high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Our study showed that the antioxidant activity and the content of chlorogenic and 3,5-di-caffeoylquinic acid in roots of plants cultivated in hydroponics and field conditions were comparable. However, the amount of carlina oxide was significantly higher in plants from the field. The flavonoid content in leaves obtained from both cultivation systems was at the same level; however, the antioxidant activity and the content of the investigated metabolites were higher in the soil cultivation system. The callus line exhibited high differentiation in phytochemical compositions depending on the treatments and medium compositions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>NC1 domains from ?1, ?2, ?3 and ?6(IV) collagen chains were shown to exert anti-tumor or anti-angiogenic activities, whereas the NC1 domain of the ?4(IV) chain did not show such activities so far.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>We demonstrate in the present paper that the NC1 ?4(IV) domain exerts a potent anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in an experimental human melanoma model in vivo. The overexpression of NC1 ?4(IV) in human UACC-903 melanoma cells strongly inhibited their in vitro proliferative (-38%) and invasive (-52%) properties. MT1-MMP activation was largely decreased and its cellular distribution was modified, resulting in a loss of expression at the migration front associated with a loss of migratory phenotype. In an in vivo xenograft model in athymic nude mice, the subcutaneous injection of NC1 ?4(IV)-overexpressing melanoma cells induced significantly smaller tumors (-80% tumor volume) than the Mock cells, due to a strong inhibition of tumor growth. Exogenously added recombinant human NC1 ?4(IV) reproduced the inhibitory effects of NC1 ?4(IV) overexpression in UACC-903 cells but not in dermal fibroblasts. An anti-?v?3 integrin blocking antibody inhibited cell adhesion on recombinant human NC1 ?4(IV) substratum. The involvement of ?v?3 integrin in mediating NC1 ?4(IV) effect was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assays showing that recombinant human NC1 ?4(IV) binds to ?v?3 integrin (K(D) = 148 ± 9.54 nM).<h4>Conclusion/significance</h4>Collectively, our results demonstrate that the NC1 ?4(IV) domain, named tetrastatin, is a new endogenous anti-tumor matrikine.
Project description:Malignant melanoma is a common and frequently lethal disease. Current therapeutic interventions have little effect on survival, emphasizing the need for a better understanding of the genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic changes in melanoma formation and progression. We identified genes that were not previously known to be silenced by methylation in melanoma using a microarray-based screen following treatment of melanoma cell lines with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Experiment Overall Design: RNA was isolated following 0 and 48 hours of 5AzadC treatment of melanocytes and six melanoma cell lines (MelJuSo, UACC 903, C8161, Neo6 C8161, WM1205, and WM35) and used for the reexpression microarray analysis.
Project description:Synthesis and identification of novel phenylalkyl isoselenocyanates (ISCs), isosteric selenium analogues of naturally occurring phenylalkyl isothiocyanates (ITCs), as effective cytotoxic and antitumor agents are described. The structure-activity relationship comparison of ISCs with ITCs and effect of the increasing alkyl chain length in inhibiting cancer cell growth were evaluated on melanoma, prostate, breast, glioblastoma, sarcoma, and colon cancer cell lines. IC(50) values for ISC compounds were generally lower than their corresponding ITC analogues. Similarly, in UACC 903 human melanoma cells, the inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis were more pronounced with ISCs compared to ITCs. Further, ISCs and ITCs effectively inhibited melanoma tumor growth in mice following intraperitoneal xenograft. A similar reduction in tumor size was observed at 3 times lower doses of ISCs compared to corresponding ITCs.
Project description:Numerous species of the Asteraceae, the composites, are famous for their use in both traditional and conventional medicine. Reliable anatomical descriptions of these plants and of possible adulterations provide a basis for fast identification and cheap purity controls of respective medicinal drugs by means of light microscopy. Nevertheless, detailed comparative studies on root and rhizome anatomy of valuable as well as related inconsiderable composite plants are largely missing yet. The presented study aims to narrow this gap by performing anatomical analyses of roots and rhizomes of 16 species belonging to the tribe Cardueae, of formerly and currently used drugs as well as their near relatives as potential adulterations (Carlina acaulis L., Carlina vulgaris L., Arctium lappa L., Arctium tomentosum Mill., Carduus defloratus L., Carduus personata (L.) Jacq, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten., Cirsium erisithales (Jacq.) Scop., Onopordum acanthium L., Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Rhaponticum scariosum Lam., Centaurea jacea L., Centaurea scabiosa L., Centaurea cyanus L., Cnicus benedictus L.). A detailed verbal and graphical survey of the analysed anatomical features is provided. Several characters were finally extracted which allow for discrimination of the examined species and may be effectively used for drug quality controls.
Project description:In melanoma, the activation of pro-survival signaling pathways, such as the AKT and NF-?B pathways, is critical for tumor growth. We have recently reported that the AKT inhibitor BI-69A11 causes efficient inhibition of melanoma growth. Here, we show that in addition to its AKT inhibitory activity, BI-69A11 also targets the NF-?B pathway. In melanoma cell lines, BI-69A11 inhibited TNF-?-stimulated IKK?/? and I?B phosphorylation as well as NF-?B reporter gene expression. Furthermore, the effective inhibition of melanoma growth by BI-69A11 was attenuated upon NF-?B activation. Mechanistically, reduced NF-?B signaling by BI-69-A11 is mediated by the inhibition of sphingosine kinase 1, identified in a screen of 315 kinases. Significantly, we demonstrate that BI-69A11 is well tolerated and orally active against UACC 903 and SW1 melanoma xenografts. Our results demonstrate that BI-69A11 inhibits both the AKT and the NF-?B pathways and that the dual targeting of these pathways may be efficacious as a therapeutic strategy in melanoma.