Fibroblasts derived from oesophageal adenocarcinoma differ in DNA methylation profile from normal oesophageal fibroblasts.
ABSTRACT: Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) is increasing in incidence and has a poor prognosis. Tumour derived fibroblasts (TDFs) differ functionally from normal fibroblasts (NDFs), and play a pivotal role in cancer. Many of the differences persist through subculture. We measured the DNA methylation profiles of 10 TDFs from OAC with 12 NDF from normal oesophageal mucosa using Infinium HumanMethylation450 Beadchips and found they differed in multidimensional scaling analysis. We identified 4,856 differentially methylated CpGs (DMCs, adjusted p??0.15), of which 3,243 (66.8%) were hypomethylated in TDFs compared to NDFs. Hypermethylated DMCs were enriched at transcription start sites (TSSs) and in CpG islands, and depleted in transcriptional enhancers. Gene ontology analysis of genes with DMCs at TSSs revealed an enrichment of genes involved in development, morphogenesis, migration, adhesion, regulation of processes and response to stimuli. Alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) is a marker of activated fibroblasts and a poor prognostic indicator in OAC. Hypomethylated DMCs were observed at the TSS of transcript variant 2 of ?-SMA, which correlated with an increase in ?-SMA protein expression. These data suggest that DNA methylation may contribute to the maintenance of the TDF phenotype.
Project description:Oesophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide and is therefore a major global health challenge. The two major subtypes of oesophageal cancer are oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), which are epidemiologically and biologically distinct. OSCC accounts for 90% of all cases of oesophageal cancer globally and is highly prevalent in the East, East Africa and South America. OAC is more common in developed countries than in developing countries. Preneoplastic lesions are identifiable for both OSCC and OAC; these are frequently amenable to endoscopic ablative therapies. Most patients with oesophageal cancer require extensive treatment, including chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy and/or surgical resection. Patients with advanced or metastatic oesophageal cancer are treated with palliative chemotherapy; those who are human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive may also benefit from trastuzumab treatment. Immuno-oncology therapies have also shown promising early results in OSCC and OAC. In this Primer, we review state-of-the-art knowledge on the biology and treatment of oesophageal cancer, including screening, endoscopic ablative therapies and emerging molecular targets, and we discuss best practices in chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, surgery and the maintenance of patient quality of life.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Neuroepithelial Transforming Gene 1 (NET1) is a well characterised oncoprotein and a proven marker of an aggressive phenotype in a number of cancers, including gastric adenocarcinoma. We aimed to investigate whether NET1 plays a functional role in oesophageal cancer (OAC) and its pre-malignant phenotype Barrett's oesophagus.<h4>Methods</h4>Baseline NET1 mRNA levels were determined by qPCR across a panel of six cell lines, including normal oesophageal, Barrett's and OAC derived cells. Quantification of NET1 protein in OAC cells was performed using Western blot and immunofluorescence. NET1 expression was modulated by treating with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and NET1-specific siRNA. The functional effects of NET1 knockdown were assessed in vitro using proliferation, migration and invasion assays.<h4>Results</h4>NET1 expression was increased in Barrett's and in OAC-derived cells in comparison to normal oesophageal cells. The highest expression was observed in OE33 a Barrett's-related OAC cell line. NET1 protein and mRNA expression was enhanced by LPA treatment in OAC and furthermore LPA treatment caused increased proliferation, migration and invasion in a NET1-dependent manner. NET1 knockdown resulted in reduced OAC cell proliferation and invasion.<h4>Conclusions</h4>As found in other malignancies, NET1 expression is elevated in OAC and its pre-malignant phenotype, Barrett's oesophagus. NET1 promotes OAC cell invasion and proliferation and it mediates LPA-induced OAC cell migration.
Project description:Bile acids (BAs) have been implicated in the development of oesophagitis, Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). However, whether BAs promote cancer invasiveness has not been elucidated. We evaluated the role of BAs, in particular deoxycholic acid (DCA), in OAC invasion. Migration and invasiveness in untreated and BA-treated oesophageal SKGT-4 cancer cells were evaluated. Activity and expression of different matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were determined by zymography, ELISA, PCR and Western blot. Finally, human OAC tissues were stained for MMP-10 by immunohistochemistry. It was found that SKGT-4 cells incubated with low concentrations of DCA had a significant increase in invasion. In addition, MMP-10 mRNA and protein expression were also increased in the presence of DCA. MMP-10 was found to be highly expressed both in-vitro and in-vivo in neoplastic OAC cells relative to non-neoplastic squamous epithelial cells. Our results show that DCA promotes OAC invasion and MMP-10 overexpression. This study will advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in human OAC and shows promise for the development of new therapeutic strategies.
Project description:In Western populations, the incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been declining, whereas the incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) has been increasing. Our study examines temporal trends in the incidence of oesophageal cancer in the Netherlands between 1989 and 2016, in addition to predicting future trends through 2041. Data from the Netherlands Cancer Registry and Statistics Netherlands were collected to obtain incidence trends of OSCC and OAC for the period 1989 to 2016. Age-period-cohort (APC) modelling was used to estimate the contribution of age, calendar period and birth cohort on the observed incidence trends. To predict the future numbers of new cases of both OSCC and OAC from 2017 to 2041, log-linear APC models were fitted to the trends of 1989 to 2016. The age-standardised incidence rates of OSCC have decreased slightly for men and increased slightly for women. In contrast, a marked increase in the incidence of OAC was observed, ranging from 2.8 per 100 000 persons in 1989 to 10.1 in 2016. This increase in OAC incidence was more prominent in men, and it will result in an increased risk of OAC for successive generations. Future projections indicate that the incidence of OAC will further increase to 13.1 per 100 000 persons in 2037 to 2041, meaning that there will be 13 259 cases of OAC in 2037 to 2041, as compared to 9386 diagnoses in 2017 to 2021. The changing epidemiologic trends in oesophageal cancer in the Netherlands should be reflected in the development of prevention, early detection and treatment strategies.
Project description:Raman spectroscopy is a fast and sensitive technique able to identify molecular changes in biological specimens. Herein, we report on three cases where Raman microspectroscopy was used to distinguish normal vs. oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) (case 1) and Barrett's oesophagus vs. OAC (cases 2 and 3) in a non-destructive and highly accurate fashion. Normal and OAC tissues were discriminated using principal component analysis plus linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) with 97% accuracy (94% sensitivity and 100% specificity) (case 1); Barrett's oesophagus vs. OAC tissues were discriminated with accuracies ranging from 98 to 100% (97-100% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Spectral markers responsible for class differentiation were obtained through the difference-between-mean spectrum for each group and the PCA loadings, where C-O-C skeletal mode in ?-glucose (900 cm<sup>-1</sup>), lipids (967 cm<sup>-1</sup>), phosphodioxy (1296 cm<sup>-1</sup>), deoxyribose (1456 cm<sup>-1</sup>) and collagen (1445, 1665 cm<sup>-1</sup>) were associated with normal and OAC tissue differences. Phenylalanine (1003 cm<sup>-1</sup>), proline/collagen (1066, 1445 cm<sup>-1</sup>), phospholipids (1130 cm<sup>-1</sup>), CH<sub>2</sub> angular deformation (1295 cm<sup>-1</sup>), disaccharides (1462 cm<sup>-1</sup>) and proteins (amide I, 1672/5 cm<sup>-1</sup>) were associated with Barrett's oesophagus and OAC tissue differences. These findings show the potential of using Raman microspectroscopy imaging for fast and accurate diagnoses of oesophageal pathologies and establishing subtle molecular changes predisposing to adenocarcinoma in a clinical setting. Graphical abstract Graphical abstract demonstrating how oesophageal tissue is processed through Raman mapping analysis in order to detect spectral differences between stages of oesophageal transformation to adenocarcinoma.
Project description:Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) is one of the ten most prevalent forms of cancer which is showing a rapid increase in incidence and yet exhibits poor survival rates. Compared to many other common cancers, the molecular changes that occur in this disease are relatively poorly understood although genomic sequencing studies have identified several genes encoding chromatin remodeling enzymes that are frequently mutated in OAC. This finding is consistent with the knowledge that one important change that occurs in cancer cells is a reprogramming of the chromatin environment which leads to subsequent changes in their transcriptional profile.
Project description:Oesophageal cancer is an aggressive disease with a poor 5 year survival rate of <20% of diagnosed patients. Unfortunately, only 20-30% Oesophageal Adenocarinoma (OAC) patients show a beneficial response to neoadjuvant therapy (neoCT). Inflammation influences OAC given the increased risk of cancer development and poor outcome for obese patients where altered secretion of adipokines and cytokines from adipose tissue contributes a pro-tumourigenic environment. We carried out a large proteomics screen of 184 proteins to compare the inflammatory and oncogenic profiles of an isogenic radioresistant <i>in-vitro</i> model of OAC. We found that leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), an IL-6 type cytokine, was significantly elevated in radioresistant OAC cells (p=0.007). Furthermore, significantly higher circulating levels of LIF were present in the serum from treatment-naive OAC patients who had a subsequent poor pathological response to neo-adjuvant therapy, (p=0.037). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed expression of LIF receptor (LIFR) may function as a predictive indicator of response to neo-adjuvant chemoradiation therapy in OAC. LIF was demonstrated to be actively secreted from human OAC treatment-naïve biopsies and significantly correlated with the secretion of bFGF, VEGF-A and IL-8 (p<0.05, R=1), (p<0.05, R=0.9429), and (p<0.05, R=1) respectively. Importantly, LIF secretion negatively correlated with tumour infiltrating lymphocytes in pre-treatment OAC patient biopsies, (r=-0.8783, p=0.033). Elevated circulating LIF is a marker of poor response to neo-adjuvant treatment in OAC and secretion of this chemokine from the tumour is tightly linked with pro-tumourigenic mediators including bFGF, VEGF-A and IL-8. Targeting this pathway may be a novel mechanism enhance neoadjuvant treatment responses in OAC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Based on reported familial patterns, inheritance of a predisposition of developing Barrett's oesesophagus (BO) and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) likely follows an autosomal dominant model of most inherited cancer syndromes. oesophagus (BO) and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) likely follows an autosomal dominant model of most inherited cancer syndromes. AIMS:We analysed the phenotypic features of 70 familial BO/OAC families accrued for the purpose of initiating a linkage study to search for genes that contribute to susceptibility for BO/OAC. METHODS:Families with young or familial BO/OAC were recruited from participating institutions and self-referral from advertisement. RESULTS:A total of 70 families (173 affected and 784 unaffected individuals) were recruited into this study. Mean ages of diagnosis of BO and OAC among males were 50.6 and 57.4 years, respectively; among females, 52.1 and 63.5 years, respectively. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of cancers other than OAC or oesophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma (OGJAC), among probands was 0.71. Seventy one percent of the pedigrees have "typical" structures with less than three affected individuals. Power calculations under realistic model assumptions suggest that if genetic heterogeneity is absent or limited, then DNA collection from members of these pedigrees could enable the identification of a novel candidate susceptibility gene for BO/OAC in a genome scan. CONCLUSIONS:This is the largest series of families with BO/OAC yet reported, features of which are consistent with inherited germline predisposition. Further, the SIR of cancers other than OAC/OGJAC was 0.71 among 70 probands, indicating these individuals were not more likely to develop non-OAC cancers.